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Greater Indianapolis 

The History^ the Industries^ the Institutions^ and 
the People of a City of Homes 


Jacob Piatt Dunn 

Secretary of the Indiana Historical Society 





Copyright. 1910, 




If any a])<rlogy were lUH'dod for tlu' apiJi'urance of a history of Indian- 
apolis at this time, a sufficient one wonld he found in the fact that no sueli 
history has lieen published for more tliaii a quarter of a century; and in 
that period Indianapolis has de\elop(d from an overgrown town to one 
of the leading cities of the country, tlie material growth being acconi- 
])anied by a development in government and institutions that is perhaps 
the most interesting feature of the history of the city as it now is. But 
there are other considerali<ins tliat made a new history desirable. The first 
history of Indianapolis was prepared by Ignatius Brown, and published 
as part of the citv directory of 18.57'. Mr. Brown was a patient delver in 
historical material, and in tlie course of tlie next decade he found so many 
errors in his first publication, and acquired so much additional informa- 
tion, that he revised and enlarged his work and republished it in the 
city directory of 1S()8. This second publication was more than four times 
as large as the first, and lias been the basis of all the history that has 
since been published, being closely followed by others, errors and all, 
with the exception of J. H. B. Xowland, whose two books, Early Reminis- 
cences (18T0), and Skctdies of I'romiiiciit CHIzens (1870), were on a 
wholly independent basis. 

^Ir. Brown's history was moi-e ]>n)perly a chronology, the events being 
grouped by years. In 1870 ilr. ^^'m. K. llolloway published his Historical 
and Statistical Sketch, juade an effort at topical treatment, but was still 
largely chronological, and tlii-refore disconnected. In 1884, Berry R. 
Sulgrovc, who wrote a large ])art of the llolloway publication, issued his 
Historti of Indianapolis and Marion Countij. This made a still further 
effort at topical treatment, but it was also biographical, and the biographies 
are so mixed with the historical text that it is difficult to get trace of any 
special subject. In both of these 'Wr. Brown's work is closely followed. 

In the present history, the method followed is strictly topical, the 
chapters being ari'anged as nearly iji chronological order as was prac- 
ticable. The entire ground has been gone over from the beginning, with 
consultation of original authorities, a number of which were not in reach 
of previous writers. Especially full treatment has been given to disputed 
questions; and free citation of authorities has been made to facilitate 
research by those who may care to investigate any question more fully. 
Effort has been made to secure not only full illustration, but illustration 
of a historical character. The biographical matter, while essential to the 
history, has been placed in a separate volume where it will not obstruct 
the general reader. It would be extraordinary if some errors had not crept 
into a work of this size: but the publishers and the author feel that they 
are offering the public a history that is accurate, "accessible", and com- 


In the negiiiiiing 1 

Tlie Lay of the Land 7 

The Xaviga1)le Stream 10 

Phmning tlio City 26 

Tlie First Settlers 36 

The R(>giiiiiini;-: of CDvernnient 47 

Tlie Primordial Life 61 

The Coming of the Capital 7-1 

CHART Kl{ l.\. 
The floral Foundation 82 

CI! Ai'TFR X. 
Development of the Town 9;! 

cjiAr'i'Ki; XL 

The State Build.< 101 

CIl.M'TLI! .\I1. 
'I'he Town (love rnments 112 

(■ir\l"i'Ki; .XIII. 
The iviiiy SchiHils 121 

{'lIVrTKI! .XIV. 
Thr McNiran War 13-1 

vi COT^^TENTS : 


Advent of ilio Kaili-oads 1-12 

Becoming n Pity 1-5-1 i 


'The Volunteer Fire Com]wnie^: 167 j 

Some Old-'l'ime Religion 177 

As Others Saw Us ISC, 


The Germans in Indianapolis 302 

Civil War Times 217 


The Colored Brotlier 2,10 ; 



Railroad Development 2.")4 i 


The Pul)lie Schools 2GS '] 

The Paid Fiiv Department 2S1 

.\ Political Epoch 292 i 

The City Charter 300 


Public Utilities 322 


Business Di>velopment . 340 i 


Insnranee Companies 3f;0 1 

fllAI'TF.i; XXXI, 
Fraternal Organiza'. i n* 3^1 ^ 


The rro>? :588 


Tender the Charter 41G 


'I'lie Suburban 'I'owns 434 

"The Demon Rum" 445 

1"lie Tlioater and Theatricals 4.58 

The Fine Arts 4T3 

The .Social Swirl 490 

Tlie Eiterary .Vtmo^jibere 504 

The Soul of Mu-^ie 521 

CIlAl'TKi; XiJ. 
Tlie ^fcdioal Profession 541 

r||\r'l'i!:H XLll. 
Courts, Renoh and Piar 554 

The Churclies riG7 

The CJiurohe.'^ (Continued) 591 

The Churches (Continued) (51.-, 

Ill AI'TKI! .XI.Vl. 
Roster of City Officials, 1847-1909 634 


Abundance of Game, 65. 
Academy of Music, 468. 
Act for Removal of Capital. 75. 
Adams. H. Alden. 765. 
Advance in Commerce. 350. 
Advent of Railroads, 142. 
Adventists. 6.'50. 
African Methodist Church. fiOn. 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 603. 
.Agiiculture. 96. 
Agricultural Papers, 396. 
Air Line 2'>B. 
Allison. William D., 967. 
All Souls Unitarian Church. 622. 
Amendment to State Constitution, 159. 
American Manufacturers Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, 362. 
Amusements, 490; Early, 84. 
Ancient Order of Druids, 384. 
Ancient Order of Hibernians. 385. 
Ancient Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, 376. 
Annexation of Irvington. 428. 
Annual Report of Public Schools. 1S66. 268. 
Anti-Masonic Movements, 373. 
Arrivals in 1820. 46; in 1821. 46. 
Artists, 473. 
Art Publications. 486. 
Asbury Chapel, 598. 
Ashby. Samuel, 1061. 
As Others Saw Us, 186. 
Atkins, Ellas C. 1054. 
Atkins. Henry C. 1058. 
"Aunt Cheney." 239. 
Australian Ballot Law, 307. 
Automatic Electric Alarm System, 288. 
Averill, Charles E.. 780. 
Ayres, Alexander C, 755. 
Ayres, Levi. 755. 

Bachman. Valentine, 1077. 

Racon. Hiram. 250. 

Rad Roads. 75. 

Raggs. Mrs. Anna C. 177. 

Bailey. Francis P., 740. 

Bailey, ,Tames F.. 1125. ' 

Baker, Albert, 1095. 

Baker. Conrad, 1093. 

Baker. .Tames P., 979. 

Baker. .John E., 121. 

Baker, Milledge A., 1028. 

Ballenger, Walter S., 947. 

Bals. Henry C. C. 1016. 

Banking Facilities, 350. 

Banks. 351. 

Bank of Commerce, 353. 

Baptists, 86, 122, 567. 

Barbour, Lucian, 1159. 

Barnes Chapel, 575. 

Barnhill, John F., 1095. 

Barnhill, Robert, 36. 

Barrett, Charles E., 1126. 

Barrett, Thomas F., 901. 

Bartholomew, Pliny W., 734. 

Bass, George F., 1119. 

Bass, William H., 1152. 

Bassett. Edward W., 1115. 

Bates, Harvey, 49. 

Bauer, George, 1070. 

Beck, Frank A., 1227. 

Becoming a City, 154. 

Beech Grove, 441. 

Beecher, Henrv Ward, Rev.. 110, 149, 170. 24:1 

396, 582. 
Beecher's Church, 1893, 277. 
Beecher's Home. 195. 
"Bee Line," 150. 
Beginnings of Government. 47. 
Bell. Eliza C, 1230. 
Bell. William A.. 274, 398. 1228. 
Bellis. William K., 989. 

Belt Railroad and Stockyards Company. 256. 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 382. 
Bennett, Henry W., 851. 
Bennett. William H., 1242. 
Berry. David F., 663. 
Berryhill. James M., 749. 
Berryhill, John S., 964. 
Beveridge, Albert J., 704. 
Big Four R. R., 1.50, 255. 

Birdseye View of Indianapolis. 1854. 138. 191. 
Birdseye View, Indiana|)olis. 1907, 315. 
Blackford Street Church. fiOI. 
Black Hawk War. 135. 
Black. .Joshua. 781. 
Blackwell. John J.. 1113. 
Blaine Avenue Methodist Cb\irch. 598. 
Blair. Willet B.. 893. 
Board of Park Commissioners, 637. 
Boards of Aldermen. 640. 
Boards of Health. 637. 

Boards of Public Health and Charities. 637. 
Boards of Public Safety, 635. 
Boards of Public Works. 635. 
Board of Trade Map, 1853. 355. 
Bobbs, John S., 982. 
Boice, Augustin. 1028. 


Bolton, Mrs. Sarah T., 504. 

Books Scarce in Early Days, 507. 

Bookwalter, Charles A., 1103. 

Bowen-Merrill Fire, 284. 

Boyfl. Linnaes C, 766. 

Bradford, Chester, 1122. 

Brenneke, David B., 1215. 

Breiuiig, George T., 1163. 

Brigham, Edwin B., 1134. 

Brightwood 438. 

Brightwood Methodist Church, 602. 

Bristor, William A., 717. 

Broadway Methodist Episcopal Church, 601. 

Brown, Arthur V., 1182. 

Brown, Demarchus C, 1193. 

Brown, George P., 279. 

Brown, Hilton U., 757. 

Brown, Parker. 1177. 

Brown, William T., 688. 

Browning, Eliza G., 953. 

Broyles, Moses, 574. 

Bruce, James A., 973. 

Bruce, Margaret T., 973. 

Bruett, Jean Baptiste, 541. 

Bryson, Robert H., 959. 

•'Buck Town," 434. 

Buennegal. Jacob, 1160. 

Building Inspectors, 635. 

Bull. Ole, 529. 

Bullitt Law, 313. 

Bunting, George W., Sr., 1216. 

Burckhardt. Louis, 1182. 

Burford. William B., 711. 

Buschmann, Charles L., 876. 

Buschmann, William, 877. 

Bush, Rev. George, 576, 579. 

Business Development, 342. 

Butler. Amos W.. 1239. 

Butler. Ovid. 131. 116.5. 

Butler University, 131. 

Cahier, Madame, 540. 

Cahier. Madame, as "Orpheus," 535. 

Canals, 20. 

Cannon, William T.. 1048. 

Capitol, 107. 

Capitol, First, 105; Second, 111. 

Capitol Avenue Methodist Church, 602. 

Capitol Building, Vincennes. Erected 1806, 3. 

Captains of the Watch, 635. 

Carey, Ada M., 1043. 

Carey, Jason S., 1042. 

Carey, John N., 972. 

Carr, Carroll B., 1099. 

Carter, Vinson, 834. 

Catching Fish, 67. 

"Caterpillar Deadening." 15. 

Catholic Knights of America, 386. 

Catholic Order of Foresters, 386. 

Catholics. 132. 615. 

Caven. John, 164. 

Center Township, 51. 

Central Bank, 352. 

Central Canal, 20, 23. 

Central Art Association, 486. 

Central Avenue Methodist Church, 599. 
Central Christian Church, 608. 
Central Medical Society, 545. 
Central Trust Company, 356. 
Chamber of Commerce, 234. 
Chambers, Dr. John, 550. 
Change in Theater, 234. 
Changes in Street Names, 31. 
Chanticleer. The, 394. 
Chapman, George A., 388. 
Chapman, Jacob P., 388. 
Charter. City, 156. 309. 
Chase, William Merritt, 480. 
Chase, William M., First "Pot-Boiler," 479. 
Cheyne, Frederick H., 695. 

Chicago. Indianapolis, & Louisville R. R.. 255. 
Chief Anderson, 38. 
Chief Fire Engineers, 635. 
Chiefs of Assessment Bureau, 637. 
Chiefs of Police, 635. 

Childhood Home of Mrs. Robert Louis Steven- 
son, 516. 
Chipman, John W^., 1165. 
Chislett, John, 1131. 
Choral Union, 530. 
Christ Church. 609. 611. 
Christian Church, 606. 
Christian Church Union. 610. 
Christian Scientists, 623. 
Christian. Wilmer, 783. 
Churches, 567-633. 
Church of Christ. 610. 
Church of God, 631. 
Church of the Assumption, 619. 
Church of the Holy Innocents, 613. 
Church of the Holy Trinity, 620. 
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes. 620. 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis R. R., 255. 
Cincinnati. Indianapolis & Western R. R., 255. 
Cincinnati & Indianapolis Short Line, 254. 
Citizens Company, 336. 

Citizens Gas Light and Coke Company. 323. 
Citizens National Bank, 351. 
Citizens Trust Company, 356. 
Cily Attorneys. 634. 
City Charter. 156. 309. 
City Clerks, 634. 
City Common Councils, 638. 
City Commissioners, 636. 
City Comptrollers. 634. 
City Gas Inspectors. 636. 
City Government, 154. 
City Gravs, 219. 
City Guards. 219. 
City Judges, 634. 
City Hospital. 551. 
City Library. 512. 
City Marshals, 635. 
City Officials. 634. 
City Regiment, 232. 
City Sanitarians, 6:'.7. 
City Seal, 157. 
City Solicitors, 634. 
City Weigh Masters, 636. 
Civil Engineers. 634. 



Civil War Times. 217. 

Clark, Edmund D., 993. 

Clark, Salem D., 687. 

Cla.v, Joseph T.. 1137. 

Claypool, .Jefferson H., 713. 

Cla.vpool. John W., 1066. 

Claypool. Solomon, 1063. 

Clerk of Park Board. 638. 

Clerks, Board of Aldermen, 641. 

Coburn, Henry, 1237. 

Coburn. Heniy P., 1235. 

Cocknim. .Tohn B., 658. 

Coe. Dr. Isaac, 542, 577. 579. 

Coffin, Charles F., 1218. 

Coffin. Charles E., 703. 

Coffin. David W., 939. 

Coffin. Orlando S., 914. 

Coldest Day on Record, 234. 

"Cold Spring," 59. 

Coleman, Christopher B.. 649. 

Coleman. Lewis A.. 1187. 

Collins. James A.. 1162. 

Colonial Theater, 472. 

Colored Brother. The. 239. 

Colored Methodist Episcopal Chtirch. 603. 

Cohimhia Club. 1192. 

Coming of the Capital. 74. 

Commercial Club. 311. 358. 416. 

Commissioners. First Meeting of. 4: Report of. 7. 

Conduitt. Allen W., 809. 

Cones, Constantine. 1071. 

Congregationalists. 604. 

Conner. William, 4. 

Cook. George J.. 948. 

Cool. Dr. Jonathan. 541. 

Cooper, Charles M., 701. 

Cooper. John J.. 699. 

Corbaley. Jeremiah. 36. 

Corporation Counsels, 635. 

Corydon. 74. 

Cost of War to the Town, 238. 

Cotton. Fassett A.. 1026. 

"Cotton Town." 434. 

Coulnn. Charles. 162. 

Council Men. 1832-1847. 120. 

Councilmen-atl.arge. 639. 

County Divided into Townships. 51. 

County Jail. 57; First, 58: Second, 59: New. .59. 

County Library. 511. 

County Seal Adopted. 51. 

County Seal Now in Use. 51. 

Court House. First. 61. 

Court House. 560. 

Court Proceedings, 555. 

Courts. Bench and Bar. 554. 

Cowan. John. 36. 

Cox. Jacob. 474. 

Cox, T-inton A.. 1024. 

Coy. Sim. 293. 

Craig, Charles W.. 1077. 

Cross, Charles M.. 828. 

Cruse, James S., 688. 

"Da Capo," 525. 

Daily Evening Republican. 394. 

Daily. Thomas A.. 1105. 

Daniels. Edward, 772. 

Dark, Charles E , 761. 

Dark, Wilbur W., 763. 

Davis. Frederick A. W., 912. 

Davis, Henry. 36. 

Davis. Samuel, 36. 

Day, Thomas C, 986. 

Decatur Township, 51. 

Delawares, 64. 

Democrat, 71. 

Denny, Caleb S., 166, 675. 

Depots, 151. 

Deschler, Louis G., 738. 

Deterding Missionar,v Training School, 437. 

Deutsche Haus, Das, 215. 

Deutsche Klub, Der, 215. 

Development of Town, 93. 

Disciples, 130. 

District Councilmen. 641. 

District Schools, 123. 

Dodds. William T. S.. 716. 

Dorsey. Francis O., 1196. 

Dorsey, Robert S.. 1194. 

Dowd. Frank T., 1171. 

Downey. Brandt C, 1120. 

Downing, Michael A., 857. 

Dougherty, Hugh, 829. 

Drake. Mrs. Alexander, 458. 

Dress of Early Settlers, 69. 

Duncan. John S., 59, 698. 

Dudley Letter. The. 299. 

Dunlap, James Boliver. 475. 

Dunlap. James E.. Work of, 476. 

Dunn, Jacob P., 1255. 

Dunn, John G., 474. 

Dye. William H.. 1112. 

Dyer, Sidney, 569. 

Eaglesfield. Caleb S.. 1014. 

Eaglesfield. James T.. 1013. 

Eaglesfield, William. 1012. 

Early Amusements, 73, 84. 

Early Criminal History, 59. 

Early Fires, 282. 

Early Fourth of July Celebrations, 88. 

Early Mails, 71. 

Early Manufactures. 94. 

Earlv Reminiscences, 99. 

Early Social Life. 490. 

Early Sunday Schools, 87. 

Early Wearing Apparel, 69. 

Earnshaw, Emeline C, ^243. 

Earnshaw, Joseph, 1242. 

East Washington Street Presbyterian Church, 588, 

Eastman, Joseph, 1106, 

Eastman, Joseph R.. 1110. 

Eastman, Thomas B.. 662. 

Edenharter. Frank T.. 1146. 

Edenharter. George F., 975. 

Edwin Ray Methodist Church. 601. 

Egbert. James. 1046. 

Elani. John B.. 850. 

Elder, John R.. 1011. 

Elder, William L., 1012. 



Elections, Early, 74. 

Election, 1862, 230. 

Electric Lighting, Gas Heating and Illuminating 

Company. 328. 
Elevation of Tracks, 430. 
Eleventh Presbyterian Church, 588. 
Eleventh Regiment, 219. 
Elliott, Byron K., 665. 
Elliott. David M.. 711. 
Elliott, George B., 874. 
Elliott. Joseph T.. 990. 
Elliott. William F., 665. 
Emmanuel Baptist Church, 573. 
Emmaus Lutheran Church, 614. 
Emrich, John H., 1046. 
End of Early Steamboat Navigation, 19. 
English, William E., 887. 
English. William H., 159, 880. 
English's Opera House, 470. 
Episcopalians. 129, 611. 
Erdelmeyer, Frank, 807. 
Evangelical Association. 633. 
Ewing, Calvin K.. 899. 
"Ezra House," 518. 

Fahnley. Frederick, 763. 

Fairbanks, Charles W., 1183. 

Family Visitor, The, 394. 

Farmers Trust Company. 356. 

Fauvre. Frank M., 697. 

Federal Building. 305. 

Feuerlicht, Rabbi Morris M.. 629. 1102. 

Fidelity Trust Company. 356. 

Fifth Christian Church, 608. 

Fifth Presbyterian Church, 586. 

Financial Conditions Improve, 102. 

Finch, Fabius M.. 44. 

Fine Arts, The, 473. 

Fire Association, 171. 

Fire Companies. Volunteer. 167. 

Fire Department Headquarters, 290. 

Fire Department Paid. 281. 

First Adventist Church, 631. 

First Baptist Church. 571. 

First Child Born on Donation, 36; First Born on 

Original Townsite. 36. 
F^rst Church, Evangelical Association. 633. 
First Church of Christ, Scientist, 623. 
First Church Organization. 86. 
First Congregational Church, 605. 
First County Treasurer, 50. 
First Election, 49. 

First English Lutheran Church. 614. 
First Exposition, The. 483. 
First Fire, 167. 
First Friends Church, 626. 
First Free Methodist Church, 604. 
First Free Will Baptist Church. 575. 
First German Baptist Church, 572. 
First German Methodist Eniscopal Church. 597. 
First Indiana Regiment. 139. 
First Justices of the Peace, 53. 
First Masonic Temple. 1848-50, 375. 
First Mayor, 160. 
First Medical College, 547. 

First Military Execution. 232. 

First Musical Festival, 533. 

First Musical Instruction, 521. 

First National Bank, 351. 

First Negro on Site, 239. 

First Odd Fellows Hall. 380. 

First Physicians, 36, 541. 

First Presbyterian Meetinghouse, 575. 

First Presbyterian Church, 586. 

First Presbyterian Church and School, 1823, 86. 

First Railroads, 14, 142. 

First Recorded Fire, 176. 

First Reformed Church. 632. 

First Religious Organization, 591. 

First Roads, 78. 

First Sale of Lots. 32. 

First School Exhibition, 92; School House, 90; 

School Teachers, 91. 
First Schools. 90. 
First Settlers. The. 36. 
First State Fair Grounds. 347. 
First Step to Increase Funds. 101. 
First Street Railway, 335. 
First Surveyors, 28. 
First Theater, 464. 

First United Presbyterian Church, 589. 
First Universalist Church, 622. 
First Water Works. 330. 
First White Child Born in County. 36. 
First Woman Librarian. 108. 
Fishback, Frank S., 993. 
Fitton. Bertha B., 1017. 
Flack. Joseph F., 938. 
Flanner. Francis W.. 1053. 
Flat Boat Trade, 346. 
Fletcher. Calvin. 49. 423. 562. 643. 
Fletcher's. Dr. W. B. Sanatorium, 955. 
Fletcher Place Methodist Church, 595. 
Fletcher, Stoughton A. II, 1129. 
Fletcher, Stoughton A. Jr., 647. 
Fletcher. Stoughton A. Sr., 1128. 
Flood of June. 1875, 13. 
Floods of 1904. 430. 
Fordham. Ellas P., 28. 
Fort Benjamin Harrison, 443. 
Fortune, William. 685. 
Foster, Captain Wallace, 479. 
Foster. Chapin C. 1207. 
Fourth Christian Church, 608. 
Fourth National Bank. 351. 
Fourth of July Celebrations. 88. 
Fourth Presbyterian Church, 585. 
Fox, William H., 960,' 
Francis, J. Richard, 742. 
Francis, Joseph M., 651. 
Frank. Henry, 1091. 
Frank. Johanna S.. 1092. 
Franklin Fire Insurance Company. 363. 
Franklin Institute. 127. 
Franklin Township. 51. 
Fraternal Organizations, 371. 
Freeman, John, Case. 244. 
Freeman. The. 394. 
Freemen's League. 207. 
Free Methodists, 604. 



Free Soil Banner, 395. 
Free Will Baptist, 575. 
Freie Presse. 204, 395. 
Freight Bii.siness, 357. 
Friends, 130, 62C. 
"Fundamental School." 
Furnas, ,Iohn H., 1230. 
Furs and Hides, 342. 


136, 480, 1174. 

Gall, Alois D., 931. 

Garden Baptist Church. 572 

Gardner. Fred C, 1024. 

Gas, 322. 

Gates, Harry B., 974. 

Gavin. Frank E.. 1125. 

Gavisk. Francis H.. 838. 

Ga.v, George A.. 926. 

Gazette. 71. 588. 

General Lew Wallace, 

General Tijjton, 4. 

German-American Trust Company, 356. 

German American Veterans Club, 215. 

German Evangelical Church, 633. 

German Fire Insurance Company, 360. 

Germans in Indianapolis, 202. 

German House, The. 213. 

German Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 

German Newspapers, 395. 

German Population in 1850, 202. 

Gillette. Doctor. 177. 

Gladding, Nelson A.. 1254. 

Glossbrenner, Alfred M., 987. 

Goar, Charles S., 706. 

Golt, Walter F. C, 847. 

Goss. David K., 279. 

Government, City, 154. 

Governor .Jennings. 4. 

Governor Morton, 226. 

Governor's Mansion in the Circle, 103, 

Grace Episcopal Church, 612. 

Grace Methodist Church. 601. 

Grace Presbyterian Church. 589, 

Graf. Carl H., 1137. 

Graham. Edward F.. 868. 

Grain Dealers National 

Company, 362. 
Greeley, Horace, 225. 
Greenfield, Miss, 529. 
Gregg, Harvey. 388. 
Greiner, Louis A.. 746. 

William A,. 1127. 

Claude T.. 824. 

Humphrey. 1009. 

Theodore E.. 822. 
Gristmill, First, 72. 
Grout. Charies S., 654. 
Growth of Town. 99. 
Grubhs, Daniel W., 166. 

Hack. Oren S., 848. 

Hiulley, Oscar. 784. 

Haines. Matthias L.. 581. 

H.ill Place Methodist Church, 

Hammond, Rev. Resin. 85. 

Ilanna, Charles T., 938. 


Mutual Fire Insurance 



Handel and Haydn Society, The, 526. 

Hanson, Josiah, 242. 

Harding, George C, 401. 

Harding, Robert, 36. 

Harding. William N., 1220.- 

Harlan, Isaac N., 1062. 

Harlan, Levi P., 1138. 

Harold, Cyrus N.. 805. 

Harris, Addison C, 1179. 

Harris. Charles O.. 747. 

Harrison, Benjamin, 227. 

Harrison, General Benjamin, 1192. 

Harrison, Russell B., 1192. 

Harugari, 384. 

Harvey Gregg Library. 508. 

Harvey, Lawson M., 1005. 

Haughville, 440, 

Hawkins, Edward. 1075. 

Hawkins. Roscoe O., 1097. 

Hays, Bartin S., 478. 

Heath. Frederic C, 922. 

Heeb. Emmett ,1.. 1172. 

Hempstead, Harry N., 1106. 

Henderson, John O., 1181. 

Henderson, Samuel, 160. 

Hendrickson, Alonzo P,, 1087. 

Herald. The, 392. 

Herron Bequest, 487. 

Herron, John, 487. 

Hesperian Club, 506. 

Highest Price in First Sale of Lots, 32. 

Hill, Albert A.. 1145. 

Hiileary, Mary C, 1066. 

Hilleary. Ridgely B.. 1065. 

Hillside Avenue Christian Church, 610, 

Hines, Cyrus C, 849. 

Hines, Fletcher S.. 849. 

Hodges. Mrs. Edward F., 648. 

Hoffmeister. August, 202. 

Hollett. John E,, 694. 

Holliday, John H.. 196, 217, 1O06, 

Holliday. Rev. William. 127. 

Hollowell. Amos K., 936. 

Holmes. Ira M., 1209. 

Holt, Steriing R., 1154. 

Holt. William A.. 1105. 

Holtzman. John W., 1123. 

Holy Angels Catholic Church, 620. 

Holy Cross Catholic Church, 619. 

Home Heating and Lighting Ciuniiany, 330. 

Home Presbyterian Church. 589, 

Hood. Arthur. M., 941. 

Hood, Harrison P.. 941. 

Hooton. Elliott R., 681. 

Hoosier City, 394. 

Hospitals of Indianapolis, 549. 

Hospital Square, 34. 

House Built by Henry Ward Beecher, 583. 

Howe, Aaron B., 900. 

Howe, Daniel W., 753. 

Howe, Mary S., 901. 

Howe, Thomas C. 683. 

Hugg, Martin M.. 861. 

Hume, James M., 724. 

Hume, George E., 726. 



Humorous Journals. 407. 

Hungarian Ohev Zedek Congregation, 630. 

Hunt, Phineas G. C, 844. 

Hunt, George E., 844. 

Hurst, Charles F., S54. 

Hurty, .John N., 741. 

Immanuel Church, 633. 

Important Legislation, 159. 

Impressions of Town on Visitors, 186. 

Improved Order of Red Men, 379. 

Improvement of Fire Department, 286. 

Improvement of Town. 70. 

Inadequate School Buildings, 272. 

Inaugurating the Government. 416. 

Independent Order of B'nai B'rith. 387. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 377. 

Independent Relief Company. 169. 

Independent Zouaves. 219. 

Indiana American, 395. 

Indiana Banking Company, 352. 

Indiana Admitted to the Union, 1. 

Indiana and Marine Fire Insurance Company. 

Indiana Central University, 442. 

Indiana Democrat. 388, 394. 

Indiana During War Years. 225. 

Indiana Female College, 130. 

Indiana Journal. 71, 388. 

Indiana Lumbermen's Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany. 362. 

Indiana Millers Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 

Indiana National Bank. 351. 

Indiana Pythian Building. 381. 

Indiana State Library, 1193. 

Indiana State Sentinel, 388. 

Indiana Trust Company, 356. 

Indiana Volksblatt, 204. 

Indianapolis, Birdseye View. 1907, 315; Birdseye 
View of, 1908, 429; in 1820. 68: in 1854, 138 
in 1871. 365; Banks, 351; Churches, 1854 
600; Description by John H. HoUiday, 196 
Description by Madame Pulszky, 186; First 
Case Heard in, 559; First Law School in, 564 
First Library in, 509; Hospitals, 549; Legis 
lature Organized, 81; Impressions on Visitors 
186; Map of, 1855. 271; Material Progress of 
237; Mayors. 160. 

Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western R. R.. 254. 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Junction R. R.. 255. 

Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad. 152. 

Indianapolis and I^afayette Railroad. 153. 

Indianapolis & Vincennes Road, 254. 

Indianapolis Branch Bank. 351. 

Indianapolis Daily Citizen, 394. 

Indianapolis Daily Herald. 388. 

Indianapolis Daily Sentinel, 388. 

Indianapolis. Decatur & Western R. R., 255. 

Indianapolis Depots, 151. 

Indianapolis Dramatic Society. 470. 

Indianapolis Female Institute. 128. 

"Indianapolis Female School." 121. 

Indianapolis Fire Company, 167. 

Indianapolis Fire Force. 288. 

Indianapolis Fire Insurance Company. 360. 

Indianapolis Gas Company, 328. 

Indianapolis Gas Light and Coke Company, 322. 

Indianapolis Handelian Society, 521. 

"Indianapolis High School," 127. 

Indiana Historical Society, 510. 

Indianapolis Horticultural Society, 225. 

Indianapolis Maennerchor, 206. 

Indianapolis National Bank, 351. 353. 

Indianapolis Natural Gas Company, 324. 

Indianapolis News, The. 757. 

Indianapolis Opera Company, 532. 

Indianapolis, Pittsburg and Cleveland Railroad, 

Indianapolis Public Library. 953. 
Indianapolis Sabbath School Union. 87. 
Indianapolis Savings Bank, 351. 
Indianapolis Socialer Turnverein. 215. 
Indianapolis Southern R. R., 255. 
Indianapolis Street Railroad Company, 336. 
Indianapolis Times. 410. 

Indianapolis Traction and Terminal Company, 339. 
Indianapolis Turngemeinde. 202. 
Indians, 64. 

"Inductive School," 126. 

Inspectors of Scales. Weights and Measures. 636. 
Insurance Business. 360. 
Insurance Companies, 360. 
Interior of a Filter Bed, 333. 
Interior of St. John's Church, 618. 
Interurban Railroads, 338. 
In the Beginning, 1. 
Invincible Company. 169. 
Irvington, 434. 
Irvington Presbyterian Church. 589. 

Jackson. Gustavus B., 788. 

Jacobs. Harry A., 1177. 

Jacoby, Elias J., 966. 

Jameson. Ovid B.. 1061. 

Jameson. Patrick H., 1058. 

Jeffersonville Railroad, 153. 

Jerry Collins and Doctor Cool, 450. 

Jessup. Roscoe C, 812. 

Jeup. Bernard J. T., 777. 

Jewish Temple, 630. 

Jews. 628. 

Johnson, Emsley W.. 794. 

Johnson. Eudorus N.. 1199. 

Johnson, .Joseph T., 1039. 

Johnson, Minnie L., 1201. 

Johnson. Richard O., 895. 

.Johnson. William F., 1043. 

Johnston. Eliza A.. 1004. 

Johnston. Samuel A.. 1003. 

Jones. Aquilla. 866. 

Jones, Aquilla Q., 866. 

Jones. Lewis Henry, 279. 

Jones, Homer I., 1164. 

Jordan. Arthur, 1155. 

Joss, Frederick A.. 1017. 

Journal. 388. 

Journal Cartoon. November. 18SG. 296. 

Judges. Early. 554. 

Judge Harrison, 28. 


.Iiine, George W.. 1088. 
.rune. William H.. 1088. 
.Justices of the Peace, First, 53. 
.luvenile Court. 321. 
.Juvenile Prodigy, 536. 

Kelly. Walter F.. 854. 

Kenasses Israel Congregation. 630. 

Kendall. Calvin N.. 279. 

Kennedy. Bernays. 1004. 

Kenyon. Clarence A., 1210. 

Kern, .John W., 783. 

Kes.sler. Walter. 1115. 

Ketcham. John L., 1191. 

Ketcham, William A., 1143. 

Kiefer. Augustus. 1147. 

Kimball. Howard. 750. 

"Kinderhook." 434. 

King .Avenue Methodist Church. 602. 

Kiser, Sol S., 809. 

Kitchen. John M., 796. 

Klausmann. Henry W.. 1025. 

Knabe. Hclene E. H., 852. 

Knight. William W., 1044. 

Knights and I^adies of Honor, 382. 

Knights of Columbus. 386. 

Knights of Father Mathew. 386. 

Knights of the Maccabees of the World. 385. 

Knights of Pythias. 379. 

Knights of Pythias. Colored. 381. 

Knights Templars, 376. 

Koehne. Armin C, 1039. 

Kolmer. .John, 932. 

Korbly. Charles A.. 817. 

Krauss. Paul H., 1021. 

Kregelo, Charles E., 962. 

Kregelo. Laura J., 964. 

Kring, ,Iohn L., 946. 

Kuhn. August M.. 1158. 

Kurtz, .John A., 942. 

Kyle, John J.. 752. 

Lack of Mills. 72. 

Ladies' Fair. 234. 

Ladies' Protective Association, 229. 

"Lake McCarty," 14. 

Landers, Jackson, 759. 

Landers, William F.. 761. 

Landes, Joseph Jr.. 905. 

Landes, William F., 905. 

Landon. Hugh McK., 914. 

Latta. Will H., 665. 

Law Journals, 408. 

T^aw Librarv and Bar Association. 565. 

Lawyers, 554. 

Lawrence. Ann. 91. 

Lawrence. Henry W.. 872. 

Lawrence, Rice B.. 91. 

Lawrence Township, .'il. 

I^ayoock. Thomas B.. 1117. 

Laycock, William H.. 1117. 

Layman. James T.. 1089. 

Lay of the Land. 7. 

Leathers, Douglas A.. 910. 

Leathers, James M.. 1166. 

Lemcke. Julius A., 702. 

Lemon, Marguerite, 538, 539. 

Lemon, Marguerite, as "Eva" in Die Meister- 

singer, 539. 
Lesh, Charles P., 1032. 
Lieber. Albert, 944. 
Lieber, Carl H., 866. 
Lieber, Herman, 864. 
Lieber, Peter, 943. 
Lieber, Richard. 980. 
Light, Robert C, 870. 
Lilly, Charles, 1102. 
Lilly, Eli, 689. 
Lilly. James E., 826. 
Lilly, James W., 903. 
Lilly, John O. D., 1100. 
Lilly, Josiah K., 693. 
Lindenmuth, E. Oscar, 793. 
Linseed Oil, 344. 
Literary Atmosphere. The, 504. 
Little Sisters of the Poor, 621. 
I^ittleton. Frank L,, 1147. 
Locomotive. The, 394, 514. 
Log Rollings. 73. 
Long. John B., 739. 
Loomis, Frederic M., 1103. 

Louisville, New Albany & Chicago R. R.. 255. 
Lukenbill, Orestes C, 1153. 
Lutherans. 129, 613. 

Macauley, General Dan., 165. 

Macadamizing, 117. 

Mack, Frederick J., 816. 

Macy. David, 1149. 

Madison Avenue Methodi^-t Church. 601. 

Madison Railroad, 142. 

Maennerchor, 210. 

Maennerchor Hall, 206. 

Magruder. Uncle Tom. 243, 

Magruder, Louisa and Daughter, Last Home of, 

Maguire, Douglass. 388. 
Mail Service Poor. 80. 
Maintenance of Order. 115. 
Majestic. The, 472. 
Malarial Diseases, 9. 
Malott. Volney T., 1048. 
Manner of Organizing a New County, 49. 
Mansfield. Henry A., 827. 
Mansur. Isaiah, 980. 
Manual Training, 276. 
Manufactures of Early Period, 343. 
Map of Indianapolis, 1855, 271. 
Mapleton. 441. 

Maplelon Methodist Chnrch, .598. 
Marion County Agricultural Society, 96. 
Marion County Seminary. 122, 125. 
Marion Fire Engine Coniiiany. 167. 
Marion Guards, 136. 
Marion Rifle Men, 136. 
Marion Trust Company. 356. 
Market Masters (East Market). 636. 
Market Masters (Southside Market), 636. 
Market Masters rW'est Market), 636. 
Marmon. Daniel W.. 1186. 


Marmon, Walter C, 1187. 

Marraon-Perry Company, 329. 

Marott, George J., 917. 

Marott. John R., 959. 

Marott, Rebecca C, 959. 

Marshall, Augustus L., 1130. 

Marshall, Thomas R., 681. 

Martin, Henry C, 369, 1035. 

Martin, Paul F., 650. 

Martintlale. Elijah B., 1221. 

Mason, Augustus L.. 767. 

Masons, Colored, 377. 

Masonic Hall, 374. 

Masonic Lodges, 376. 

Masonry, 371. 

Masson, Woodburn, 780. 

Masters, John L., 1136. 

Matson, Frederick E., 1207. 

Maus, Casper, 697. 

Maxwell, John, 36. 

Maxwell, Samuel D., 163. 

Mayer, Charles, 806. 

Mayer, Ferdinand L., 1112. 

Mayflower Congregational Church, 605. 

Mayors of Indianapolis, 160, 634. 

M. & I. R. R., Opening of, 148. 

McAllister. Frank, 1073. 

McBride, Bert, 1127. 

McBride, Robert W., 789. 

McCarty, Nicholas Sr., 668. 

McCartney, William, 48, 

McClung, Rev. John, 85. 

McClure, Robert G.. 773. 

McCormick, Amos, 37, 42. 

McCormick, James, 36. 

McCormick, John. 36, 

McCoy, Isaac, 38. 

McCready, James, 161. 

McCulloch, Carleton B., 1162. 

McCulloch, Oscar C. M., 606. 

McCullough, James E., 715. 

McDonald. Joseph E., 706. 

McDonald, Josephine F., 710. 

McFadyen, John, 945. 

McGowan, Hugh J.. 1188. 

McGuire, Newton J., 843. 

Mcintosh, Andrew J., 1121. 

Mcintosh, James M., 791. 

McLean Seminary, 129. 

McKee. Edward L., 797. 

McMaster, .John L., 166. 

McMichael, Henry S., 1068. 

McPherson, Carey, 927. 

Mechanic, The, 389. 

Mechanic Rifles, 219. 

Medical Journals, 407. 

Medical Pioneers, 543. 

Medical Profession, The, 541. 

Mercantile Banking Company, 357. 

Merchants National Bank, 351. 

Merchants' Exchange. 234. 

Merchants Heat and Light Company, 330. 

Meridian Street Methodist Church, 594. 

Merrill, Catherine, 506. 

Merrill, Charles W., 1038. 

Merrill, Samuel, 1037. 

Merrill, Samuel, Jr., 1038. 

Merritt, George, 1197. 

Messing, Rabbi Mayer, 629. 

Methodists, 85. 178. 591. 

Methodist Hospital, 552. 

Methodist Hymns, ISO. 

Methodist Protestant Church, 604. 

Metropolitan Hall, 464. 

Metzger, Albert E., 721. 

Mexican War. 134. 

Meyer, August B., 795. 

Military Funerals, 234. 

Military Park, 348. 

Military School, 121. 

Military Uniforms. 136. 

Miller, Blaine H., 1117. 

Miller, Samuel D., 1234. 

Miller, William H. H., 1231. 

Miller, Winfield, 811. 

Millikan. Lynn B., 978. 

Mills, 344. 

Mission Hall, 623. 

"Miss Hooker's Female School," 121. 

Mitchell, Major James L., 165. 

Mitchell. Dr. Samuel G., 36, 542. 

Modern Art, 486. 

Modern Woodmen of .America, 385. 

Moffitt, Charles F., 921. 

Money Appropriated to Build State House, 104. 

Monon R. R., 255. 

Montgomery Guards, 219. 

Mooney, William J., 1171, 

Moore, DeWitt V., 665. 

Moral Foundation, 82. 

Moravian Church, 631. 

Moriarty, John A.. 661. 

Morrison, John I., 940. 

Morrow. Joseph E., 667. 

Morss, Samuel E., 264. 

Most Exciting Day in Indianapolis, 237. 

Mount Jackson, 441. 

Mt. Zion Baptist Church, 574. 

Mueller, J. George, 1068. 

Municipal Improvements, 417. 

Munsell's Map of Indianapolis, 1830, 52. 

Murat Temple, 469, 472. 

Murphy, Augustus, 652. 

Murphy, Charles S., 652. 

Musical Festival, First, 533. 

Myers, Charles R., 934, 

Names First Suggested, 26. 

National Guards, 219. 

Natural Gas, 324. 

Negley. Harry E., 996. 

New Albany & Salem R. R., 255. 

New Bethel Baptist Church, 575. 

New Charter, 116. 

Newcomb, Horatio C, 160. 

Newcomb, John R., 1217. 

New Jail, 59. 

"New Lights," 85. 

Newspapers, Early, 71. 

New Purchase, The. 2, 47. 


New Union Depot. 263. 

.Nicholson, Mereditli. 652. 

.Nintli Piesb.vterian Church, 587. 

.\ippert Memorial Church, 602. 

.Voel, James W., 862. 

Xordyke. Addison H.. 673. 

Xorth Baptist Church. 572. 

-N'orth Indianapolis. 440. 

-North Street Methodist Episcopal Church. 599. 

.Northwestern Christian University, 131, 435. 

.Northwestern Fire Company, 170. 

Notable Incidents, 231. 

O'Donaghue, Rt. Rev. Denis. 615. 
Odd Fellows. Colored. 378. 

Offices of City Treasurer & City Assessor Abol- 
ished. 160. 
"O. K. Bucket Company." 170. 
Old Bacon Home, 248. 
Old Bates House. 221. 
Old Blake Home, 390. 
■Old Buckhart," 114. 
Old Fire Alarm Tower, 285. 
Old Indiana Medical College, 544. 
Old Lion Guard, 394. 
Old National Bridge, 21. 

Old National Hoad Bridge over White River, 118. 
Old Supreme Court, 110. 
Old Watch Tower System, 288. 
Oldest Brick Building. 38. 
Oldest Brick House, 97. 
Oldest Frame House, 83. 
( Living Settler, 42. 
Order of B'rith Abraham. 387. 
Order of the Eastern Star. 377. 
Oren, Mrs.. 108. 
Original Methodists, 604. 
Original Wesley Chapel, 1829, 178. 
Orlopp. Jeannette, 537. 
Osenbach, William, 818. 
Other Benefit Associations, 385. 
Other Insurance Companies. 367. 
Outline Map. Indianapolis, 1857, 168. 

Packet "Governor Morton," 21. 

Page. Lafayette F., 1034. 

Paid Fire Department, 281. 

Paine. Dan. 525. 

Panic of 1893. 420. 

Parker. Harry C. 860. 

Parvin. Theophilus. 995. 

Park Purchases, 422. 

Parry. David M., 819. 

Patrick, Katheryn C. 1071. 

Patten. William T., 855. 

Patterson Homestead, 82. 

Patli. Adelina. 529. 

Pattison. .Joseph H.. 902. 

Pautzer. Hugo C. 1161. 

Payne. Gavin L., 786. 

Pearsall. Professor Peter Roebuck. 529. 

"Peedee," 434. 

Peirce. .lames D., 1015. 

Pennsylvania Street. 1856, 183. 

Pentecost Bands of the World, 625. 

Pentecost Tabernacle, 624. 

Permanent Seat of Government, 4. 

Perrin, .John, 1251. 

Perry, Charles C, 751. 

Perry Township, 51. 

Peru and Indianapolis Railroad. 150. 

Pfaff. Orange G., 1001. 

Physicians. 541. 

Physicians, Early, 9. 

Pickens, Samuel O.. 850. 

Pickens, William A., 676. 

Pierce, Oliver W., 720. 

Pierson, John C, 879. 

Pierson, Samuel D., 1178. 

Pike Township, 51. 

Pioneer Table, A, 42. 

Plan for the City Adopted, 29. 

Planning the City, 26. 

Plymouth Congregational Church, 604. 

Pogue, George. 36. 

Political Epoch. A. 292. 

Political Journals, 4(l9. 

Political Parties, 119. 

Politics, Town, 113. 

Poor Mail Service, 80. 

Pork Packing. 344, 348. 

Portteus, Theodore. 854. 

Post Office. The. 357. 

Potter. Merritt A., 935. 

Potts, Alfred F., 1121. 

Price. C. Lawrence, 869. 

Price of Manufactured Articles, 65. 

Primordial Life, 64. 

Pritchard, James A., 693. 

Presbyterians. 86, 127, 575. 

Present Fire Department. 288. 

Presidents Board of Aldermen. 641. 

Press, The, 388. 

Professor FoUansbee's Grand Ball, 497. 

Propylaeum. The. 506. 

Protestant Deaconess Society, 552. 

Public Schools, 268. 

"Pulilic Squares," 33. 

Public Utilities, ,322. 

Pugh, Edwin B., 804. 

Pulszky, Madame Theresa, 186. 

Quakers, 130. 

Quill, Leonard M.. 758. 

Railroad Development. 254. 
Railroads. First, 142. 
Raising Tobacco. 96. 
Raising Troops. 222. 
Ralston. Alexander. 28. 239. 
Ralston Plat of 1821, 30. 
Rappaport, Leo M., 933. 
Rates of, 53. 
Rattlesnakes, 69. 
Rauh. Samuel E.. 814. 
Reardon. Michael H.. 1163. 
Reasons for Location of Capital. 7. 
Record of Adjusted Losses. 288. 
Record of Fire Alarms, 288. 
Recruiting Active, 228. 


Reed, Jefferson H.. Iii74. 

Reformed Methodists. 604. 

Reformed Cburch. 632. 

Relics of 1S47. 147. 

Religious .Journals. 405. 

Religious Jleetings. 85. 

Reminiscences, 99. 

Remster, Charles, 661. 

Remy, Charles F.. 664. 

Report of Commissioners, 7. 

Richards. William J., 12;i9. 

Richardson. Benjamin A., 836. 

Richardson. Daniel A., 923. 

Richardson, Sarah C, 924. 

Richie. Isaac N., 907. 

Riley. James Whitcomb. 1211. 

Ritter. Eli F., 774. 

Ritzinger's Bank, 353. 

River Avenue Baptist Church, 573 

Roads. First, 78. 

Roberts. George H., 1086. 

Roberts, John, 911. 

Roberts Chapel. 177, 595. 

Roberts Park Church. 597. 

Robison. Edward J.. 988. 

Ross. David. 956. 

Roster of City Officials, 634. 

"Rough Notes," 369. 

Royal Arcanum, 382. 

Royal Arch Masons, 376. 

Royal and Select Masters, 376. 

Rubush. Preston C, 903. 

Ruckelshaus, John C. 667. 

Ruddell, Almus G.. 804. 

Ruick. Samuel K.. Jr., 1146. 

Runnels, Orange S., 969. 

Russe, Henry, 824. 

Rush. Fred.erick P., 929. 

St. Anthony's Church, 619. 

St. Brigid's Catholic Church, 618. 

St. Catherine's Church. 620. 

St. David's Episcopal Church. 613. 

St. Francis de Sales Church. 619. 

St. George Episcopal Church. 614. 

St. John's Catholic Church, 616. 

St. John's Methodist Episcopal Church. 597 

St. Joseph's Church, 617. 

St. Mary's Catholic Church, 610. 

St. Patrick's Church. 617. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 612. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Church, 614. 

St. Paul's German Reformed Church, 632. 

St. Peter's Lutheran Church, 614. 

St. Peter and Paul Cathedral, 616. 

St. Philip's Episcopal. Colored, 613. 

St. Philip Neri's Church. 620. 

St. Vincent's Hospital. 552. , 

St. Vincent's Infirmary. 621. 

Sacred Heart Church. 618. 

Sacrifices of the War. 230. 

"Salt Water Wells." 331. 

Salvation Army, 623. 

Samuel McCormick's Home, 97. 

Sanitary Fair, 348. 

Laws. 269 : Journals, 

Sarah Davis Deterding Missionary Training ] 
School. 437. ' 

Sawmill. First, 72. < 

Saxe Horn Band, 524. : 

Schmidt. Lorenz, 1079. 

School Days. 122. 

School Expenditures. 279; 
398; Statistics, 280. 

Schools. Early. 121; Grading of, 273. 

Schroeder, Henry C, 801. 

Scott, John E., 772. 

Scott, William, 1133. 

Scudder. Caleb. 95, 161. 1014. 

Seal. City, 157. 

Sealers of Weights and Measures, G36. 

Second Adventist Church. 631. 

Second Baptist Church. Colored, 573. 

Second Christian Church. 608. 

Second Church of Christ. Scientist, 623. 

Second Church. Evangelical Association. 633. 

Second Evangelical Lutheran Church. 614. 

Second German Methodist Church, 601. 

Second Jail. 59. 

Second Masonic Temple. 386. 

Second Presbyterian Church, 582. 

Second Reformed Church. 632. 

Second United Brethren Church. 632. 

Secretaries Board of Public Safety, 635. 

Secretaries Board of Public Works, 635. 

Security Trust Company, 356. 

Sedwick, Charles W., 1041. 

Sedwick. James B.. 1040. 

Seidensticker, Adolph, 1223. 

Seidensticker. Adolph, 1226. 

Seidensticker, George. 1225. 

Selection of Name "Indianapolis," 27. 

Sentinel. 71. 388. 

Sentinel Office. 1850. 409. 

Seventh Christian Church. 608. 

Seventh Day Adventists. 630. 

Seventh Presbyterian Church, 587. 

Severin. Henry Jr., 875. 

Severin, Henry Sr., 875. 

Sewall. Mrs. May Wright. 506. 

Sewer Tax. 14. 

Shaare Tefila Congregation. 630. 

Sharpe, Ebenezer. 1080. 

Sharpe. Joseph K.. Jr.. 776. 

Sharpe. Thomas H., 1082. 

Shideler. John E., 660. 

Shiel, Roger R.. 1201. 

Shirley, Cassius C. 696. 

Shiriey, Foster C. 1131. 

Shortridge, Abraham C. 273. 

Shute. Hamlin L.. 859. 

Sigler, George A., 842. 

Sipe, Jacob C, 719. 

Sisters of Charity. 621. 

Sisters of the Good Shepherd. 621. 

Site of Union Railway Station. 1838. 12. 

Sixth Christian Church, 608. 

Sixth Presbyterian Church, 586. 

"Sleigho," 434. 

Smith. Charles W., 676. 

Smith. Sol, 458. 


Smith, Theresa H., 969. 

Smock. William C. 778. 

.-Socialistic Turnverein, 203. 

Social Swirl. 490. 

Sccial Turnverein. 202. 

s. i. Illy for the Cultivation of Church Music. .521. 

Sm. i( ty .Totirnals. 409. 

Sucii'ty of Friends, 625. 

Soldiers and Sailors Monument. 487. 

Some Old Time Religion, 177. 

Sons of Hermann, 384. 

Sons of Temperance, 452. 

Soul of Music. 521. 

Southerland Presbyterian Church. 589. 

Southern Drivin.a; Park Association. 348. 

South Street Baptist Church, 572. 

Sowder, Charles R., 679. 

Spaan. Henry N.. 1135. 

Spades. Michael H., 1205. 

Spahr, William H., 894. 

Spann. .John S., 363, 389, 1213. 

Spann, Thomas H., 1214. 

Spears Case. 241. 

Spencer, M. J., 920. 

Spink. Mary A., 955. 

Stalnaker, Frank D., 957, 

Stanton. Ambrose P., 1176. 

State Bank. 342. 

State Bank of Indiana, 350. 

State Board of AKriculture, 98, 348. 

State Capitol. 107. 

State Fair, 229. 348. 

State Guard, 392. 

State House and XJ. S. S. Kearsarge. 424. 

State House, April, 1865, 233. 

State House at Corydon, Built 1811, 77. 

Stale Institutions, 109. 

Stale lournal Building. 1850, 397. 

State Library. 106. 509. 

State Librarian. 106. 

State Savings Bank, 352. 

State vs. Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad 

Company. 263. 
Steam Mill Company, 104. 
Steele, Theodore C. 791. 
Steffen. Andrew, 952. 
Stein. Theodot-e. 756. 
Stempfel. Theodore. 860. 
Stephenson. .John C. 878. 
Sterne. Albert E.. 802. 
Stevenson, iMrs. Robert L.. 515. 
Stevenson. William E., 856. 
Stewart, Alexaniler M.. 726. 
Stewart. Daniel M.. 924. 
Stewart, Martha. 925. 
Stewart. William K., 1044. 
Stock Yards. 257. 
Stone. Charles S., 1201. • 
Strange Chaijel. 596. 
Strange. .Tohn. 591. 
Street Commissioners. 636. 
Street Imiirovemcnt, 117. 
Street Imiirovements, 309. 
Street Lighting. 322. 
Street Railroad System, 235. 


•'Strin.etown," 434. 

Suburl)an Towns. 434. 

Sugar Grove Methodist Church. 598. 

Sulgrove, Berr>- R., 171. 

Sulgrove, Berr.v. 527. 

Sullivan. George R.. 1072. 

Sullivan. .Jeremiah. 67S. 

Sullivan, Thomas L., 160, 677. 

Sun, The, 410. 

Superintendents City Dispensary, 637. 

Superintendents City Hospital, 637. 

Supreme Court. Old. 110. 

Surgical Institute. Burning of, 286. 

Sw-amps, 11. 

Swain, Mrs. Harold. 537. 

Taggart. Alexander, 1170. 

Taggart, .Joseph, 1000. 

Taggart. Thomas, 1204. 

Talge, John H.. 1002. 

Tally Sheet Forgeries, 292. 

Tanner. George G.. 1021. 

Tarbell, Horace S., 279. 

Taylor, Dr. H. W., 10. 

Taylor, James H., 1175. 

Taylor, Major, 1142. 

Taverns, Early, 32. 

Tavern Rates, 53. 

Tax Rates, Early, 54. 

Telegraph, The, 346. 395. 

Telegraph and Tiibune, 395. 

Telephone, First, 339. 

Temperance Chart. 394. 

Terre Haute and Richmond Railroad, 152. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis and Hlastern Company, 

Thalia-verein. 208. 
"The Aig.ger," 10. 
Theater and Theatricals, 458. 
Theater, Change in, 234. 
-The Baby of Uncle Tom's Cabin," 242. 
"The Capital in the Wilderness," 101. 
"The Demon Rum." 445. 
The Freeman. 394. 
The Indiananian, 399. 
"The .Teff," 153. 

The name "Indianapolis" in other Slates, 27. 
The Navigable Stream, 16, 
The State Builds, 101. 
"The Soldier's Friend," 226. 
Thespian Corps. The, 460. 
"The West Market," 34. 
"The Wigwam." 63. 
Third Christian Church. 608. 
Third Presbyterian Church. 584. 
Third Reformed Church. 632. 
Third Wesley Chaiiel, 593. 
Thomas, Edwin C 1116. 
Thomas, William H.. 655. 
Thompson, Charles N., 1140. 
Thompson, James L., 765. 
Times. 388. 

Town, Development of, 93. 
Town Governments. 112. 
Town Incorporated, 112. 


Town Officers, First, 112. 

Town Politics, 113. 

Township Library, .511. 

Tr.iiie .Tournals, 395. 

Transfer and Belt Railway Compaay, 258. 

Treat, Edward R. L., 1252. 

Treasurer, First Annual Report of, 56. 

Tribe of Ben Hur, 383. 

Tribune, 395. 

Trinity Danish Church, 614. 

Trinity Lutheran Church. 614. 

Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church. 599. 

Troub Memorial Church, 588. 

Trustees. 1832-1847, 120. 

Tuck, Claude T., 1044. 

Tutewiler, Harry D., 1086. 

Tutewiler. Henry W., 1084. 

Tuxedo Methodist Church. 602. 

Tuxedo Park Baptist Church, 573. 

Twelfth Presbyterian Church, 588. 

Tyler, S. E., in Uniform of Indianapolis Band, 523. 

"Uncle Tom's Cabin," 242. 

Under the Charter, 416. 

Underground Railroads. 250. 

Underground Railroad Lines ia Indiana, 250. 

Union Company, 170. 

Union Depot and American Hotel, 1854, 256. 

Union Fire Insurance Company, 361. 

Union Literary Society, 103, 513. 

Union Railway Company. 263. 

Union Traction Company. 339. 

Union Trust Company, 356. 

United Brethren, 631. 

United Brothers of Friendship, 385. 

United Hebrew Congregation, 630. 

United Presbyterians, 589. 

Unitarians. 622. 

Universalists, 622. 

University Heights, 444. 

University Place Baptist Church, 573. 

University Square, 34. 

Van Arsdel, William C. 831. 
Van Camp. Cortland, 907. 
Van Camp. Frank, 935. 
Van Camp. George, 1010. 
Van Vorhis. Flavius J.. 718. 
"Virginia River," 14. 
Volksblatt, 395. 

Volunteer Fire Companies, 167. 
Volunteers of America, 623. 
Vonnegut. Bernard, 965. 
Vonnegut. Nannie S., 966. 
Voss, Gustavus H., 968. 

Wales. Ernest DeW., 815. 

Walk, ,Tulius C, 727. 

Walker. Lewis C, 771. 

Walker, Merle N. A., 906. 

Walker. Sarah Layton, 535, 540. 

Wallace, General Lew, 136, 480, 1174. 

Wallace, Harry R., 1020. 

Wallace, Henry L., 1175. 

Wallace, Lew, 1000. 

Wallace, William, 998. 

Wallace, William J., 162, 1019. 

Wallace, Mrs. Zerelda G., 505. 

Wallick. John F., 928. 

Wallingford. Charles A.. 961. 

Ward, Marion, 1098. 

Ward Councilmen, 640. 

Warren Township, 51. 

Warman, Enoch, 912. 

Warrum, Henry, 985. 

Washington Hall Tavern. 445. 

Washington Street, 1862, 158. 

Washington Street Views, 1854. 173. 

Washington Township, 51. 

"Waterloo," 114. 

Water Works Company of Indianapolis, 332. 

Waugh, Henry W., 474. 

Wayne Township, 51. 

Welch, John R., 833. 

Wesley Chapel, 593. 

Wesley Chapel, Present, 602. 

West, Henry F., 161. 

West Indianapolis, 440. 

West Park Church, 610. 

West Washington Street Presbyterian Church. 

Westbrook, Adjutant Emma. 623. 

Western Censor and Emigrants Guide, 71, 388. 

Western Liberties Company, 169. 

Western Presage, 395. 

Whallon. Thomas C, 950. 

Wheatcraft, Charles O., 1181. 

Whetzell, Jacob, 39. 

Whetzell. Lewis, 39. 

White River, 16; First Large Boat on, 18: Im- 
provement of, 17. 

White Water Valley Canal. 20. 

Whitehead, Herbert L., 1008. 

Whitfredge. Thomas Worthington, 477. 

Wholesale Trade, 345. 

Wick, William Watson, 48. 

Wicks, Frank S. C, 1078. 

Wiegand, Antoine, 710. 

Wild, John F., 1111. 

Wilkins, John A., 1034. 

Wilkinson, Philip. 1141. 

Williams, Charles N., 740. 

Willis. Frank B., 1069. 

Wilson, George S., 1092. 

Wilson, Isaac, 36. 

Winter, Carl G.. 919. 

Wilson, Medford B., 748. 

Wishard, Dr. Milton M., 550. 

Wishard, William H., 65, 1244. 

Wishard, William N., 1248. 

Wood, Edson T., 842. 

Wood, Horace F., 813. 

Wood, Samuel F., 839. 

Wood. William A., 841. 

Woodruff Place, 439. 

Woodruff Place Baptist Church, 573. 

Woodruff Avenue United Presbyterian Church, 

Woodbury. Herbert L., 1169. 

Wolf, George, 723. 



Woolen Manufactures, 344. 
Woollen. Greenly V.. 867. 
Woollen, Leonard. 781. 
Woollen, Milton A., 782. 
Worrall, .Josephus Cicero, 12G, 177. 
Wright. Anna Haugh, 658. 
Wright, Charles E., 657. 
Wulschner, Emil, 1132. 
Wvnn, Wilbur £f., 769. 

Yandes, Daniel. 50, 555, 728. 

Yandes, Simon, 555, 731. 

Year of Donations, 1907, 432. 

Youngest Prosecutor, 59. 

Young Men's Library Association, 512. 

Young Men's Institute, 386. 

Zion's Church, 633. 
Zouave Guards, 217. 

History of Greater Indianapolis. 



The time had come when ludiana had need 
of a new capital — not, indeed, that there had 
been any lack of capitals, for they had been 
iiuniorous and varied. The first seat of govern- 
iiicnt was Paris, France, — shifting to Aler- 
saillcs — with tiie provincial capital for the 
northern ]iart of the state at (^ncliec, and inter- 
mediate authority at Detroit ; while the ^oiitli- 
ern end of the state had its provincial capital 
at Xew Orleans, with intermediate authority 
at Fort Chartres, in Illinois. This continued 
until the close of the Seven Years War, when, 
by the 'J'reaty of Paris, in 1763, the capital 
became T^ondon, and the provincial govcrn- 
nipnt was centered at Quebec, with intermedi- 
ate authority at Detroit. This, in turn, con- 
tinued until Gen. George Kogers Clark took 
forcible possession of the region for Virginia, 
in HTS, and the capital came over to Rich- 

Virginia acted promptly, and. in October, 
1TT8, establislied the (!i)unty of Illinois, includ- 
ing all of her territory ''west of the Ohio 
river."' On December 12. Col. .Tohn Todd was 
appointed ('ounty Lieutenant, with power to 
appoint subordinate ollicials, except that, by the 
law, "all the civil otncers to which the said 
inhabitants have been accustomed, necessary 
for the ])reservation of ])pace and the adminis- 
tration of justice, shall be chosen by a major- 
itv of the citizens of their res])ective district*.""" 
'i'odd came West in ITTfl. and called an 

^IfrnitHi's Sliilx. Ill Lnnjr. 
Vol. I— 1 

\'(ii. :i. 

election for the "general court"" of \"in- 
cennes, wdiich was the first election ever held 
in Indiana. The persons then elected were 
commissioned by Todd, excepting one known as 
Cardinal, who "refused to serve." It is not 
recorded whether this uniq\ie action was due 
to modesty, or to fear of being led into temp- 
tation in an American ofiice. The A^irginia 
rule continued until the organization of the 
Northwest Territory, when the capital w-as 
transferred to Marietta, Ohio. It tarried there 
until 1800, when, on the organization of In- 
diana Territory, it came to Vincennes. Here 
it remained until 1813, when it was removed 
to Corydon. 

But now Indiana had left the territorial 
status, and had been admitted as a sovereign 
state of the Union in 1810. It was putting 
away the things of childhood. It must have a 
permanent capital, and not merely one suited 
to the temp(n-ary convenience of the existing 
population. This involved its location near the 
center of the state, for no ]U'inciple was nioi'e 
firmly fixed in the minds of the early settlers 
than that "equality is equity,"' so far as dis- 
tance from the seat of government is con- 
cerned. Travel, at that time, w-as tedious and 
difficult, and from the time the Americans be- 
gan settling in the Northwest there had Iteen 
complaint on this subject. And Congress had 
recognized the justice of the complaint. In 
the report of 1800, on the division of North- 
west Territory, the House Committee said : 
"The actual distance of traveling from the 


places of holding courts the most remote from 
each other is thirteen hundred miles, and in a 
countrj' so sparsely settled, and so little re- 
claimed from its native wildness. this distance 
alone seems to present ijarriers almost insuper- 
aljle against the exercise of the functions of 
government." hi the debate of 1804, on the 
separation of ilichigan, it was urged that "it 
was unjust to deprive the citizens of Detroit 
of the benefits resulting from the administra- 
tion of justice;'" and that Michilimackinac, 
'"exporting annuallv produce of the value of 
$->00,000, from which the United States had 
a revenue of $1T,000. was more than 800 miles 
from the present seat of government." Mich- 
igan had the best ground for complaint, and 
was separated in 1805, but other sections were 
also clamorous. In 180.5 the people of Dear- 
born County — then all of Indiana east of the 
Greenville Treaty Line — ])etitioned for reun- 
ion to Ohio, on the ground that they were "at 
a Distance of Xearly Two Hundred Miles from 
the Seat of Government ; that the Interme- 
diate Space is a Wilderness oecupy'd only by 
Indians, and likely for many years to Remain 
Unoccupied by any Other persons." In the 
same year, the ]X'op]e of the Illinois settle- 
ments asked for separation on the ground that 
they were separated from Vincennes by "about 
one hundred and eighty miles, through a 
dreary and inhospitable wilderness, uninhab- 
ited, and which, during one part of the year, 
can scarcely afford water to sustain nature, 
and that of the most indifferent quality, be- 
sides presenting other hardship!^ equally se- 
vere, while in another it is in part imder water, 
and in places to the extent of some miles, by 
which the road is rendered almost impassable." 
Congress refused these petitions, but after 
others to the same effect in 1806 and 1807, 
provided for the separation of Illinois in 1809; 
one of the chief reasons given being that, "The 
great difficulty of traveling through an ex- 
tensive and loathsome wilderness, the want of 
food and other necessary accommodations of 
the road, often presents an unsurmountable 
barrier to the attendance of witnesses;" and 
that when witnesses did attend, the expense 
was "a cause of much embarrassment to a due 
and impartial distriliution of justice. "- 

These considerations wt're uppermost in the 

-Ind. Hist. Soi: I'nhs.. \\ 

No. M. 

minds of everybody in connection with tlie 
establishment of the permanent capital, and 
it was a matter of common consent that the 
capital must be in the central part of the state, 
which was then an unsettled wilderness, held 
by the Indians. It was equally understood 
that it should be located on the West Fork 
of White River — properly the main stream — 
which was the only stream in the central part 
of the state that was considered navigable. 
After the admission of the state. Congress, by 
resolution of December 11, ISKi, made a dona- 
tion of four sections of land for a capital, to 
be selected by the state legislature from "such 
lands as may hereafter be acquired by the 
United States, from the Indian tribes witiiin 
the said territory ;" and all of these lands lay 
to the north of the existing settlements. 

The original title to this region was in the 
iliamis, with a special claim in the l'iaid<e- 
shaw tribe of that nation; but about 1T5() tlic 
Piankeshaws had sold the right of occupancy, 
if not their full title, to the Delawares, who 
then formed their settlements on White River. 
The controversies that arose over the title, be- 
tween the Miamis and the Delawares, were so 
threatening that Governor Harrison secured 
ail agreement in the treaty of Ft. Wayne, in 
1809, tliat the iliamis "explicitly acknowledge 
the equal right of the Delawares with them- 
selves to the country watered by White River," 
and that "neither party shall have the right 
of disposing of the same without the consent 
of the other." Accordingly, at the opening of 
Octolier, 1818, both triiies were assembled at 
St. Marys, Ohio, wliere Jonathan Jennings, 
Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, for the 
United States, made treaties with them. On 
October .T, the Delawares relinquished "all their 
claim to land in the State of Indiana." On 
October fi, the Miamis ceded all their lands in 
Indiana lying between the Wabash and the 
lands already acquired by the whites in the 
siuitbern part of the state, except a few small 
reservations, together with a smaller section 
tiuit they still held in nurtbwestern Ohio. The 
lands so acquired wei'e popularly known as 
"The Xew Purchase," and by that name have 
passed down in history. They covered about 
one-tliird of the -state — the central third, as 
distinguished from the north and south ends. 
The government surveys of them were begun 
in 1819, and continiu'd for several vears after. 

HiSTOKV or (;i;i:atki{ Indianapolis. 










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All thf jjifliniiiiarios being: now anangcd, 
the legislaturi', which repR'sunted the southern 
end of the :<tate. and which was in no hurry 
for the actual removal of the capital, passed an 
act on January 11, 1820, appointing ten com- 
missioners to locate the capital. The men 
named by the law were George Hunt, of Wayne 
County; John Conner, of Fayette; Stephen 
Ludlow, of Dearborn: John Gilliland, of 
Switzerland; J ose]ih Bartholomew, of Clark; 
John Tipton, of Harrison: Jesse B. Durham, 
of Jackson; Frederick Kapp, of Posey; Will- 
iam Prince, of Gibson: and Thomas Kmmer- 
son, of Knox. They were all men of promi- 
nence in their several communities: and all 
except William Prince accepted the appoint- 
ment and served. By the law they were re- 
quired to meet "at the house of William Con- 
ner, on the West Fork of White River, on a 
day to be named in the proclamation"' (it was 
May 22). and proceed to select "a site which, 
in their opinion, shall be most eligible and ad- 
vantageous for the permanent seat of govern- 
ment of Indiana." The house of William Con- 
ner was at what was known as Conner's Sta- 
tion, or Conner's Prairie, some four miles 
below Noblesville. Conner and his brother 
John, who founded Connersville, had been 
captured by the Indians when children, and 
had been brought up by them. William Con- 
ner had served as an interpreter and as Indian 
agent for a number of years, and had estab- 
lished his trading station at this point in 
180-2.^ The law required the commission- 
ers to employ a clerk, who was to make 
a record of their proceedings, and sub- 
mit it to the next legislature. This report 
was prepared, signed by the nine members who 
served, and submitted, but it is merely a sum- 
mary statement of the final action of the com- 
mission.* But General Tipton kept a journal 
of his trip which is comparatively full. The 
original is now in the possession of John H. 
Hollidny of Indianapolis, and it has l)con print- 
ed twice.'' 

Tipton started from Corydon on ilay 17, in 
compan)' with Governor Jennings, who was with 

'Obitnarv sketch in Jndinnapolis Journal. Au- 
gust 23, 18.5.5. 

*U(iu.sp Journal, 1821, p. 2.5. 

'••Xcu-s, April IT, 1879; Indiana QuarlcrUi 
Ma;/, of Hist., Vol. 1. p]). !»-I5; ', \-:'.K 

the party during the trip. They took with 
them a negro boy named Bill. On the next 
day they reached Colonel Durham's, at Val- 
lonia, where Durham and General Bartholo- 
mew were awaiting them, and they were also 
joined here by Gen. John Carr, and Ca])tain 
])ueson, of Charlestown, who were going up to 
look at the country. The party traveled north 
in quite a direct line, passing about a mile east 
of Irvington, directly through Castleton, strik- 
ing and crossing White Kiver at the Hamilton 
County line, and reaching Conner's at 1 o'clock 
on the 22nd. Here they found Himt, Conner. 
Ludlow, Gilliland, and Emmerson : and that 
evening they met and w'ere sworn in. Eapp ar- 
rived on the following day, and the commis- 
sion organized by electing Hunt chairman and 
Benj. I. Blythe clerk. They then adjourned 
to meet on the 24th at "the mouth of Fall 
Creek." The next three days were spent in 
exploration, the commissioners going down the 
river as far as the Bluffs. On the 27th the 
commissioners met at the mouth of Fall Creek 
and definitely "agreed to select and locate the 
site Township 15 north of K. 3 E., which town- 
ship was not divided into sections." But the 
surveyors were working on it; and. in reply to 
a note of inquiry. Judge Wm. B. Loughlin of 
Brookville, who was in charge of the survey- 
ing party, informed the commissioners on the 
morning of the 28th that the work would be 
sufficiently advanced in ten daj-s to allow tlie 
location by sections. The main point — the 
lf)cation at the mouth of Fall Creek — being 
now disposed of, two of the commissioners, 
.Tohn Conner and George Hunt, returned home 
and the other seven, with Governor Jennings, 
went up to Conner's Station. The time was 
passed in various ways until June 5, Tipton, 
Bartholomew and Durham examining the lands 
as far down the river as Spencer. They recon- 
vened on June 5, and the section lines lutving 
been run, passed the Gth "in reading and walk- 
ing aroinid the lines of the sections that wo 
intend to locate." On June 7. Ti])ton savs: 
■■\Ve met at McCormick's. and on my motion 
the commissioners came to a resolution to 
select and locate sections numbered 1 and 12, 
and east and west fractional sections num- 
bered 2, and east fractional section 11, and 
so much off the east side of west fractional 
section number .3, to be divided by a north and 
south line running parallel to the west bound- 


ary of said sectiou, as will equal in amount 4 
I'litiro sections in tp. 13 >.'. of IJ. 3 li. \\\; 
left our clerk making out his minutes and our 
leport, and went to cam]) to dine. Keturned 
after dinner. Our paper (not) being ready 
H.(artholomew), D.(urliam) and myself re- 
turned to camp at 4. They went to sleep 
and me to writing. At 5 we decamped and 
went over to JlcCormick's. Our clerk having 
his writing ready the commissioners met and 
signed their report, and certified the service 
of the clerk. At 6:45 the first boat landed 
that was ever seen at the seat of government. 
It was a small ferry flat with a canoe tied 
alongside, both loaded with the liousehold 
^■oods of two families moving to the mouth of 
[•"all Creek. They came up in a keel lioat as 
far as they could get it up the river, then re- 
loaded the boat and brought up their goods 
in the flat and canoe. I paid for some corn 
and w(hiskey) 621X>- 

The clerk of the commission. Benjamin 1. 
Blythe, was a Pennsylvanian of Scotch de- 
scent, who afterwards located at Indianapolis. 
lie was also clerk of the surveyors who laid 
off the city, and for a time the state agent 
for the sale of lots. He was captain of the 
first artillery company, which welcomed the 
steamer "Robert Tlanna"" with a national salute 
when she arrived here A])ril 11, 1831. i^atei- 
he was well-known and successfvil in the bus- 
ini'ss of the city, especially as a dealer in hides 
and leather, and as one of the pioneer pork- 
packers. Mc(!'ormick'"s, where the commission- 
ers lield their meetings and took their meals, 
was an ordinary double log cabin that stood on 
the triangle now made by Wgihington street. 
Xaticnal avenue, and the river. It fronted 
the river. Alost of the time the commission- 
ers camped on the west side of the river just 
al)Ove the mouth of Fall Creek, which was 
then about 200 yards north of the National 
iJoad l)ridge. They named the bank where 
they camped "Bartholomew's i'lulT," but the 
name did not last. The lands they selected, 
and which were duly confirmed by the legis- 
lature, are bounded, east of the river, on the 
norlh by Tenth street; on the east by Shelby 
•street extended north to the L. E. & \V. tracks 
above Massachusetts avenue; on the south by 
Morris street: and on tlie west hv the river 
lielow Washington street, and by Hiawatha 
slriTt above \Vashin<;ton street. West of the 

river they are bounded on tln' north by Ver- 
mont street: on the east by the river; on the 
south by Maryland street; and on the west by 
Lynn street. Outside of these lines the lands 
were sold by the United Stales to individuals, 
and those that have since been added to the 
city were laid out as "additions" by individ- 

On June 8th, Tipton records that he started 
home "in company with Ludlow, Gilliland, 
Blythe, Bartholomew, Durham, Governor Jen- 
nings and two Virginians.'"'" Who the Virgin- 
ians were is not mentioned, but probably they 
were JIatthias R. Xowland and .\ndrew Byrne, 
brothers-in-law from Kentucky, who had been 
looking at lands in Illinois, and who had come 
up from Vincennes \rith a ])art of the com- 
missioners. There were several others at- 
tracted to this point at the time, among them 
John and Absalom Dollarhide, who coiTie up 
with a f)art of the commissioners from their 
farms rn-,n- the southern line of Marion County. 
John H. B. Xowland, son of Matthias R., 
says that their party came up White River 
from Vincennes, past the Bluti's, where they 
found "about a half-dozen families settled, in- 
cluding that of Jacob Whetzell." At the mouth 
of Fall Creek they stopped for a day, and 
"inost of them were favorably impressed." 
N'owiand told the commissioners that if they 
located here he would move out in the fall, 
and try to induce other Kentuekians to join 
lum. This mention of the favorable impres- 
sion is of interest in connection with a vener- 
able tradition of a strong conflict of opinion 
among the commissioners as to the location, 
which is stated by Brown as I'ollow^s: "They 
met as directed at Conner's, where, after very 
serious disputes between them as to sites at 
the Blutt's, at the mouth of Fall Creek, and at 
Conner's, the present hication was chosen by 
three votes against two for the Blufl's." This 
has commonly been followed by other writers, 
but it is manifestly incorrect, for Tipton ex- 
plicitly states that the choice was made at 
McCormiek's, on M;iy 'i'l. and there were then 
nine commissioners present. It is incredible 
that four of them did not vote, and there is 
no contem])orary mention of material disagree- 
ment in Tipton's journal or elsewhere. Tlie 
Indiana Sentinel. iiul)lished at Vincennes, said 
on .lune :5 : "We understand from a gentle- 
man who has been some time in company with 



tlie comiiiissioiicr!;. tliat it is most probable 
the permanent Seat of Government of Indiana 
will be fixed inunediately Ijelow the mouth of 
Fall Creek, that empties into the West Fork 
of White River, on tiie east side" On June 
17, the same paper announeed the location by 
sections, and added : "It is just below the 
mouth of Fall Creek, which is in full view 
from the town scite. Fall Creek is a beautiful 
stream, at this season forty yards wide at its 
mouth, witli a rapid current and deep water. 
We are happy, also, to say that the business 
of the commissioners proceeded with ]3erfect 
concert and harmony, and that they suffered 
no interest but the public's to guide them in 
the selection." 

The presence of Governor Jennings with the 
commissioners, who were not only his ap- 

]K)intees but also his personal and political 
friends, would naturally tend towards una- 
nimity of sentiment, and there was no show of 
(piestioniug tjie locatuin afterwards. In fact 
the press of the state treated the action of 
the commissioners as settling the location, and 
the legi.elatiire adopted their decision without 
any recorded question or debate. 

When the exact surveys were made, it was 
found that section 1 contained 6.58.2 acres; 
section 2, 61]..5.'5 acres; section 12, G40 acres; 
and east fractional section 11, 448.2 acres; 
leaving 202.07 acres to be taken from section 
3, west of.the river, to make the full donation 
of four sections, or 2, .560 acres. The lands 
were so platted, falling between now existing 
streets as mentioned nl)ove. 




'rhv report nl' llir (•(iiiniii^siniuTs tn tlu' k'f;- 
islature makes no stali'iiiciit of their rca50ii>^ 
for the location chosen beyond the following: 
"The nnilersigned have endeavored to connect 
with an eligible •^ite the advantages of a naviga- 
ble stream and fertility of soil, while they 
have not been unmindful of the geographical 
situation of the various portions of the state ; 
to its political center as it regards both the 
jiresent and future population, as well as the 
inesent and future interest of the citizens."' 

Among tiie features that went to make 
ii|i the "eligible site," tradition records 
the consideration that the banks of the 
river at this ])oint afforded a good boat 
landing, and that Fall Creek and Eagle Creek 
were good mill streams. - 

But there were other considerations that no 
doulit had weight. At this time the TJ. S. 
Commissioners to locate the National Road 
had finished their work in central Indiana, 
and had located the inad abotit fifteen miles 
south of Indianapolis, 'i'his was brought to 
the attention of the legislature at this same ses- 
sion, and on January S, 182L it adopted a me- 
morial to (jongress asking for a change in the 
lim^ of the road, so that it wcndd come to the 
new ca])ital. Hi this memorial the legislature 
urged that the site of the capital was not 
only nearer the center of the state, but that 
it had "many other advantages," among which 
was the fact that at this point there were 
'■'elevated banks on both .=ides of the west 
branch of White lliver ;" and that this condi- 
tion insured "in time of hish water a certain 

passage, and that a similar advantage is not 
to be found on the said river at less than 
thirty miles sonth of the location aforesaid."' 
This was also true of the river for some ten 
miles above — to the head of the backwater above 
Broad Ripple — there being bottom-land on one 
side or the other when not on both. Of course in 
those days a heavy fill was a much more seri- 
ous undertaking than at present, and there 
was no point near here that afforded as great 
natural advantages for a crossing .as the pres- 
ent Washington street crossing of the river. 
Indeed, it is almost certain that the commis- 
sioners gave weight to this consideration, for 
they located on both sides of the river and 
the only place where the lands selected come 
to the river on both sides is from a block 
below Washington street to abo\it the same dis- 
tance above. Congress, however, did not 
change the location of the road until ISi."), 
when Jonathan Jennings secured an anu'nd- 
ment, bringing the line to Lidianapolis.'' 

But there was another reason for the selec- 
tion. Tipton says: "The bank of the river on 
which McCormick lives is from '2') to 30 feet 
above the water at this time — the country back 
is high, dry and good soil ;" which (lemon- 
strates that 1S20 was not a wet year. Hut at 
an<ither jilace he speaks of the site as being 
"level and rich;" and his objection to the 
HhifFs is recorded in these words: "Back of 
the bluff runs a beautiful creek; they front oit 
the river near 1 mile — if they were level on 
top it would be the most beautiful site for a 
town that T have ever seen." It is certain 
that the other commissioners also ijave weight 

''Ilniisr ./oiiniitl. IS-iJl, p. ■>:>: Iiiil. Ilisl. Soc. 
I'lihs.. Vi>l. 1, p. ].■>;!. 

-//((/. Ilisl. Soc. Pubs.. Vol, -2, p. :i8(): \'ol. 
■J. p. :!i:. 

■\Acfx of is:i. p. ] ;■:.. 

*Stah. (ll Liirijr. \',,|. -I. pn. I'.'S. :i.^>l : Cun,;. 
Pchates, Jan. i: and 1S. IS-.'."), pp. -MO. -Jl.-,. ' 



to the fact that at this point tln-iv was an 
abundance of level ground for a town. When 
Stephen Ludlow, tlie Dearborn county com- 
missioner, returned to Lawreneeburg, he was 
met l)_v William Tate, a young mechanic from 
Boston, wlu) inquired how they had succeeded. 
"Oh. splendidly," was the reply, "l tell you. 
Billy, we have got the finest piece of land you 
ever .<aw. It's as level as a barn Hoor."" 

"Oh pshaw!" said Tate, '"what did vou do 
that for?"" 

'■And why not?" 

"Why, what will tliey over do for drainage?'"' 

Stephen scratched his head for a moment, 

and then responded, "Well, I'll lie d d. 

A'ol)ody but a Yankee would ever have thought 
of tliai." 

It was natural eno\igh that the commission- 
ers should be attracted by this feature of the 
site, for they were all from the south end of 
the state where the alternation of knobs and 
channels of streams makes it difficult to place 
more than two houses on a common level, but 
its effects on the future city were somewhat 
serious, and they are not yet wholly overcome. 
The plain on which the city stands has an 
average elevation of about 720 feet above sea 
level, and is quite flat, with somewhat higher 
ground on all sides. Jt has been conjectured 
by geologists tliat it was in some past age the 
bed of a lake, .\cross it runs the valley of 
Pogue"s Run, which has lost much of its origi- 
nal breadtli liy filling, and which was formerly 
ratlier swampy in character. 

Xortheast of the city — north of the Atlas 
Works — was an extensive swam]), later known 
as Fletchers Swanij), which in wet seasons dis- 
charged its overflow through the site of the 
city in what were called "the ravines;" and in 
time of floods Fall Creek also discharged much 
of its surplus water through this swamp and 
the same channels. From the swamp the 
water ran south past the Atlas Works, then 
■westerly, crossing the L. E. & W. tracks in 
the low ground still seen about Fifteenth 
street. Below there it divided, one ravine go- 
ing a little west of southerly, and crossing New 
Jersey street at Walnut ; from there it ran 
southerly between Alabama and New Jersey 
streets, crossing Washington street at Xew Jer- 
sey, where there was a culvert for it in Xa- 
(ional Road days, and emptying into Pogue":- 
Run. The other ran a little south of westerlv. 

crossing Penn>ylvania street at the big elm, 
which still stands in front of X^o. I'il'y, and 
which is sometimes called "the McC'ulloch 
elm,'" on account of Rev. Oscar McCulloch"s 
devotion to it. From there it veered to the 
south, crossing ileridian street at Eleventh and 
Illinois at St. Clair; then between Illinois 
and Capital avenue across Vermont ; then 
southwesterly past the corner of the State Cap- 
itol grounds to-the old canal bed on Missouri 
street, and down it, and across, emptying into 
the river just above Kiugan's packing-house 
through what was called "the big ravine," or 
sometimes "the River Styx,"" and which, when 
subsequently dammed uj), became the lower 
basin of the canal. 

In these ravines tliere were a number of 
deep places where the water stood most of the 
year; and outside of them, scattered through 
the dense forest, were many low places whert' 
the water stood for weeks, especially in wet 
seasons. Southfl-est of Oreenlawn Cemetery 
was a body of stagnant water known as "Grave- 
yard Pond,"' of wliicli was said: "In the sum- 
mer it is covered with a green, filthy scum, 
and is the habitation of various kinds of rej)- 
tiles and bull-frogs. At the lower part of this 
pond is a bridge, supposed to have been built 
by Governor Scott's army, to get to the ford 
of the river, about the year lTi)0.""" These 
conditions made a natural field for malarial dis- 
eases, whatever the direct cause of those dis- 
eases. The favorite theory, until quite recently, 
was that they were the jiroduct of miasma' 
and there was certainly ami)le cause for 
miasma in the dam)) soil and the de- 
caying vegetation. But some, esiieiially 
in later years, held to the theory that malarial 
diseases were caused by alternations of heat 
and cold. Dr. Tlios. 15. Harvey, one of the 
best physicians Indianapolis, or any other eitv, 
ever had, was a warm champion of this theory, 
and there was ample basis for it here, ilore 
recently the mosquito theory has been gener- 


''N^oirhnnf's Tlriiiiniscrnces. ]i 

"Locomotive. M»y 27, 1848. 

~Ind. Hist. Soc. Piihs.. Vol. ?. p. 400; ('Jkuh- 
hrrlaiii's Gazetteer, p. 41 ; Bejioi-t.-i Stale Jleallli 
Comm.. 1880, p. 339. 

ally accepted, though there are a few old doc- 
tors who scoff at jt, and declare that they have 
known people to be "almost eaten up by mos- 



iiitos" without liaviiifi' malarial iliscasui^. I'os- 
- bly I'lirther scientiiic invt':^tigation may dera- 
astrate that, on the germ theory, tiie germs 
iiay be introduced into the blood otherwise 
lian througli mosquitos, and that there is a 
"issibility of acclimation or inoculation, by 
A hich the individual may develop an anti- 
"xin that makes him to some extent immune, 
'.lit doctors disagree as to everything, except 
'■rhaps the number of bones in the human 
u'ldy, and the writer has no desire for a medi- 
cal controversy. 

Suffice it to say that, whatever the causes of 
malarial diseases, they were here in abundance 
and so were the diseases, especially in wet . 
years. Old settlers maintained that it rained 
much more in the earlier years of the settlc- 
mejit of Indianajiolis than later"* and tliis 
is ])robable enough because the conditions 
were peculiarly favorable to local evap- 
oration and reprecipitation. Brown says: 
"The summer of 1S21 was distinguished by 
the general sickness resulting, it was thought, 
from the lieavy fall of rain. It is said that 
storms occurred every day in June, July and Clouds would suddenly gather and 
send a deluge of water, tlien as quickly break 
aw*y, while tiie sun's rays fairly scorched the 
drenched herbage, generating miasmatic va- 
pors with no wind to carry them oil. Sicknes.s 
began in July, but did not become general till 
after the lOtii of August, on which day .Mat- 
thias Xowland had a raising, all the men in 
the settlement assisting. Kemittent and inter- 
mittent fevers, of a jieculiar type, then began, 
and in three weeks the community was pros- 
trated. Thomas Chinn, Enoch Banks and 
Nancy Hemh-icks were the only persons who 
escaped. Though so general, tlii' disease was 
not deadly, about twenty-five cases only, most- 
ly cliildren who had been too much ex])osed, 
dying out of several iumdrcd cases. The few 
wlio cduld go about devoted their time to the 
sick, anil many inslances of generous, devoted 
friendship occurred. Their mutual suffering 
at this time bound tiie early settlers together 
in after life, and none recur to this period 
witliout emotion. Xew comers were disheart- 
ened at till' prospect, and some left the coun- 
try, c-ircuhiting extravagant repm-ts alioiit the 

health of the town, greatly retarding its sub- 
sc(pient growth.""' In fact tiie conditions here 
were not much worse than at iiiany other places 
in the state, and the year was noted foi- the 
])revalent sickness.'" 

The doctors fared no l)ctter than the rest 
of the community. Dr. ^litchell and all of 
his family were prostrated with ague, as was 
Dr. Livingston Dunlap, who was then living 
with them. These two physicians were not 
only unable to minister to others, but were in 
so helpless a state that Matthias Xowland took 
Dunlap on his back and carried him to his 
caliin to care for him.'^ Xowland and his fam- 
ily were soon in as bad a plight. His son 
vividly portrays their situation by recording 
tliat one day '"my father was suffering for 
water, and no one able to draw a bucket. He 
crept to the door of the cabin and saw a man 
passing. He beckoned to him and requested 
him to draw a bucket of water. 'Wiere is 
your friend Blake?' the man inquired. 'He. 
too, was taken sick this morning,' was the 
answer. 'What on earth are the people to do 
now?" said (lie man; 'God had spared him to 
take care of the people; they would now suf- 
fi'r as they never had before." ""'- Indeed "riule 
Jimmy"" Blake was a guardian angel. He w^as 
then a bachelor, and though he was having 
chills every other day the malady was not bad 
enough to disable him, and Xowland says: "He 
would employ the well days in gathering the 
new corn and grating it on a horse-radish 
grater into meal to make mush for the con- 
valescent. Indeed our family, as well as the 
others, would havi' suffered for food had it 
not been for his kind offices in this way, not 
only because the mush made from the new corn 
was more i)alatable, but the old could not be 
got, as there were no mills nearer than (lood 
Landers", on the Whitewater IJiver." '■ |)i-. 
('oe was the only physician able to altenil to 
patients, and he was kept going night and dav. 
comliating the disease single-handed iiniil |)r. 
Jonathan Cool arrived in the fall. 

In fact the ague was so ])rominent a feature 
of earlv Indianapolis, that it calls fur special 

''Hroini's I iiiliiiiiiiiiiills. |i. 'i : Juiiniiil . .June 7, 

°ffis:f. of lililidliiliiolis, p. .'>. 
^"Chauibt'rlaiu'x Gnzctircr. j) 
^^Novhiiid's ririniiiisrciiccx. p 
^-Nnirltnid's Rcmiiiiscrnrcx. p. (il. 
^"fiJarli/ UrminiKcences, p. (II. 




notii-c as one of the institutions of lliu jilacu; 
not that it was worse than elsewhere, but the 
natural conditions were favorable to it. and 
th()ii<;]i it becanie common as the land was 
cleared, it continued to some extent for many 
years, csijecially in wet reasons. The writer 
passed the summer of 1870 with it, having six 
recurrent attacks after the disease was sup- 
posed to be "broken" in each case. Most nf 
the early settlers could say as Demas Mc- 
Farland did, that he "served a regular appren- 
ticeship at the ague, and worked at journey 
work at the chills and fever, and thought he 
had gi'aduated.""''' T'sually the disease was not 
fatal, unless complicated with sometliing else, 
although Mrs. Beecher portrays it as vcrv (laii- 
gerous in her "F'rom Dawn to Daylight." but it 
was decidedly annoying. The popular view of 
it was never better expressed than in tlie fol- 
lowing dialect poem by Dr. H. W. Taylor, 
wjiich a])|icared in The Ciinriit. in ISS."): 


Em folks at thess moved thrum the East 

Haint gut the least 
Idee of Aigger, thess a-tall I 
Haint no Aigger hee-yur ess Fall, 
Haint seed Aigger anywhawr 

Thess sencc the War. 

Now-days, feller gits the chills 
Thess well quit payun boardun bills, 
Yusen to be. ef Aigger tuck 

Holds on a feller, it thess ud whet 
His ap-tite up — harder he shuck 

The more he et. 

A feller ats ben 

Round hee-yur when 
Terry Hut wair thess in the bresh. 
Hez seed the right Aigger, thess ])linn fresh, 

.\pt to feel thess ornery mean 
Time the pawnds uz tnrnun green. 

Thess along when Dawg-days come 

Ef a feller swum 

Thess en the Wabash. 
Git kivvered uth at-air yeller scum, 
Fn et thess, thess, a mess a trash. 
He gut ut, shore! 
Cawn-trairyest Aigger to kee-yore. 

^^Loroiiiollfc. .Tune 1:3, 1S.")!1. 

Thess git out un set en the sun 
Lack a torkle on eend of a log, 
Caillestest theng yevver done I 
Feel too ornery fur a dog ! 
Thurreckly the theng has taken its track 
Streekun un streakun up yer back 

Zef a slice 

Thess plum ice 
Thess a-meltun long the sken 

T'n freezun en I 

Draw a feller euto a knot I 
After a spell, he gits so hot. 
Rasslun roun un makun a furss, 
Tho-un the kivvers evvurwhurs ! 

Feller"d thenk 
He's thess a fish, to see him drenk; 
Long's UTver kin hold the cup — 
Un en turn roun un tho ut up! 

Thess when the theng hcz gut you het 

Thess hot enough to thess about bile. 
Hit starts a dad-burned ornery sweat. 

Smells zef yous bout to spile 

Worse un a key-yarn ! 
Smells fur's thrum hee-yur to the barn I 
That air sweat that usen to pour 
Clur throo un throo ar feather-bed • 

Thess onto the floor ! 

Run en a stream j)!uni outen the door I 

At is, a-peerntly hit did, 

Ez the feller said. 


Third-day Aigger, sometimes, brung 

Enfurmation en strifFen of the lung. 

Take the feller's maidjur thess long down 

Ez you brlmg the doctor u]) thrum town. 

Curn-jestuff chills uz thess the same ; 

.\irry a defPerunce. thess en tlie nami'. 

I hed the second un, wunst cumun on. 

Thinl un. a feller az good az gone. 

Shake? thess dad-lnmi my hide 
Ef I haint thess tried un tried 

Shake the clabljoards offen the ruff! 

Tliess ast Sniiryniuss ef she haint hilt 

^le thrum sliakun ofTen the bed 
By settin on the end of the quilt. 

Shuck the teeth right outtm inv head. 

Leave it to pa]). 

Woosli I may drap 

Right en my tracks 

Ef them haint facks. 



This dialect was broader than was often 
heard in Indiana, but it might be heard in 
some regions where the popuhition was South- 
ern in origin, for most of the so-called "Hoo- 
sier dialect" came to us from the South, and 
especially from the mountain districts.'"' A few- 
explanations may aid tlie uninitiated, "Thess"' 
is just; "Thrum" is from: "Key-yam" is car- 
rion, and in words like this, "Hee-yur,"" "Kee- 
yore," etc.. the first syllable is very short — in 
fact would be better represented by the in- 
itial consonant alone. "Curn-jestuff" is con- 
gestive; "Knfurmation"' is inflammation; and 
"Striffen" is a detached membrane, especially 
the diaphragm. Hon. John E. Wilson used to 
tell of a woe-begone Virginia neigliljor who 
complained of his health, and. when asked 
wliat was the trouble, replied: "Obi my strif- 
fen hez rotted out, and my lungs hev dropped 
down into my stummik."" 

This description of the symptoms and the 
course of the malady is excellent. l)ut neither 
the afflicted nor their doctors had any idea 
of what caused it, according to the present 
accej)ted mosquito theory, which has been de- 
veloped almost wholly since 1898; and a state- 
ment of it, in plain language, is ai)rt)pos here, 
even at the risk of incurring medical criti- 
cism, ilalaria is a germ disease of the mos- 
quito, which does not appear to bother the 
nios()uito, but one stage of the life-cycle of 
the jiarasite is passed in the blood of man, and 
possiV)ly some other animals. There are three 
common genera of mosijuitos. cidex, stegomyia. 
and ano])lieles. The first and second are not 
germ-carriers, and are easily distinguished in 
the larva state by the fact tluit their "wiggle- 
tails" appear '"with flowing mane and tail 
erect" — or, in other words, rest witli their 
tails at tlie to)) of the water and their heads 
and whiskers below. But a "wiggle-tail"" that 
lies flat at the surface of the water belongs to 
the anopheles, and these are the ones that make 
the tro(d)le. Various s])ecies of anopheles carry 
different germs, which cause respectively three 
t^-pes of malarial disease. The first two are 
known as tertian and quartan, according to 
the period of re[)rodnetion of the germs, every 
other day or every third day. and the attend- 
ant convulsion. When two or more alternat- 
ing shifts of germs are working on the victim 

■7»'/. //I'v/. S(h: I'lihs.. Vol. 


he will have a chill every day. Those of the 
third type are the aestivo-autumnal fevers 
which are commonly known as bilious remittent 
and typho-malarial. These are the dangerous 
ones. A patient may get over them without 
treatment, but he is much more apt to die if 
not intelligently treated. How the experience 
of Indianapolis hinges with the recent theory, 
developed since we exterminated yellow-fever 
in Cuba, that malaria is a cause of physical 
and mental deterioration, and was responsible 
for the decadence of Greece and Rome, I leave 
to the mosquito experts and historians of those 

In addition to the sii-kiiess which was an in- 
direct result of the topography, there was con- 
siderable annoyance from floods. When the 
swamp northeast of the city overflowed, and 
Fall Creek overflowed through it, the "ra- 
vines" became raging torrents. They did little 
damage in the early years, because the cabins 
were out of their reach, but they obstructed 
travel. Where the east ravine crossed Wash- 
ington street there was ((uite a broad valley, 
reaching from Xew Jersey stri-et well over to- 
wards Alabama, and so deep that after Wash- 
ington street was graded for the National Road 
the property owners there did not have to dig 
cellars, but had to fill their lots. Before that 
time' old settlers say that in flood time the 
water at this p)int "would swim a horse." With 
this ravine and l'ogue"s Kun on the east and 
south, and Fall Creek on the north and west, 
with the river occupying the same valley or 
bottom as the creek, the city was in flood time 
almost on an island; and when the streams 
were all flooded at once, as often happened, 
the jilaie was almost isolated, for there were 
no bridges for several years. In April and 
May, 1821, the publication of the Gazette 
was sus]>endcd for a month, because the edi- 
tors ba(l gone out of town and could not get 
back through the floods. On May 10, 1824. 
the W'steni Censor apologized for its limited 
amount of outside' news for the reason thai 
the mail carriers had been unable to get out 
of or into the town. In Manh and April. 
1820, the mails were slopped for some <lays. 
The worst of these early floods were in 1824 
and 1828, and of these the latter did the 
greater damage, becauM' farmers had begun to 
cultivate the hottom-hinds. and fences were 









.9 K 

g "3 

■^ Z 

=• Z 

.-a O 





washed away, and fertile fields were envered 
with sand and gravel. 

The '"ravines"' also made some tnnible liy 
the seejjage of water, which made it dithcult 
to get dry cellars along their liiu's. When 
David V. Culley, liegister of the Lai\d Otlice, 
moved his family here in 1838, they lived for 
a time in a honse on the point between In- 
diana avenue and Tennessee street (now Capi- 
tol avenne) just above New York street. The 
west ravine crossed Tennessee street liack of 
liis house, and was furnished with a foot- 
l)ridge for the accommodation of jiedestrians. 
One day, in a wet season, his daughter (Mrs. 
Hannah Mansur) went down cellar for some 
peaches and while there the cellar «all caved 
in, burying her to the neck. When her mother 
came in response to her calls for help, she 
cried: "Send .some one to dig me out. Tve 
saved the peaches." Possibly there is a con- 
nection between this and the fact that Mr. 
Culley later made the first stone-walled cellar 
in the city.'" 

Altogether the "ravines" became such uui- 
sances that the legislature, by ail <>( l-'i lnuaiy 
4, 1837, appointed Calvin Fletcher and Tbouia-; 
Johnson "commissioners to superintend the 
drainage of the swamps aiul lowlands immedi- 
ately northeast of Indianaixdis, the outlet of 
which overllows the grounds wes-t, northeast 
and north of the State House square." The 
state engineer was directed to make the neces- 
sary surveys, and the coinmissionei-s to take 
subscriptions for the work, and |)i'oseeute it '"as 
they may deem most expedient."" rejjorting their 
proceedings to the county commissioners. They 
didy proceeded to cut "the state ditch"' from 
near the present crossing of Twentieth street 
and the L. E. & W. tracks, in a direction 
slightly south of west, to Nineteenth and CVn- 
I tral avenue; thence west along the south linf 
of ^lorton i)lace to Delaware street: thence, 
north to the Fall Creek bottom ; thence west- 
erly, along tlu' south line of the bottom-land to 
Fall Creek at Twenty-second street. 

For some ten years this disposed of ti-oulde 
with the "ravines," but in December, 184G, 
there were heavy rains on a hard frozen sur- 
face, and on January 1, 1847, all the streams 
wore running over. 'I'he bank of the ditch gave 
way, and the water came down its old channels 

in volume that startled those wlio had invaded 
them. For exanii)le, Israel Jennings, who had 
been living peacefully at the northwest corner 
of Walnut and New Jersey streets, was awak- 
ened by a noise in the night, and on rising 
from his high-post bed to investigate went into 
water almost to his waist. He managed to 
get ashore with his family ; and in the morn- 
ing rescued his belongings by aid of a wagon 
and team. The Hood of 184? was quite gen- 
eral throughout the state, and did so mucli 
damage that the legislature ])rovided foi' 
the reappraiscment of real property that 
had been injured, and for change of the' 
tax duplicates to the extent of the in- 
jury.'" The state diteli was repaired, and no 
further trouble was ex])erienced until the peo- 
ple had almost forgotten the "ravines," when 
in June, 18.58, the bank of the state ditch 
either broke, or was cut by uuschief-makers, 
near Central avenue, at a time of very high 
water in the creek and river; and the water 
sought its ancient channels, making its way 
as far down the west ravine as Illinois and St. 
Clair streets, where it was stopped by the street 
fills.'" Fortunately the break was discovered 
and stopped before any great damage was done. 
Again the ditch was repaired, and a long 
period of immunity followed in which there 
grew up a generation that knew not the "ra- 
vines," except as the youth of their neighbor- 
hoods utilized the remains of their cdd chan- 
nels for coasting and skating places. But on 
.June 1, 187."), the city was visited by a severe 
electric and wind storm, followed by a deluge 
1)1' rain. After nightfall on June 2, the bank 
III' the state ditch broke again, and the waters 
surged down through what was then becoming 
the fashionable residence district of the city. 
The merchant police displayed their utility 
liy waking the residents and warning them nf 
danger, and hundreds of ])ec)|>le turned out to 
see the unusual sight, and pre])are for any 
emergency. The water playetl havoc with the 
new block pavement on Delaware street — the 
first laid in the city — and covered several other 
streets for some blocks. The Kaufman and 
Caylor residences (then 618 and 620 N. Penn. 
street — now about 1210) were flooded on the 
first floors, and so were several othei-s northeast 

'"Locomollrc. Jlav 12, 184!). 

'Mr/.t /,"?.'/ 7, p. nC. 
"•■/niirnal. .lune 11. 1S,-)8. 


iiisi(ii;v OF (;i!L-:ateh ixdiaxatolis. 

ol' thiit point.''' At this tiiiii' tiiree vouiig laeii. 
George Curry, Charles Culley, and Louis New- 
burger, rowed iu a boat from near Eleventh 
street, on Pennsylvania, to beyond Eighteenth 
and Alabama. 

This was the last time the state ditch broke 
its bounds, and the old "ravines"' have been so 
completely tilled that there is little trace of 
their course now except in the slope of some 
street grades and lots towards their old loca- 
tions. After they were filled there was quite 
a i)revalent impression that there were "ty- 
phoid belts'" along their old channels and trib- 
utary swales. The medical profession did not 
seem to attach much importance to this, but 
very generally held that they affected the wells, 
wliich were then commonly sunk only to the 
first level. Dr. Samuel E. Earp, the first city 
sanitarian, expressed his opinion that "the dug- 
well supply of a greater portion of this city 
is none too good, becaijse it is drawn from a 
swampy source, which formerlj' extended from 
al)ovc the Atlas Works to somewhere near the 
State buildings.""-" 

I'ntil the coming of the first railroad, in 
1847, the region south of Pogue"s Eun was 
"country," and its flood conditions were of 
little importance. The city made its first 
rapid growth in that direction between 1860 
and 18"0, and it was then that the topography 
of that section first demanded serious atten- 
tion. There were two natural features that 
made trouble. "Lake McCarty"' and "Virginia 
Eivcr."' Lake ilcCarty was a pond in the low 
ground in the vicinity of the J. M. & I. tracks, 
between Eay and ilorris streets. It was partly 
natural and partiv due to the excavations and 
fills for the road! In 1866 the City Council 
ordered Nicholas ^fcCarty to cut a ditch 
through his land to White River and drain 
the pond. He complied, but notified the coun- 
cil that this was for temporary accommoda- 
tion only, and that a different arrangement 
would have to be made. In 1868, the city 
fathers having become convinced that under- 
ground sewers would have to be adopted, a 
s])ecial sewer tax of 1.5 cents on ^100 was 
levied, which produced about $-'50.000 ; and 
one of the first appropriations from this was 
for a sewer throuirh Hav street to the river. 

draining Lake McL'arty. It is still in use. 
When it was finished ilr. McCarty was given 
leave to fill the pond.-' 

The decision for sewers was hastened by the 
j)erformances of "A'irginia Eiver," which was 
described by the Committee on Sewers, in a re- 
port to the council in 1869, as follows: "The 
so-called Virginia Eiver rises in a wet tract 
southeast of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and 
after a winding course of about two miles, 
tlu'ough Fletcher"s pasture and Fletcher and 
Stevens" addition, ]iassing down East street and 
Airginia avenue to Pogue's Eun. In former 
days when entirely unobstructed, it was. after 
heavy rains, a swiftly flowing stream, from lo 
to 100 feet wide, and deep enough iu places 
to swim a horse. It drains a territory half as 
large as the city plat, and now, when obstruct- 
ed by street grades and culverts, forms many 
deep ponds along its course ; but its channel 
is deep and rapid, carrying a formidable body 
of water after long-continued heavy rains. It 
has already cost the city many thinisands of 
dollars in culverts and embankments and tliere 
have also been large sums claimed as damages 
from its overflow." The committee urged that 
these evils would increase with future street im- 
provements, and recommended a sewer through 
Virginia avenue from the corner of Pine and 
Elm streets to Pogue"s Eun."-' Instead of this 
the "river"'" was lodged in the South street arul 
Kentucky avenue sewer. 

The chief source of the trouble, and the im- 
mediate cause of final action was the eidvert 
under Virginia avenue, for the other culverts 
did their work fairly well. When Virginia ave- 
nue was a country road there was at this point a 
wooden culvert or bridge 10 feet wide with a 
waterway of 4 feet under it. But when it was 
improved as a street in 18.59, there was sub- 
stituted for this a culvert of masonry "214 feet 
wide and 3 feet high. This worked very well 
in dry weather, but in floods the water could 
not get out fast enough, and backed up like 
a reservoir. By the statements of several wit- 
nesses, Herman Huffer, whose property was a 
short distance above it. "had to swim out'" 
repeatedly, and after the heavy flood of 1866 
he sued the eitv for his accumulated immer- 

"City papers, .lu)u> ;i and 4. 1ST 

^"AVh'.s-. .laniiarv 2.5. ISST. 

H'niniril I'm,-.. isiKI-T. p. 68:5: 1867-8. n. 


--('oiiikH I'nii.. ISCil-Tll. pp. 1.57-8. 



sions. He iveovered dainajji's, and the city 
appealed to the Supreme Court, wliieh attirnied 
the city's liability for the insutticient culvert. 
Further consideration of the drainage will be 
found in a later chapter on the city irovcrn- 
ment under the new charter. 

There was another natural feature of the 
site that may be mentioned here. When the 
pioneer .settler located in the forest lands of 
the New Purchase, he prepared for his tirst 
years crop by makinji a "deadening." In 
other words he killed the larger trees by gir- 
dling them with an a.\, and, having cleared out 
the underbrush, planted his crop between the 
deadened trees. Fortunately for the first set- 
tlers at Indianapolis, nature had done this work 
for them, for there was in tiie northwestern 
part of the city an irregular strip of land, 
variously estimated at from 100 to 200 acres, 
on which the large timber Mas dead. Tipton 
passed through it twice, coniing from and go- 
ing to Conner's Station, and describes it thus: 
"The most of the timber tor some distance 
from the river having beuit sugar tree has 
been killed abt 2 years since by the worms, 
and is now thickly set with ]irickly ash — near 

tlie creek the timber is better. "-■' This tract 
began a short distance north of ililitary Park, 
and extended irregularly northeast towards Fall 
Creek in the vicinity of Senate avenue. It 
was sometimes called "'the Caterpillar Deaden- 
ing," and is said to have been the work of 
"locusts or caterpillars,"' but locusts and cater- 
pillars do not kill sugar trees, and it was no 
doulit caused by maple-borers.-* The first 
settlers united in making a cominon 
lield of the soutliern end of this, by 
clearing out thi' underbrush, wliich W'as used 
for a fence to keep out their cattle. Their 
crops were in and well started before the sick- 
ness of 1831 became prevalent, and this fact 
saved them from the danger of starvation. This 
tract was cultivated by the settlers for several 
years, while the clearing of other land was in 
])rogress, and was notable for the fine vegetables 
it produced.-'' 

-■'Iiul. Miui. of Hid.. \'i)l. 1. pp. 12, 1.".. 
-*Fifih Bcpl. of U. S. Kiiluiiioliii/ii'dl Com., 
pp. 3T4-90. 

-'-Xew.i. ^rarch 29. 1S79. 


thp: xayigable steeam. 

I doubt that any other watercourse ever had 
White Kiver's experience of being a navigable 
stream for nearly a century, and then losing its 
character. Tliis was due to a manifest change 
in the legal meaning given to the word "navi- 
gable," and is an illustration of "judge-made 
law"' that may possibly result in somewhat 
serious consequences in connection with future 
movements to improve the river. The ordin- 
ance of 1787 provided: "The navigable waters 
leading into the ilississippi and St. Lawrence, 
and the carrying places between the same, shall 
be common highways, and forever free, as well 
to the inhabitants of the said territory as to 
the citizens of the United States, and those of 
any other states that may be admitted into the 
confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty 
therefor." It is beyond question that "navi- 
gable" in this provision means navigable by 
canoes and bateaux, for no other craft were 
used on these streams at the time, nor could 
any other be used in approaching "the carry- 
ing places between the same." The United 
States courts have always recognized this pro- 
vision of the Ordinance as continuing in force, 
and, in one of the cases, as to the Wabash at 
Terre Haute.' By the act of Congress of 
17 9(). for the survey and sale of the 
public lands, it was expressly declared 
tliat "all navigable streams within the 
territory to be disposed of by virtue of this 
act shall be deemed to be and remain public 
highways." As such their beds were always 
excluded from the lands surveyed and .sold. 
The United States surveyors were governed 
by these provisions in Clarion County, and did 
not include the bed of White River in tlic sur- 
veys, but "meandered" the stream, and the 
land was sold onlv to the meander lines. Xever- 

theless, when the question of the navigability 
of White Eiver came before the Indiana Su- 
preme Court in 1876, the court, by Judge Per- 
kins, said: "The court knows judicially, a-; a 
matter of fact, that White River, in Marion 
County, Indiana, is neither a navigated nor a 
navigable stream;" and as to the bed not Ijcing 
surveyed and sold, he said: "The idea that tbe 
j)ower was given to a surveyor or his deput}', 
upon casual observation, to determine the ques- 
tion of the navigability of rivers, and thereby 
conclude vast public and private rights, is an 
absurdity.""- Hence he held that tliere were no 
"vast pulilic rights,"" and the whole stream be- 
longed to the owners of the banks. 

The reasoning of this case, at least, was 
abandoned by the same court in 1878, when it 
held that the Wabash in Warren county was 
"a navigable stream, the bed of which has 
neither been surveyed nor sold.""-' This put 
the court in line with the legislature 
which had always recognized the action 
of the United States in its surveys and 
sales as conclusive. Thus the act of Janu- 
ary 23, 1829, "relative to navigable streams de- 
clared highways by the ordinance of Congress 
of 1787," prohibits any obstruction to "any 
stream or river which is navigable, and the bed 
or channel of which has not been surveyed and 
sold as land by the United States."' And so 
the law of 18.32 provides a penalty for obstruct- 
ing "any navigable stream, the bed or chaniud 
whereof may not have been surveyed and sold 
as land by the United States."'' Tlie survey and 
sale were not mere acts of a surveyor or his 
deputy. Their work was ratified and eontirmed 
by their superiors, and was as much the action 

'G McLean, p. 237. 

=.i4 Incl. -J:1. 
="64 Ind., p. 162. 
*Rei: Siafs.. 18.V2. 


]). t:?2. 


I!IS'|-()|;V OF (illKATKI! IXDIAX.VroUS. 


i>f the T'nitod StatL':^, being in pursiuiiu-L' of a 
ilirt'ct requirciiiciit of law, as any otlit-ial action 
• ould be. Mo;it of the states have been more 
fortunate than Indiana in the attitude taken 
as to i)ublic- rights in such streams, and the 
general rule is that any stream that will carry 
commerce, even by floating logs, is a navigable 

The decision in the Marion County case was 
quite imnecessary. The (luestion in the case 
was the right of a riparian owner to gravel in 
the bed of the stream ; and while the decisions 
are conflicting there are a number that sustain 
that riglit without regard to the navigability of 
the stream, subject, of course, to the easement 
for navigation." Rut the most important jioint 
in the (|uestion of navigability was not raist'd in 
the Marion Cotintv case, and was not considered 
by the court at all. It is the well established 
law ill this country that a state has plenary 
power over navigable streams completely within 
its borders, at least, until Congress acts.' This 
power is to be exercised by the legisla- 
ture and the legislature of Indiana had 
acted repeatedly and consistently as to 
thi- miviKability of White h'iver. The 
act of January 17, "[f^-iO. declared '•Wliite 
River from its mouth to the main forks; the 
west fork from thence to the Delaware towns," 
and certain other streams, to I)e "public liigh- 
ways"' and made it a ))enal offense to obstniet 
"any stream declared navigable i)y this act," the 
only e.\ce])tion being the erection of dams undei' 
certain conditions, by any person who has "pur- 
chased from the Tnited States the bed of any 
stream by this act declared navigalde." This 
law has never been repealed, hut was slightly 
modified by the act of February 10. 1831. which 
declared the West Fork of White ll'wrv na\i- 
gablc as high as Yorktown, in Delaware County. 
This law was notable for r'eeognizing that a 
navigable stream need not be navigal)le at all 
seasons, for it i)rohil)ited any obstruction that 
would "injure or impede the navigation of any 
stream, reserved by the ordinance of Congress 
of 1787 as a public highway, at a stage of 
water when if wnuld Dlherwise be naviirable." 

■■2 Mich.. 21!) ; 1!) Oregon, .3:.',; 3.-5 \V. \\v- 
ginia, I.T: W liorhoiii: X. W.. 0; 14 Kentuckv 
Law, r,-2] : 87 Wisconsin, ^:U. 

" ol 111.. ?fif, : 42 W'is., 20.3. 

M2.5 TT. S., 1 : 148 I'. S., 320. 
Vol, 1—2 

If this law was not repealed by the Supreme 
Court, it is still in effect. 

As has been note<l the .'^eat of government was 
located at this point on the understanding that 
the river here was navigable. On ac<'ount of 
the ]wor roads, the peo])le here, and inde<'d 
throughout the state, gave much more thought 
to navigai)le streams then than they did later 
on. A j)ublic meeting held at Cruml)augh''s 
Tavern on September 26, 1822, ])etitioned the 
legislature for the improvement of White River, 
but the legislature was then using its avail- 
able means for the improvement of the Wabash, 
and nothing was done at the time. But on 
February 12, 182.5, the legislature made Alexan- 
der Ralston a commissioner to survey White 
River and report the probaiile expense of keep- 
ing it clear from obstriu-tions. He nuule the sur- 
vey that summer, and reported tiie distance from 
Sample's Mills, in Randolph County, to this 
point, 130 miles: from here to the forks, 28.5 
miles; from there to the Wabash, 40 miles; 
and that for this distance of 4.5.5 miles the 
stream could be made navigable for three 
months in the year by an ex|)eiiditure of $1,.50(). 
lie found two falls, or ra])ids. one of IS imlies, 
eight miles above ^Martinsville, and one of !) 
feet in 100 yards about 10 miles above the 
forks. There was also a great drift at the line 
between Daviess and Greene counties. On this 
report, the legislature, on January 21, 182(), 
passed a law "to improve the navigation of the 
Fast and West Forks of White Ri\'er," a,s high 
u]) as Saiuide's ^lills in Randol]ih County. It 
ilirected the county boards of the counties on 
these streams to appoint supervisoi-s for them, as 
for highways, and to call out all persons' liable 
for road work within two miles of the streams, 
and im|)rove the streams as hinhways. It 
sei'ms rather startling to contemplate navigat- 
ing White River 130 miles above Indianapolis, 
but it was actually done in the spring, and a 
number of loaded flatboats. usually about fortv 
feet in length, came down the ri\(i- fi-oin Ran- 
dolph County in an early <\:\\^ Tins law was 
niaile general by the act nl' M.i\ 31. 1S.52, 
which empowered all county boai-d< to declare 
streams navigable, and to work them a< higb- 

The act of January 28, 1828. appropriated 

"[[isl. lldiiiluljjh ('(Jiiiih/. p. 
Virv. Slafs., 1852, Vol.' I. p. 




$1,000 for "tliL' purposo of improving the navi- 
gation of tlic We^it Fork of White River, from 
Andersontown in' the eounty of Madison to the 
junction of the same with the East Fork of said 
river."' These appropriations, like those for 
state roads, were made from "the three per 
cent, fund." which was derived from the sale 
of pulili'^ lands. When Congress provitied for 
their sale it reserved five per cent of the net 
proceeds for roads and canals, and provided 
that three-fifths of this should be expended 
under direction of the legislatures of the states 
in which the lands were located. This was 
"the three per cent, fund;" and in 1828 it lic- 
gan to be used for canals, the first appropria- 
tion for that purpose being then made to the 
Wabash and Miami — later the Wabash and 
Erie — canal. In a few years the entire ener- 
gies of the people were turned in that line, 
under the delusion that they could make new 
watercourses better than they could improve 
natural ones. But they did not wholly forget 
the streams, for when the general law was 
adopted in 1843 putting the authorization of 
mill-dams in the courts, it required the court 
to inquire whether by the proposed dam '"or- 
dinary navigation will be oljstructed."'" While 
the legislature retained this power, it looked 
after navigation. Thus the act of June 13. 
1826, granting John W. Cox power to construct 
a dam across White River, in Morgan Countv. 
required him to put "a good and sufficient lock 
or slope in said dam at least sixty feet wide 
and tliirty-six feet long, so as in no^'i.^e to ob- 
struct the passage of water-craft, either in 
ascending or descending the said stream." 

Moreover, White River was not only offi- 
cially recognized as a navigable stream but 
also was actually navigated by boats of con- 
siderable size. Hundreds of flatboats went out 
over it. loaded with the produce of the country 
and several came up tlie river in the early 
times when there were no roads, or only very 
bad ones. In the spring of 1821, Matthias R. 
Xowland and Elisha Herndon loaded a keel 
boat at Frankfort, Kentucky, witli flour, bacon, 
whiskey and other necessaries of life and 
brouglit it up to this point. It was on this 
boat that A. W. Russell came to Indianapolis, 
and on it the picnic party went to .Vnderson's 

s])ring on the Fourth of July, 1821." In May. 
1822, the keel-boat, "Eagle"' of fifteen tons bur- 
then, arrived here from Kanawha, loaded with 
salt and whiskey ; and the same month the keel- 
l)oat "Boxer." of thirty-three tons, arrived here 
from Zanesville, loaded with merchandise. The 
same j'ear Luke Walpole came up the river 
with two large keel-boats bringing his family, 
household goods, and a large stock of assorted 
merchandise. In May, 1824, the "Dandy", of 
twenty-eight tons, came up with a load of 
salt and whiskey, and Mr. Brown says that 
"many other boats arrived from the lower 
river, and departed loaded with produce."' '- 
The flat-boat commerce down the river increa.«ed 
in importance as agriculture developed, and 
continued until the first railroad furnished a 
more expeditious exit. 

But Governor Xoble was convinced that the 
river was capable of still more extensive naviga- 
tion, and in 1828-9 he offered a reward of $200 
to the first captain who would bring a steamlioat 
up to this point, and also to sell his cargo free 
of charge. This induced two attempts in April. 
1830. Captain Saunders came up to Spencer 
with the "Traveller,"' and the steamer ""\'ic- 
tory" came within fifty-five miles of this point, 
but the river began to fall rapidly and both 
soTight safety down the river. But this did not 
discourage Indianapolis. Gen. Robert Hanna 
and several others, who had taken contracts on 
the Xational Road, determined to bring xip a 
boat to haul stone and timbers for bridges. 
They invested in a medium-sized boat, and 
after some difficulty she arrived here on April 
11, 1831. loaded and towing a loaded barge. 
This event was hailed with joy by the whole 
population. A public meeting was called, and 
Lsaac Blackford, James Morrison. James P. 
Drake. Alfred Harrison. Samuel Henderson. 
John H. Sanders. Samuel G. "Mitchell. A. W. 
IJussell, Nicholas ilcCarty. ^forris Jlorris. 
Homer Johnson. John ^filroy. Daniel Yandes 
and Eivingston Dunlap. were ajipointed a com- 
mittee "to make arrangements to demonstrate, 
in some appropriate manner, the high gratifi- 
cation which is and should be felt by all who 
feel interested in our commercial and agricul- 
tural prosperity."' The committee met and 
adopted resolutions, the chief one l)ein'g that. 

">Rrr. Stiil.<.. \K '.n: 

"A'oH'/((//(/\- tt'i'iii Itiisci'iicrs, 11. 2^ 
^"Hisfdri/ /)itliaii(iiiolix. ]i. 20. 



•"The arrival of tlie stcainboat 'Gen. llaniia/ 
from Cincinnati, at tliis plat-c. should be vie wed 
bv the citizens of the Wliite Kiver countrv, and 
of our state at large, as a proud triumph, and 
as a fair aud unanswerable ilenionstration of 
the fact that our beautiful river is susceptible 
of safe navigation for steam vessels of a much 
larger class than was anticipated by the most 
sanguine." The committee also resolved "that 
Captain Blythe's company of artillery be in- 
vited to parade on this day at 2 oVloek near the 
boat to fire a salute in honor of the occasion," 
whicii was duly done. It also extended an in- 
vitation to the proprietors and officers of the 
boat to a public dinner, but this was declined 
by General Hanna, because "our arrangements 
make it necessary that she should leave this 
place for the BiutTs early tomorrow morning." 
However, the boat made two excursions up the 
river on the Tith with large loails of passen- 
gers. In one of these she ran into an over- 
hanging tree, knocking down her pilot-house 
and chimneys, greatly frightening the passen- 
gers, a number of whom took to the water. 
Tlie boat started down the river on the 13th 
but grounded on a bar at Hog Island, and did 
not get oil' for six weeks; and went out of the 
river in the fall. 

This ended steanilioai navigation in this jiart 
of White River until 1865, when the Indian- 
njiolis and White River Steamboat Company 
Iniill and launched the "Governor Morton"'. 
Slie was a sidc-wheeler, 100 feet long, '2\. feet 
beam, and 'i feet 4 inches deep. Her regis- 
tered capacity was l.")0.87 tons, and tlie in- 
spector permitted her to carry 'iOO passengers. 
but she carried more if more desired to ride. 
She was laimclied on July 1, and made her 
trial trip on August 25, 1865, running up the 
river ])ast tlie mouth of Fall Creek, as far as 
Crowder's IoimI. successfully going over all 
ripples, though with some bum[)ing. She was 
licensed at the port of Cinciniuiti, on October 
1 1. "to carry on tlie coasting trade" between In- 
(liana])olis and points unnamed, 'i'he highest 
point up the riMT she ever made was Cold 
Spring, (111 .V|)ril 'i'.K ISdi;. In an ctl'ort to 
repeat this achievement in I lie latter part of 
July she grounded, and was liadly strained in 
getting off. f)n .\ugust (I. 1cS(;(;, she sank at her 
luniirings below the .N'ational bridge, with no 
one aboard but the watchman, and he as!e(>p. 
It wa- l)clic\ccl that she was scuttled, whirli 

would not have been difficult, as she was built 
of soft ])ine. Sli(! was raised and dismantled, 
the hull being sold for $1,200 to Levi Comcgys, 
who used it for some time to haul bowlders 
for paving pnriioses. The "Governor Morton" 
was a source of much joy to the people of 
Indianapolis, both those who cared for boat 
riding, and those who constructed jests on nav- 
i<ration. Henry M. Socwell was captain. He 
came here from Vevay in 1859, and had ac- 
cumulated much steamboat experience on the 
Ohio and Mississippi before coming. He was 
dubbed "A'ice Admiral," and other sea-faring 
terms were introduced into the Indianaijolis 
vocabularv. Michael R. Scudder and Hiram 
Minick acted as pilots. As a financial venture 
the boat was a failure. It was alleged that 
her most profitable trip was one when she 
stuck on a sandbar for several hours, and the 
bar took in •$168 for drinks, at 25 cents per 
quench. It was expected that governmental 
aid would be obtained for the removal of ob- 
structions from the river, and memorials were 
made for that ])urpose, but nothing came of 
them. It was really surprising that the boat 
went as far as she did, with the accumulated 
drifts and bars of forty years to contend 

rn((uesfionably White liivor is not so easily 
navigalile now as it was ninety years ago, 
though probably as much water passes out 
through its channel in the course of a year as 
there did then. The flow is not so steady be- 
cause the clearing of the land and improved 
drainage make the surface water pass off more 
rajiidlv. .\iid this has increased the obstruc- 
tions in the streams, for the soil, sand and 
gravel wash much more easily from cleared 
Tand. Moreover, in the natural state, most of 
I 111' timber that got into the river came from 
the undermining of banks on which it stood, 
and this usually did not float away but hung 
bv the roots where it fell. But after the ax- 
men got to work, every freshet brought down 
logs and rails which formed drifts at some 
places. Some logs stranded as the water went 
down, decayed, became water-logged, and made 
bases for sand and gravel bars. The wash of 
the sand and gravel is the worst source of ob- 
struction to navigation, for the timber can 
be easilv removed — much of it could l)e burned 
at low water in a dry season. The early work 
diuic on the liars was wasted, for it usually 



eonsis-tcd ol' ciittiiii;' rhaniicls iln-dugh tlu'iii. 
and the channels would till in the eourse of a 
year or two. Tims the act of January 31, \S:H, 
for tlie improvement of the Wabash, called for 
cutting, "at tlie riyiples and rapids channels 
at least two and oni'-half feet deep from the 
surface of the olistruction. and tliirty feet 

The first cause of the neglect of naviga- 
tion of our streams was the internal improve- 
ment system, which was largely one of canals. 
Xoliody seemed to realize the practical impos- 
sihility of high-line canals with retaining walls 
of loose earth, and the numher iniilt and 
abandoned is astounding. In ISSO the total 
of aiiandoned canals in the Fniled States was 
i;>.")o miles, which cost $44,0i;i,l(!{;. and of this 
Indiana had 4.53 miles that cost $r,72.5.2Gv'. 
The Whitewater Valley canal, the first com- 
pleted in the state, washed out twice before 
it was finished, and the damage was estimated 
at $n(),000. The small amount constructed 
at and near Indianapolis — about seven miles 
of the Central canal — was little used for com- 
merce, liut is still in use for water-jiowcr. It 
has been put out of commission repeate<lly by 
breaks at the points where it was built up in- 
stead of dug out. An energetic miiskrat would 
dig a hole through the bank, and, unless the 
opening was very quickly di,<covered, that was 
an end of the canal for weeks.''' The company 
paid a bounty on muskrat scalps for years, on 
this account, and it never made a more profit- 
able investment. But with all this experience it 
is doubtfnl if the American people have yet 
learned that if you want to make a |icrma- 
nent waterway yon must dig it out and not 
build it U]) — indeed \lc have already started 
on a re|)etition of the same old absurdity with 
the L'anaina Canal. 

In fact White River does not present a dif- 
ficult i)roblem in practical connnereial naviga- 
tion. The elevation above sea level of the 
tracks at the Union Depot in Indianapolis is 
707 fent, which is about 33 feet above low wa- 
ter level in White River at this jioint. The 
relative level of the river below here will not 
vary materially fnun the relative level of rail- 
road tracks at towns on its bank, which are 
as follows: Brooklyn. <i58 feet, Martinsville, 
."iOil, (ios])ort, .j!)(). Spencer. .5.58. Bloomfield, 

•5 ■.'!». Wortbingt<in, .5 "25, Sandy Hook, Rogers 
and Blackburn (stations nearest the forks on 
both sides), each 44ts feet. The railroad at lUack- 
burn is 43 feet above low-water level. In 
other words the total fall in the 285 miles 
from here to the forks, where the river is now 
navigated, is 260 feet, or an average of less 
than one foot to the mile. The low-water flow 
at this point was estimated at 840 cubic feet 
l)er second by Rudolph Hering, when he re- 
IKjrted on a sewer system for Indianapolis:'* 
i)ut Prof. Sackett, of Purdue, in 1905, re- 
ported the average flow at Indianapolis 103,- 
000,000 feet in 24 hours, or 1,200 cubic feet 
|)L'r second; and the Indianapolis Water Works 
report for l!)0(i, which is based on weir meas- 
urement, makes it 117,000,000 feet in 24 hours, 
or 1,350 cubic feet per second. This last is 
the most reliable, and is for the low-water 
flow at a point above the mouth of Fall Creek 
and the discharge of the canal.'"' There 
is a rock outcrop at ilartinsville, and several 
below Spencer, but none that would present 
a serious obstacle to imjirovement. Indeed, 
they would afford advantagecnis sites for 
dams, of which several would be needed, as 
they would furnish .solid bottoms and solid abut- 
ting sides. The lower one-third of the channel 
between here and the forks is outside of the 
"Drift" area, and contains practically no 
gravel, though there are a number of sand- 
bars. The solution of the problem is the con- 
struction of a few dams and locks, and the 
deepening of the. channel at ])oints by the re- 
moval of sand and gravel. 

It is a singular fact that more real progress 
towards making the river iiractically naviga- 
Ide has been made in the last ten years than 
ever before, and W'ithmit any intention of it. 
For years people have been taking sand and 
gravel from the bars for various, but in 
18i)7 was begun the business of pumping them 
from the bottom of the stream, where they 
could not be reached by the old process of 
shovel and wagon. Tliis business has devel- 
oped until now there arc si.\ steam pumps 
working on the river at Indianapolis, and sev- 
eral at otlu'r )ioints. These jiumps arc set on 
scow boats, averaging from 50 to Go feet in 

'■f.ocoiiioiiri'. Septend)i'r ;!0. ISIS. 

"('1(1/ li'i-jils. Tinnnl <i{ Worh<. 1S!I2. 
''■/'roccedinf/a first ('(iiirciil ion /mliiniii 
Ili'inrh iif L'irrrx mid llarliors CoiKjresg, p. 104. 

iiisToKV OF (;i;k.\'ii:i! 





















length and --'O to 25 in width, and by centrif- 
ugal suction power draw up a mixture of 
water, sand and gravel through 8-inch pipes. 
The pipe entrance is protected from tlie admis- 
sion of stones over four or five inches in diame- 
ter, to avoid clogging. The stream passes out 
over screens that separate the material into two 
grades of sand and two of gravel. The prod- 
uct is used for plastering, locomotive sand, 
concrete work, asphalt mixture, rooting and 
street improvement. Formerly Lake Michigan 
sand used to be shipped here in considerable 
amount, but now its place is filled by this prod- 
uct. The capacity of a pump is about loO 
cubic yards a day, and the actual product 
about 30,000 yards in a working year. In 
otlier words these six pumps now at Indian- 
apolis are taking about 180,000 cubic yards of 
obstruction out of the river annually, and mak- 
ing money at it. They are shipping by rail 
over 30,0b0 cubic yards to the suburbs and 
to outside points, and the balance of their prod- 
uct is used in the city. They take out the 
material to an average depth of fifteen feet, 
and in the eleven years that this work has 
been in jirogress over three miles of Indian- 
apolis river front has been made actually navi- 
gable for any kind of river craft. In addi- 
tion to these pumps there have been two steam 
dredges working at Indianapolis on Fall 
Creek. They operate from the shore, and have 
taken out large quantities of gravel. 

Either system is easily applicable at almost 
any point on the river, and of course it would 
be needed only at intervals for improving nav- 
igation for there are now long stretches of 
deep water, and there are few localities on the 
river where sand and gravel are not in de- 
mand for highway and other purposes. In 
fact thousands of dollars have been paid to 
riparian owners for gravel from the river bed 
for public uses, when the river bed shouUl 
justly belong to the state. The American peo- 
ple have shown a fearful lack of foresight in 
the exhaustion of the natural resources of the 
country. They have seemed to exert them- 
selves to put mineral lands and forest lands 
into private hands. They have taxed them- 
selves to encourage the exhaustion of our for- 
ests and coal mines by tariff laws, when they 
could have got timber and coal from abroad 
cheaper than they could be produced at home. 
But of all stupid aberrations of public policy. 

none ever was more absurd than this aban- 
donment of public right by a hasty and ill- 
considered Supreme Court decision. We have 
now reached the point where the "good roads" 
movement — and it is a very important move- 
ment to Indiana — is handicapped by this dona- 
tion to private parties of the best road material 
found in many localities, and which can be 
taken from the river by the pumping process 
at a cost of 20 to 25 cents a cubic yard. And 
by taking it out the work would be promoted 
of luaking practical highways of streams that 
would be of immense commercial value to the 
state. It is practically certain that the "Lakes 
to Gulf Canal" movement is going to result 
in a vast improvement of the Mississippi and 
its tributaries, and Indiana approaches partic- 
ipation in that result with an impediment to 
reaping its benefits that should never have 
been created. 

Can it be removed? That is a question for 
the courts. They can reverse the decision if 
they wish, and there is ample authority for the 
position that the beds of streams not sold by 
the government belong to the state. It is not 
easy to conceive where any court obtained the 
jiower to annul the declared policy of the 
United States and the expressed legislative 
will of the State of Indiana, as was done in thi: 
case. Can the Supreme Court repeal a law 
that is consistent with the Constitution, ap- 
plying to a matter over which the legislature 
has unquestionable power, merely because tlu 
judges differ from the legislators in opinion; 
That is not commonly understood to be a pre 
rogative of the courts. It may be irrged that 
the decision has become "a rule of property," 
hut this is hardly tenable in fact. Discreel 
conveyors of property bordering on White 
River in Marion County do not warrant titlt 
to the center of the stream, but only to the, 
meander line, and quit-claim from there to the 
center. It may be thought by some that this 
property right would be of little value to the 
state, but a moment's reflection on the amount 
of gravel taken out now should dispel this 
delusion. In fact the state fovnid it worth 
while to maintain an agent for years to sell 
gravel from the frontage of the old ferry sitt 
on the west side of the river (Outlot 1), and 
old residents remember when ''Bill Aleck" 
IMorrison used to superintend the taking of 
gravel from the bar there prior to the sale of 



the property iu 1889, under authority of the 
aet of ^farch 9, of that year. 

The United State;; authorities liave always 
treated the river as navigahle. In fact, in 
18!)!l. when a controversy arose? over the dam 
at Riversiile Park, Cajit. Geo, A. Zinii of the 
Euf^ineers Corps, informed the Park Super- 
intendent that they could pay no attention to 
state decision.*, so long as U. S. laws and de- 
cisions made a stream navigable, as they did 
White River.'" In connection with this con- 
troversy the Xeirs sent an "expedition" down 
the river, consisting of F. D. Xorviel and two 
other men, on a house-boat 22 feet by 8, It 
went to the forks of the river, and Norviel 
reported that the river was navigable for that 
distance, which he estimated at 218 miles, and 
ought to be improved.'' This e.xpedition was 
made in a very dry season when the river was 
"abnormally low." In 189.5 the engineering 
corps of the War Department made a survey of 
lower White River, and reported that the navi- 
gation could be improved to the forks, and 14 
miles up the West Fork without dams and locks, 
but that these would be needed on the West 
Fork above that point for "slack water naviga- 
tion." This is leased on an estimate of a flow of 
only .'i.'JO cubic feet |>er second near the mnutli <if 
the West Fork, which is not reconcilable with 
the estimates at this ])oint. Inasmuch as the 
commerce on the lower river could not lieconie 
imjiortant until the Wabash was improved, the 
engineers recommended that work on White 
River be deferred until then."* 

In this connection may be mentioned the 
canal, which was made for navigation, and 
which originally had a flow of about 20{) cubic 
feet per second — it now does well when it has 
half that amount. The Central Canal was 
one branch of the "internal improvement sys- 
tem'' of 183G. It was to start at a conven- 
ient point on the Wabash & Erie Canal, thence 
south to iliincie. theiU'C down the vallev of the 
West Fork of White River to the forks, ami 
thence by the most practicable route to Evans- 
ville. (!onsi(lernble excavation was done at 
various ))oints, but the only yjart ever put in 
operation was some seven miles, frcuii Itroad 

'"Netvs. November 7. 1899. 
"Xfirs. December 2.5. 1899. 
^'Ifoiisr Donimnil No. .j:. Vol. •.'•). 
Session .")lth CdUKress. 

Ripple to Indianapolis. The line of the canal 
iu Indianapolis was as at present, except that 
there was a stone lock at the IxMid above .Market 
street, and the canal continued on a lower level 
from there down the line of Missiouri street 
to the edge of the river bottom near Kansas 
street, where there were two wooden locks, and 
thence across the bottom. This lower part was 
abandoned in 1870, and a sewer laid in the 
channel from Market to Kentucky avenue, 
where it connects with the main sewer; and 
the whole channel has since been filled and 
restored to its original street use. At the west 
end of the arm that runs south of Military 
Park there were two basins, one extending 
north and one south, on the line of Bright 
street. At the north end of the north basin 
was a grist mill which operated by an overshot 
wheel, the waste water from which ran north 
to about New York street, past the old Burton 
cooper shop, then west to Geisendorf street, 
then south to the lower level of the canal. The 
"tumbles'' were as at present, and the lower 
level. At the corner of ilarket and the south 
basin was the Caledonia paper mill, and at the 
lower end of the basin, half-way to Washington 
street, were the Gibson mill on the east side 
and the Carlisie mill on the west, both front- 
ing on Washington street. Just west of the 
Carlisle mill was the Chandler & Taylor plant 
which also used water ])ower. At the lock at 
Missouri street were the Sheets paper mill on 
the west, now occupied by Balke & Kraus as 
a store room, and a flour mill on the east, now 
covered by the store room of the Deere agri- 
cultural implement company. These were all 
the mills on the upper level, or "hydraulic." 
On the lower level there was Merritt's woolen 
mill at the corner of Washington street, and 
the W'ater Works Pumping StatioiL and the 
paper mill south of it as at present. The Mer- 
ritt mill is now occupied by the Sandstrom 
Short-Turn Buijgy Co. ; the Gibson mill is 
replaced by the .\cme i\rilling Co.: the Cale- 
donia Paper Mill by the Johnson-Smith Ex- 
celsior factory, and the site of Carlisle's mill 
is covered by an extension of the ChaniUer & 
Taylor plant. The basins or arms nf the 
"hydrdaulic" were filled u]) years ago, ami the 
whole of the water power is concentrated at 
the old or low(-r pumping station, where there 
ai'e fdU'- tui-liiTic>. but sometimes not water 
enou'di to run one. Tiic liu-k nl' water is due 



to tlie smaller low-wator flow above Broad 
Ripple, where the level now is often below the 
top of the dam, but forty years ago the com- 
pany commonly used "splash-boards"' on top 
of the dam in low-water, and had at least a 
foot more of water in the canal than at pres- 

It was naturally cxpegted that there would 
be considerable traffic on the canal, especially 
as everybody expected it to be soon opened to 
Xo^lesville on the north and ^lartinsville on 
the south, and considerable preparation was 
made for it. As soon as it was opened to 
Broad Ripple an effort was made to utilize 
it on an outing basis, and the following ad- 
vertisement appeared in the local papers in 
July, 1839: 


"iSi"ow running on the canal between Indian- 
apolis and the Broad Ripple will ply daily. 
The boat leaves Indianapolis at ten o'clock 
in the morning, and retui'us at six o'clock in 
the evening. Good order will at all times be 
maintained on the boat, and every attention 
paid to render those comfortable who nuiy 
take passage. Fare $1. Persons visiting the 
Broad Ripple are assured that good entertain- 
ment will be found by those desiring eat- 
ables, etc. 

"Robert Karl." 

Alluring as the triji miglit seem, there were 
few persons in Indiuajjolis at that time, when 
.50 cents was the legal allowance fnr a day's 
\vork on the roads, that could indulije in such 
luxuries very often, and as there was very 
slight occasion for travel over this line on busi- 
ness the canal boat was soon found an unprof- 
itable venture, and was drop|)ed altogether. 
At a later day the com])aiiy used boats \vitli 
.scythes attached to the stern to cut the moss 
and grass, which almost stopped the flow of 
water at times, but in the early period they 
got rid of it by .'ihutting off the water jiiiil 
raking it out. So for twenty-five years theic 
was no navigation oxc( pt a limited and inter- 
mittent use of skiff's. 

T'ractically all of the "commerce" that oc- 
curred on the canal was the work of Aldrich 
& Gay. Frank .\ldrich. and his father-in- 
law, Alfred (iay, came here in 1858, and 
started a saw-mill with George D. Stevens un- 
der tlie firm name of Gay i^- Stevens. It was 

located on the iladison tracks one S(|uare south 
of the old iladison depot on South street, 
and used the first circular saw^ operated in 
Indianapolis. Mr. Aldrich was with the Army 
of the Tennessee during the war, and after it he 
and ;\[r. Gay started a wood yard, first at the 
corner of Michigan street and the canal, but 
later moving north of North street, where the 
yards of the Western Construction Co. now are. 
They bought the timber on a lot of land above 
Broad Ri]:)ple, and established a camp of ref- 
ugee negroes to cut it. It was brought down 
the canal in two scow boats, 8.5 feet long, 25 
feet wide, and 3 feet deep, each of which car- 
ried about 25 cords of wood. They also brought 
down considerable C(uantities of corn, bowlders 
for street paving, and flour from the mill at 
Broad Ripple. There were formerly locks at 
Broad Ripple through which boats could be 
taken into the river, and a fair tow-path up the 
south side as far as "the big slough," opposite 
what is now known as "the rip-rap." These 
boats were also quite popular for Sunday 
school and other picnic parties which were 
towed up to (Jolden Hill (D. :\r. Parry's 
grounds) or the site of Fairview Park. 

The canal was a great disappointment to tlie 
people of Indianapolis, who had been warm 
supporters of the internal improvement system. 
When the bill passed the senate, on January 1(3, 
183(i, there was a general illumination of the 
town, and in the summer of 1839, when the 
canal was open(Hl from here to Broad Ripple, 
there was an excursion by boats to that place. 
But the crash of that year put an end to the 
work that had cost so much. There had been 
Jfl.nOO.OOO expended on the (V'utral Canal, 
and comparatively little more would have put 
it in o|)eration from Xoblesville to ilartins- 
\ille. 'I he state operated what there was of 
it until 1850, but not very satisfactorily. The 
ehnnnel was much impeded by moss, and the 
1)1(1 plan was to turn off the water to clean it 
<iut. which naturally' caused complaint from 
the lessees of water-power. The flood of 1847 
washed out the banks and the aqueduct over 
Fall Creek, and the canal was dry for months. 
Lessees refused to pay rent and stiits 
were brought. lly tlie acts of January 
19 and 21. 1S50. the governor was au- 
thorized to com]ii'omise the suits and sell 
the whole ]jro])erty to the highest bid- 
der. He reporlecl tii the next .session that he 

liisTouv OF (;i;i:atei£ ixDi.vxAi'ou.s. 

liail rokl all of the canal north of Morgan 
Coiiiity to George G. Shoup, James h'ariilen 
ami John 8. Xewman, for $2, "^4.3, anil that 
in Morgan County, which was simply laud 
with partial excavation, to Aaron Alldredge, 
lor •$()(»().''•' These purchasers assigned to the 
Central Canal Manufacturing. HydrauTu- and 
Water Works Company, under which name were 
incori)orated Francis Conwell, Henry Von 
Bergess, Wm. Jiurnett, Luther G. Bingham, 
and David F. Woi'cester, on Fehruary i:i. 1S.J4. 
They did not find it profitahle, and the title 
became somewhat involved by sheriffs" sales, 
_but in 1859 it was transferred to the Indiana 
Central Canal Company, which cleared \\p the 
title, and rented water power for some years, 
finally transferring the property to the In- 
dianapolis ^\'ater Works Company, the pres- 
ent owners. 

'Ifotisc JiiiiniitJ. lS.-)()-l. 


Since the Water Works Company has owned 
the canal it has broken several times at built- 
up points, especially at the aqueduct over Fall 
Creek, and near F'airview Park. One of the 
most disastrous breaks was during the iiood 
of 1904, when the creek was already high, the 
added flood carrying it over the levee at 
"Cerealine town" and causing large damage 
there. A number of the breaks have been due 
to the burrowing of niuskrats, and the canal 
patrol — the company has for years had the 
bank patrolled daily by two men — is specially 
charged with the duty of watching for and 
killing these animals. It has also paid a bounty 
of five cents for tail tips, and distributed 
traps free of charge to farmers along the line. 
One would naturally expect fur-bearing ani- 
mals to be almost extinct in this vicinity, but 
for the past five years there have been over 
one hundred muskrats killed annually in this 
little stretch of canal. 



By the act of January fi. 1821, by whicli 
the legislature ratified the scleetion of the site 
for the capital that had been made by the com- 
missioners, it was also provided that the house 
and senate should elect by joint ballot three 
commissioners to lay out a town on the site, 
and an agent for the sale of lots. These com- 
missioners, "or a majority of them", were di- 
rected to meet on the site on the first Monday 
in April, 1821, and "proceed to lay out a town 
on such part of the land selected and hereby 
established as the seat of government as they 
may deem most proper, and on such plan as 
they may conceive will be advantageous to the 
state and to the prosperity of said town, having 
specially in view the health, utility and beauty 
of the place." They were authorized to em- 
ploy a surveyor and such assistants as were 
needed; and after the survey was completed 
.were to advertise the sale of lots, and sell as 
many as they deemed expedient, "reserving \m- 
sold every second odd number commencing at 
number one." Purchasers of lots were to pay 
one-tifth down, and the balance in four an- 
nual installments, with forfeiture if payment 
were not completed "within three months after 
the last installment beconu's due." At any time 
prior to advertisenu'nt and sale on forfeiture, 
the purchaser could redeem by ])aying arrear- 
ages and costs. The agent was to keep his 
office at the town, and within nine months of 
the passage of the act to fix his permanent 
residence there. The money received from the 
sale of lots was to be kept as a separate fund 
by the State Treasurer, and to be used for 
"erecting the necessary public buildings of the 
state." No sale of lots was to carry any 
right of ferriage to the purchaser, but this 
right was permanently vested in the city. 

By the same law the new capital was nanicd 

Indianapolis, after a prolonged discussion by 
the House, in Committee of the Whole. The 
circumstances of the naming were stated by 
Judge Jeremiah Sullivan, of the Supreme 
Court, who was a member of the legislature 
at the time, as follows: "The bill (if 1 re- 
member aright) was reported by Judge Polk, 
and was in the main very acceptable. A blank 
of course, was left for the lunne of the town 
that was to become the seat of government, 
and during the two or three days we spent iu 
endeavoring to fill the blank there was iu the 
debate some sharpness and much amusement. 
General Marston G. Clark, of Washington 
County, proposed Tecumseh as the name, and 
very earnestly insisted upon its adoption. 
When it failed he suggested other Indian 
names, whicli 1 have forgotten. They all were 
rejected. A member ])roposed 'Suwarrow,' 
which met with no favor. Other names were 
proposed, discussed, laughed at, and voted 
down, and the house without coming to any 
agreement adjourned until the ne.xt day.. There 
were many amusing things said, but my re- 
uuuid)rance of them is not sufficiently distinct 
to state them with accuracy. 

"I had gone to Corydon with the intention 
of proposing Indianapolis as the name of the 
town, and on the evening of the adjournment 
above mentioned, or the next morning, I sug- 
gested to Mr. Samuel Merrill, the representa- 
tive from Switzerland County, the name I pro- 
posed. He at once adopted it and said he would 
support it. We, together, called on Governor 
.Jennings, who had been a witness of the amus- 
ing proceedings of the day previous, and told 
him what conclusion we had come to, and asked 
him what he thought of the name. He gave 
us to iinderstand that he favored it, and that 
he would not hesitate to so express himself. 



When the House met and uoiit into loiiveu- 
tioii on the bill, 1 moved to fill the blank 
with Indianapolis. The name created quite 
a laugh. Mr. Merrill, however, seconded the 
motion. We discussed the matter fully; gave 
our reasons in support of the proposition ; the 
members conversed with each other inform- 
ally in regard to it, and the name gradually 
commended itself to the committee, and was 
accepted. The ])rincipal reason given in favor 
of adopting the name proposed, towit: that the 
Greek termination would indicate to all the 
world the locality of the town, was, I am sure, 
the reason that overcame the opposition to the 
name. The town was finally named Indiana- 
polis, with but little, if any, o|i]i()sition.""' 

The tradition in the Merrill family is that 
the name was originally suggested by Mr. Mer- 
rill himself, but he never cared to insist on 
his claim. Indeed there was no great in- 
diicement to do so, for the name was not re- 
ceived with universal applause. The Indiana 
Ccntinel. publislied at Yinccnncs, which had 
favored the name "Tecumseh,'" announced the 
new name on January 15, 1821, in the fol- 
lowing passage: "One of the most ludicrous 
act';, however, of the sojourners at Corydon. was 
their naming the new seat of state government. 
Such a name, kind readers, you would never 
tind by searching from Dan to Beershelia; nor 
in all the libraries, museums, and pat<'nt of- 
fices in the world. It is like nothing in heaven, 
nor on earth, nor in the waters under the earth. 
It is not a name for man, woman, or child ; for 
empire, city, mountain or morass; for bird, 
beast, fish nor creeping thing; and nothing 
mortal or immortal could have thought of it, 
except the wise men of the East who were 
congregated at Corydon. It is composed of 
the following letters: 

"1— X-D— I— A— N— A— P-O-I— l-S. 

"Pronounce it as you please, gentle readers 
— you can do it as yon wish — there is no dan- 
ger of violating any system or riile, either in 
accent, cadence or emphasis — suit your <iun 
convenience and be thankful you are enabled 
to do it. by this rare effect of the scholastic 
genius of the age. For this title your future 
capital will be greatly indeiitcd, either to some 
learned Ifrhniist. some veneraiile Grecian, some 

sage and sentimental Bnilimin, or some pro- 
found and academic Faullowatlumie." 

A weeJv later the Ccntinel gave the name 
an editorial broadside in similar vein, and also 
|)ublished a communication which closed with 
these words: "Or should you require the ety- 
nwloqif of the word itself, I beg leave to refer 
you to the P A T A P H R E A Z E L Y (a 
new work and very rare) under the head "S 
I L." (This work serves as a Lexicon to the 
ancient Hindoo language!) and reversing the 
letters you have SILOPANA IDNI 
which signifies "A HEAD WITHOUT 

There has been more or less facetiousness 
evoked by the name ever since, but really, 
«hen one becomes accustomed to it, it is no 
more stilted than "Philadelphia." Its inven- 
tors had precedents not only in ancient names, 
but also in "Annapolis" and "Gallipolis" in 
this country: and they have had successors in 
"Cassopolis," "Minneapolis," "Iliopolis," "Ten- 
toiiolis,'" "Lithopolis" and "Kanopolis." Jlore- 
o\er "Indianapolis"'" itself, has four times been 
appropriated, once by Te.xas; once by Colorado; 
once by Iowa, and once by Oklahoma, without 
the slightest regard to its meaning — City of 
Indiana— -but solely for its melody and dig- 
nity; and in consequence our postotiSce author- 
ities were subjected to much annoyance by the 
miscarriage of mails and finally succeeded in 
having all but the Oklahoma town aliolished. 
And, really, why is not the (Ireek ending just 
as rational as the German "burg,"" or the 
l-'rench "ville," or the .\nglo-Saxon "wick," 
or any of the common Indian endings that sig- 
nify "town" or "place"? "Indianapolis" may 
not be so suggestive as the old Miami name of 
"Clianktunoongi," or "Makes-a-Noise-Place", 
but it at least serves to command attention, 
(•\(n if some occasioind, sensitive barbarian 
mav — 

To arms! they conic! the (Jreek, the Greek." 

I'.ut. to resume the story; on January 6, 
l^'.M. the same day that the law was approved. 
the Hc)use and Senate met in joint session and 
elected (Jen. John Carr agent for the sale of 
lots, and James W. .fones, Samuel P. Booker 
and Christopher Ifarri~<in, commissioners to 

' 11 ijll(iiriii/'s 1 11(1 iitiDi imlis-. p. 111. 

-luiliiina Crnhnrl. .lanuarx' 22, 1821. 



lay out tliu town. Ol tlivsc liarrijiou alone ap- 
peared at the site at the time fixed, Init he was 
not a man to be disturbed by a little thing 
like that. Judge Jlairisou, as he was called, 
wa.< one of the most interesting characters that 
ever reached Indiana. He was not oi the Har- 
risons of Virginia, but a ilarylander, of some 
wealth, fine education, and a taste for art. Dis- 
appointed in love, it is said with Elizabeth 
Patterson who married Jerome Bonaparte, 
afterwards King of Westphalia, Harrison came 
to Indiana and for seven years lived a her- 
mit near Hanover, on a blutt' overlooking the 
Ohio River. In 181.5 he decided that he had 
served full time for his Rachel, and went to 
Salem and, opened a store. In ISKS he was 
put on the ticket \fith Jonathan Jennings, and 
elected lieutenant governor of the new state. 
He followed the uneventful life appertaining 
to this office until 1818, when Governor Jen- 
nings was appointed a commissioner to make 
treaties with various Indian tribes, and ac- 
cepted the appointment.- Inasmuch as the con- 
stitution of the state provided that "no per- 
son holding any office under the United States 
shall exercise the office of governor or lieuten- 
ant governor," Harrison declared that Jennings 
had vacated his office, and thereupon proceeded 
to act as governor. But Jennings dissented; 
and, when he had finished tlie treaties, re- 
sumi'd governing, and the legislature recog- 
nized him. Then Harrison resigned, and the 
legislature adopted a resolution that his con- 
duct had been "both dignified and correct dur- 
ing the late investigation of the differences 
existing in the executive department." In 
1819 he ran for governor against Jennings, 
and was badly beaten, but that did not inter- 
fere with the public appreciation of liis talents; 
and so he was chosen commissioner by a legis- 
lature that would not have done anything dis- 
pleasing to Jennings.' 

When he found that the other members of 
the commission were not coming he decided 
himself "a majority thereof,'" organized him- 
self, and proceeded to business. His maiuige- 
ment of the survey and sale of lots was legal- 
ized by act of Xovemlier 28. 1S21. He em- 
ployed Alexander Ralston and Elias P. Ford- 
ham as surveyors, and Benjamin 1. Hlytlie. who 

iiad been clerk to the site commissioners, as 
clerk. Ralston was a Scotchman, of good abil- 
ity, who as a young man had been intrusted 
with important engineering work on the estate 
of Lord Roslin. After coming to this country 
lie assisted ilajor L'Enfant in the survey of 
Washington City until that eccentric genius got 
angry and resigned, and for some time after- 
wards was employed by the government. Later 
lie removed to Louisville, and after some years" 
residence there, to Salem, Indiana. In 1823 
he removed to Indianapolis, and there built a 
([uaint little brick house on the north side of 
.Slaryland street, west of Capitol avemu' — a 
square story-and-a-half in the center, with a 
one-story ell on each side, well supplied with 
doors and windows — where he lived with his 
colored housekeeper, "Aunt Chaney" Lively, 
until his death on January .5, 1827. While 
here he served as county surveyor. Ralston 
was thought by some to have been implicated 
in Aaron Burr"s consjjiracy, but so was every- 
body that was known to speak to Burr; and it 
is not probable that Ralstou"s conspiracy ex- 
tended beyond surveying some property on the 
Washita River, in Arkansas, known as "the 
Bastrop lands."'" which Burr had purchased. He 
was held in high esteem here — he fed the birds 
in severe winters, and all the children doved 
him — what higher certificate of character could 
one have ?* 

Fordham dropped so completely out of local 
record and tradition that Sulgrove says of him: 
"Of Mr. Fordliam little appears to have been 
known at the time, and nothing can be learned 
tiow.""^ He deserved iietter. Elias Pym Ford- 
ham was a young man from one of the oldest 
families of the east of England, who came to 
this country in ISIT with ^lorris Birkbei-k and 
ids family, ami went to the celebrated Illinois 
colony, where he located land on "English 
Prairie." He was well educated, and of keen 
intellect, as appears from Ids writings. He 
was considered an excellent engineer, having 
been a pupil of George Stephenson, the inven- 
tor of the locomotive steam engine. He trav- 
eled in southern Indiana in 1818, and at other 
times — in fact Birkbeck"s c(donv was in pretty 
close touch with southern Indiana — and quite 

■■'Woollen's Sl-t'tclifs. |). Kid; 'rhmiipxnrs 
!^t<irii's (if liiiliniHi. ]i. 128. 

KToiiniiil. Jaiinarv 9. 1827 ; .Vr/,'.v. March 22. 
187 9. 

''Illsl. f llllllllHI jlollS, p. 2."). 

H18TU1;Y of laiKATEK INDIA.N Arol.lS. 


probably formed the acMjuaiutancc of Kaliitoii 
and Harris^oii Ix'fore loiiiing here." 

The plan for the city which was adopted was 
largely influenced by the plan of the city of 
Washington, which Halston had assisted in sur- 
veying, and which had nunu'rous admirers 
throughout the country. It had been taken as 
a basis for the rebuilding of Detroit, after the 
great tire of 180.5, by (Ihief Justice Augustus 
]•?. Woodward, who was jn-actical dictator there 
at the time." "The Federal City" wa^ modeled 
on Versailles, cither at the suggestion of Presi- 
dent Washington, or with his approval, and so 
the plan of the final capital of Indiana was 
based in ])art on the capital built in France for 
the first ruler of Indiaiui. But it was not wholly 
so. When the plan of '"The Federal City'" was 
under consideration, Thomas Jefferson favored 
a city of regular s(|uares made by streets inter- 
secting at right angles, but L"Enf'ant preferred 
tlie "spider- web" idea of Versailles, with its 
principal avenues i-entering at the royal palaces, 
and Washington agreed with him. The plan 
adopted for Indianapolis was a rational com- 
bination of the two. The original plat, now 
commonly known as "the mile squai'e". be- 
tween North, South, East and West streets, 
was divided ])riniarily l)y nine north and south 
streets, and nine east and west streets into 100 
squares, with certain modifications — but the 
streets do not run direct to the points of the 
compass, as commonly supposed; they bear 
about two and one-half degrees east of iKirtli. 
and south of east, owing to variation in ilic 
magnetic needle. Most of the streets in the 
additions, outside of "the donation", follow the 
Section lines, which were run on the basis of 
the true meridian, and are tJiercfore more nearly 
with the points of the compass. The four 
central .squares or blocks of the city, taken to- 
gether, were called "the Governor's Square", 
and at their center was jdaced a circle, nearly 
four acres in extent, surrounded by a street 80 
feet wide, which was designed for tlie governor's 
residence, but is now ^Monument Place. From 
the four corners of the Governor's Square there 
were four diagonal streets, now called avenues, 
running to the four corners of the plat, each 
of which cut four of the primarv s(pKircs into 

"See Fordhams I'itsohuI .Xdrral Iri- : ('Irve- 
land, inofi. 

' Lit nihil II rl-!< of Di'lrnil. p. ■^'.'!. 

two triangles. Each diagonal street afforded a 
"short cut"" to the center of the city, and on 
this account these have all become po])ular 
thoroughfares and business streets; they have 
been adopted for street-car lines, and arc real 
conveniences to the public. All of these streets 
were 90 feet wide except Washington street, 
which was 120 feet. The boundary streets, 
Xorth, South, East and West, were not in- 
cluded in the original plat, but were added 
afterwards by Harrison, at the suggestion of 
James Blake, who urged that "fifty years later 
they would make a fine four-mile drive around 
the city". In fact no one then contemplated 
the city's growth beyond "the mile square.'"' 
Xo subdivision of the donation lands outside 
the plat was made at the time, and Ralston, 
gazing proudly on the map, declared that "it 
would make a beautiful city, if it were ever 

The only departure from the regularity of 
the i)lan was in the southeastern part of the 
city, and was caused by Pogue's Run. South of 
it. a street called South Carolina street was 
run from the corner of Meridian and South 
streets diagonally to the corner of Georgia and 
East streets. A block and a half north of this 
— north of Pogue's Run — Xorth Carolina street 
was run, ])arallel to Soutii Carolina street, from 
.Meridian street, at the alley between Georgia 
and Louisiana streets, to East street, at the 
alley between Washington aiul ^Maryland streets. 
Xorth Carolina and Soutli Carolina streets 
were each (JO feet wide. The I ract between 
tliem was divided into three huge irregular 
blocks, which were given s(|uare numbers 80, 
84 and 8."). Of the jirincipal city streets. A'ir- 
ginia street (now \'ii'ginia avenue) alone 
crossed this tract but there was a small street 
across it from flic corner of Delaware and South 
Carolina streets, at right angles with the lal- 
ter, which was named Short street. The ac- 
companying cut of the plat is from I he copy 
used as an original in the otlice of the audi- 
tor of state, worn with age, and bearing the 
inscription: "St;i1e nf Inili.ina. I. .lobn Can-, 
-Vgent for the town of hulianapolis, do hercliy 
certify that the above is a true plat of the Town 
of Indiana])olis. John' Cahh. July 9. 1822." 

This arrangement contin\ied until 18:!1. 
wlien part of the donati(ni lands having been 
subdivided into "outlots"" in pursuance of acts 
iif the leiiislalure in 182 1 and 182."). a com- 



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OF THE town: 


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plc'tu ."-urvey ol' the doiiatiuii was ordered, with 
two maps, which Avere to be filed as "otlieial 
records". This survey and these maps were 
made bv Bet Intel F. Morris, aud in them North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Short streets 
were dropped; the north and south streets — 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Xew Jersey and Ala- 
bama — were extended across I'ogue's Hun ; and 
blocks 80, 84 and 8o. thus cut up, were added 
to former fractional squares. In the orifiina! 
plat this Pogue's Run tract had made a break 
in the square numbers, whicli bejran with NO. 
1, in the northeast corner of the phit and num- 
bered to the left to 10; then drop])ed a tier 
and numbered back to the right to 20, and so 
on. until Xorth Carolina street was struck: 
an<l there the fractional and irreguhir squares 
introduced an extra square numbei'. so that 
the soutlieastern square of the phit wa* num- 
bered 101 instead of 100. and still retains 
that number. But, in the readjustment of 
1831, square numbers 83 and 85 were dropped, 
so that now there are only 99 squares, or 
square numbers, in the original plat, or ■•mile 

After IS.'il no changes were made in the 
original street names until 1894-."), when the 
City Council changed the name of Mississippi 
street to Senate avenue, and Tennessee street 
to Capitol avenue." 

The former was due to the efforts of John 
Puryear, a well-known and enterprising col- 
ored ]nan, who rejiresented the Fourth Ward in 
the Council for six years. 'I'he reason he 
ga\c for it was that he "hateil the name of 
Jlississippi". Various roads which originally 
came to the mile square have taken street names 
within the extended city limits. The Blulf Road 
is Meridian street. The Madison Road is Mad- 
ison avenue. The Brnokville Road is Brook- 
ville avenue. Tiie Michigan Road is Southeast- 
ern avenue below the old city line, while at 
the north it is called West street as far as 
Sixteenth, and beyond tlial Xorthwesteni ave- 
nue. Th(^ l-afayette Road is Indiana avenue. 
I'ndcr an act of 1827, the alleys in squares 
nmubered 1 to '^O, and 78 to 101 were vacated, 

" Thi' Capitol avenue ordinance was intro- 
duced liv Wni. II. Cooper, and ])asseil May 'i\. 
l.'^iM. The Senate avenue ordinance was intro- 
duced bv Henrv Magel, and |)assed Sei)tember 
23, ISO.';. 

and those squares were sold as ■"oatlots". Hence 
no alleys appear in them in the map of 1831, 
but in it the principal alleys remaining were 
named. The names of the Xorth and South 
alleys, or streets as they are now commonly 
called, beginning in the west tier of squares 
aud proceeding east, were Columbia, Osage, 
Huron, iluskingum. Severn, Scioto, Susque- 
hanna, Hudson, Erie and Choptank. The east 
and west alleys, between Vermont and Georgia 
streets, were Tippecanoe, Miami. Wabash, Po- 
tomac, Cumberland and Cliesa])eake. Most of 
these names are still retained, but there have 
been the following changes: 

Columbia is now Toledo. 

Huron is now Roanoke. 

Severn is now Bird. 

Erie is now Ogden. 

Choptank is now Adelaide. 

Potomac is now Court. 

Cumberland is now Pearl. 

In the original plat there were no alleys in 
tlict sqiuires that were intersected by diagonal 
streets, and the alleys now existing in these, 
and also in the squares where the alleys were 
vacated in 1827, were usually made by the vol- 
untary donation of the owners. In each of 
the full, regular squares there were two alleys, 
one fifteen feet wide, and one thirty feet wide, 
intersecting each other at right angles, and di- 
viding the square into four equal parts. As 
each square contained 4.05 acres, inclusive of 
alleys, there was nearly an acre in each (piarter 
thus made, and each quarter was divided into 
three ecjual lots. The lots fronted in various 
directions, according to the supposed import- 
ance of streets. Those abutting on the large 
alleys were (i7 feet 6 indies wide and 195 feet 
deep. Those abutting on the smaller alleys 
were t!5 feet front, and 202 feet G inches deep. 

The center of the original plat is about 200 
yards northeast of the center of the donation, 
and was selected because the circle was a nat- 
ural knoll, covered with fiiu' sugar trees, and 
because of the relative ])osition of Washington 
street. There is no question that Washington 
street was expected to be the principal street, 
on account of its extra width and the fact 
that the Govi'rnor's Square, the Court House 
S(|uare, and the State tlouse St]uare all fronted 
on it. The obvious rea,-;on for its preeminence 
was the natural crossing jilace where it struck 
the river, which was certain to make it the 




main tlutroughfarc of the new town. In fact, 
it Mas for years more commonly known as 
"Main street'' tiian as Washington street. The 
general understanding of this is very evident 
from the prices paid at the sale of lots, which 
began on October 8, IS'il. The survey had been 
completed some time befin-e, notwithstanding 
that the surveyors had been much impeded by 
the bayous, whicli the wet season had kept 
flooded. It has been said that the sale was 
delayed on account of the prevalent sickness, 
and that Harrison left the place for some time 
on account of the sickness, but, whether this 
was true or not, the time fixed for the sale was 
fortunate. October brought clear weather, and 
a general improvement of health. Many per- 
sons came to attend the sale : business became 
brisk : and everything took on a hopeful and 
cheerful air. 

By this time there were three "taverns" at 
Indianapolis, besides McCormick"s. ^latthias 
R. Xowland had opeiied one in his cabin "on 
the west bank of the ravine" (i. e., ^fissouri 
street), between Washington and Maryland 
streets. .Judge Harrison had made this his 
headquarters during the survey, and Nowland 
had built an addition to the cabin for an of- 
fice. It was here that the sale was held. Maj. 
Thos. Carter had built a log tavern north of 
Wa.shington street and east of Illinois — just 
west of the present Ncir.i office. John Haw- 
kins had opened "The Eagle Tavern" in a 
double log house north of Washington street, 
between Meridian and Pennsylvania streets, 
about where the Ijombard Building now stands. 
The attendance at tlie sales was so large that all 
these were crowded, and many found lodging 
in private houses or camped out. Nowland 
says: "This sale continued one week, during 
which time there was not the least disturbance 
of any kind. Although the woods were filled 
with moneyed people, there was no robbery or 
attempt at the same, nor was there the least 
appreliension or fear. There were no confidence 
men to pray upon the credulity of the peo])le ; 
although strangers, tliey looked upon each 
other as their neighbor and friend. Their 
money was almost entirely gold and silver, and 
was left in their leather bags where best they 
could procure a shelter, and was considered as 
safe as it now would be in the vaults of our 

r'unouslv enoiigli. all of our loial histor- 

ians but Sulgrove say the sale began on Octo- 
ber 10, and he says it was October 'J. In 
reality, it began on October 8 — "The 
second Monday in October", as advertised, but 
for some reason only one lot was sold on that 
<lay. Brown says: "The first day was cold 
and raw with a high wind, and a man at the 
sale came near being killed by a falling limb." 
Possibly that may have been the cause of it. 
but at any rate the sale was adjourned to the 
next day after the selling of lot 3 in square TO, 
Just back of Rowland's house, where the sale 
was held. It went to Jesse ilcKay for $152.' -"i, 
but he did not seem to a]i]>reciate his bargain, 
for he assigned his certilicate, which finally 
came to Nicholas ^[ct'arty, who forfeited the 
lot and applied the money already paid to 
payment on other lots. After this one trans- 
action the sale was adjourned to the following 
morning when it was resumed in earnest, with 
Maj. Thos. Carter as auctioneer, and James M. 
Ray as clerk. The bulk of the selling was 
from the 9th to the 12th. and there were four- 
teen sales on Saturday, the l.'ith, when the sale 

The highest price received was for lot 12 in 
square 57 — the northwest corner of Delaware 
and Washington streets — which brought $5<i0. 
The next highest was lot (J in square 52 — the 
nortliwest corner of Senate and Wasliington, 
which brought $500. The third was the north- 
east corner of Capitol avenue and Washington, 
which brought $450. These high prices were 
due both to the location and the lay of the 
lots. The last two fronted the State House 
Square, and had each a half-square depth on 
Washington street, which would naturally be 
expected to become the actual frontage, as it 
since has. The one to the west was considei-ed 
the more valuable because tlie most of the 
settlement was at that time west of Senate 
avenue. The first fronted Washington street, 
but had its depth facing the Court House 
Square, which was the conuuon business center 
in county seats : and it was purcha.-;ed by Gen- 
eral Carr, the state agent, who ]u-nmptly started 
business in that direction by establishing his 
office on the north end of the lot. 

The estimates of comparative value wrre ra- 
tional eno\igh at the time, but they have been 
u]iset in the development of the city. General 
Carr"s high-priced lot now has an as.«essed 
ground tax value of $128,830, but lot 7 in the 



same block, the northeast corner of Pennsyl- 
vania and Washington is now taxed for $330,- 
000 on the land, and it brought only $300 at 
the sale. All the lots fronting on Washington 
street between the State House and Court House 
Squares sold at from $200 to $300. Lot 6 in 
square 66, the southeast corner of Hlinois and 
Washington, brought $325, while the one diag- 
onally opposite, where the Claypool Hotel 
stands, sold for $243.7.5. The latter is now 
assessed for taxation at more than ten times 
that amount per front foot for land value. 
The second highest in the sale — lot 6 in square 
52 — is now assessed on the land for onlv 

In all, 314 lots were sold, at a total price 
of $3.5,596.25, of which $7,119.25 was paid in 
cash. But of the total, 161 lots were after- 
wards forfeited, or relinquished under the re- 
lief act of January 20, 1826, which permitted 
this, with the application of the payments al- 
ready made on other lots, provided that these 
lots to which such payments were applied should 
then at once be paid for in full. As specula- 
tive investments for immediate returns the 
Indianapolis lots were not successes. The town 
grew slowly for several years, business was 
comparatively small in extent, and sickness was 
prevalent long enough to give the place a bad 
name: besides all which the actual transfer of 
the capital did not take place until 1825. Con- 
sequently few lots advanced in value, and many 
declined. The total cash receipts from sales 
up to 1831 were less than $35,000. In 1831 
an effort was made to close out all of the dona- 
tion lands, the sale of outlots being authorized 
at a minimum price of $10 per acre, and the 
receipts for the next five years aggregated 
nearly $40,000. The total receipts, up to and 
including 1S44, when the agency business was 
wound up and turned over to the auditor of 
state, were less than $100,000. There were a 
number of transactions after that date, mostly 
with forfeitures and delinquencies, the last 
recorded receipts being in 1871. The entire 
receipts for the donation lands were less than 
$125,000. But the money that was received came 
op[ioi-tunely. and served to construct the court 
house, the "executive mansion" in the Gover- 
nor's Circle, the clerk's oflice, which stood on 
the west side of the Court House Square, and 
the house and office of the treasurer of state, 
which were opposite the State House Square on 
Vol. 1—3 

Washington street, and finally the first state 
house. Part of it was also applied to the con- 
•struction of the state prison at Jetfersonville. 
General Carr had been appointed at a salary of 
$600, but it was reduced the next year to 
$300, and in September, 1822, he resigned. He 
was followed in the office successively by James 
Milroy, Bethuol F. Morris (December 24, 
1822)", Benjamin I. Blythe (February 1, 1825), 
Ebenezer Sharpe (April 8, 1828), John G. 
Brown (September, 1833), Thomas II. Sharpe 
(January, 1835), and John Cook (1843). 

There is a difference in the two plats of 
1821 and 1831 in the "public squares" des- 
ignated. On the former three full squares are 
set apart for "religious purposes." They are 
the ones adjoining, diagonally, the corner 
squares at the northeast, northwest and south- 
west corners of the plat, i. e., square 12, bounded 
by Senate avenue, Missouri, Michigan and Ver- 
mont streets; square 19, bounded by Alabama, 
N"ew Jersey, ^Michigan and Vermont streets; 
and square 90, bounded by Senate avenue, Mis- 
souri, Georgia and Louisiana streets. Exactly 
what was contemplated in this reservation is 
not known. Possibly it was meant for a com- 
pliance with the indefinite provision of the 
law directing the survey which requires the 
commissioners to designate on the plat each 
square intended "as public ground, and for 
what intended, whether for civil or religious 
purposes." Wliatever the original purpose, they 
were dropped in 1831, and no peculiarly re- 
ligious character has attached to tlicni since 

Their disappearance was doulitlcss acceler- 
ated by a petition from the Baptists of Indian- 
apolis for a donation of part of one of them, 
commenting on the church record of which, 
Sulgrove says: "The church petitioned the leg- 
islature in November, 1824, for a lot to build 
a house of worship upon, but failed. The 
order says: On motion, agreed that the church 
petition the present General Assembly for a 
site to build a meeting-house upon, and that the 
southeast half of the shaded block 90 be se- 
lected, and that Brothers J. Hobarl, H. Brad- 
ley and the clerk (J. W. Reding), be ap- 
pointed a committee to bear the jjctition Sat- 
urday in February. What is meant by a 'sliaded 
block' can only be conjectured, but it probably 
referred to a grove that made a pleasant shel- 



tcr/"" The real n'fcreiRi- is to tlif faft 
that the ■"rt'ligimis jmrpost'"" lilofks were 
shaded on Ralston's phit, and they were 
at the time eoiiimonly called "the shad- 
ed hk)eks." The petition was presented by 
Senator Milton Stajjp, on January 17, 1825, 
and a bill granting the petition passed the Sen- 
ate, with the amendment : "Provided that the 
ground donated under this act shall never be 
converted to any other use or purpose than that 
of erecting Iniildings for religious worship and 
education ; nor shall any jKirtion of it Ije used 
or appropriated for a burying ground under 
and pretext whatever.'"'" The house committee 
to which it was referred reported it with "sun- 
dry amendments,*' not set out, and on January 
"1, the following amendment was offered, and 
defeated: "Provided, nevertheless, that noth- 
ing herein c(Uitained shall be construed to ])re- 
vent any regular preacher of the gospel, in good 
standing in his own society, from preaching in 
such houses, when the society' to which they 
belong are not using them for that purpose. "'' 
The legislators now began to realize that they 
were confronting a large problem, and on the 
next day the ])iil was indefinitely postponed. 
Thus ended the nearest approach to a connec- 
tion of church and state ever known, in Indiana. 
On the plat of 1831 there were two public 
squares that did not appear on the plat of 1821, 
and which were reserved by the act of Janu- 
ary 26, 182T. wvvv the University 
Square, No. 2.5 — now commonly known as Uni- 
versity Park — and Hospital Square, Xo. 22, 
bounded by Alabanui. New Jersey, Vermont and 
Xew York streets. The latter was set apart 
for a state hospital and insane asylum, and a 
row of log cabins located there was used for 
that purpose until the building of the central 
part of the present Insane Hospital in 1846-7. 
After th(! removal of the insane the cabins 
were rented for a few months to some German 
families, and on July 12, 1849, the whole prop- 
erty was sold in lots by the state.'- On both the 
plats of 1821 and 1831 are two half-.squares 
reserved for markets, one at the present market 
.«ite. and one on the north side of Market street, 
between ^lissouri and West streets — the south 

half of S(juarc 50. This was held by the city 
until the era of internal improvement arriveil, 
when the state wanted it for "watcr-])ower" in 
connection with the canal, and proposed by act 
of l-"el)ruary, 1837, to exchange for it the north 
half of Square 48, i. e., the north quarter of the 
present state capitol grounds. To this the city 
assented and made a deed for the land on Jan- 
uary 24, 1838. •■ The new site was u.sed 
for a- market until 1872, commonly known 
as "the West Market'", when the ground was 
wanted for the new capitol, and on Xoveniber 
25. 1872, the City Council adopted a resolu- 
tion relinquishing all claim to Square 48 to 
the state, and consenting to the vacation of 
Market and Wabash streets, between Tennes- 
see and ilississippi streets.'* After extended 
consideration the attorney-general decided that 
this w^as not a sutHcient transfer, and on August 
6. 18' 7, the state house commissioners asked the 
city government for deeds to the property, 
which request was promptly complied with.''^ 
It is the uniform tradition, with all known 
facts tending to support it, that Indianapolis 
owes its distinctive plan, its radiating avenues 
and broad streets, to Alexander Ralston, and 
there has always been a sentiment that he should 
be publicly cDUimemorated. In 1827, shortly 
after his death Samuel Jlerrill called attention 
to the fact that Kalston had advocated the 
early establishment of a city park, and urged 
the citizens to follow his advice. There was 
no general interot taken in this at the time, but 
in 1879, Rev. J. C. Fletcher recalled the fact 
and proposed that University Square be called 
Ralston Park."' but no action was taken. 
In 1890 a movement was started for a 
sul)scription fund for a monument to 
Ralston, and $325 was collected, which 
was deposited in Fletcher's bank, and still re- 
mains there in trust. In 1907, E. B. ilartin- 
dale and E. F. Claypool. two of the contributors 
and representing all. offered to turn this over 
to the Park Board if the city would add $675 
to it and erect a statue. They had a model for 
a statue prepared by Rudolph Schwartz, who 
agreed to execute the work for $1,000. The 
model met general criticism on account of the 

"//I'.S/. IlKlitllKI/KlUs. p. .390. 

^"Senafr Journal. ]>. 73. 
^^Ifoiixp JoiiniaJ. p. 140. 
'=.A>;rs. Julv 25. 1908. 

*^See Record Board nf Int. Imps., pp. 65. 95. 
'*Counril Frocrrdini/.i, ]>. 746. 
'■•Cnuitril Prorceiliiif/s. pp. 311. 554. 
'"Netvs, August 2, 1879. 

iiis-i'()i;v ()|- (;i;i-;a'I'Ki: i xiuanai' 35 

ilrc.-s, anil till' I'ai'k Roiird (leolincd i(j MccL'pt on (i recti lawn Ci'iiielerv, and ivr^ted there for 

the gnjuntl that Ilie faee did not jxirporl to be nearly half a century. On Seiiternlier "^l. 

a likeness of KaUton, but sugirested future ac- ]8'4. Calvin Darnell made a motion in 

tion in the line of a memorial fountain, with the City Couneil for a committee to remove 

a tablet of bronze acknowledging Kalstou's the remains of Alexander Kalston to Crown 

service.'' Jialston"s renuiins were liuried in Hill. It carried, and Messrs. Darnell, Gimber 

and Ballman were named as the committee. On 

September 30, the remains were escorted to 

".Vcic.s. June H. 1!I(I7 ; Slur, November 2'i, Crown Hill bv half a dozen old citizens, and 

23, 24, IDOT: X'-irs. November 22, 2(i, 30, De- buried in the' "Teacher's Lot" by the side of 

ceinber i:!. lim:. John B. Dillon. 



Although Tipton mentions no settler near the 
mouth of Fall Creek, when the commissioners 
came to make the location, except John McCor- 
mick, there were some fifteen families here, 
including those of James McCormick (John's 
brother); George Pogue; John Maxwell and 
John Cowan, who came early in March, 1820, 
and located near the present city hospital ; 
Isaac \Yilson who came on April 6 and located 
on what is now the State House Square, build- 
ing the first house on the town plat; Henry 
and Samuel Davis, chair-makers, who located in 
the Fall Creek bottom near where Walnut street 
crosses; the widow Harding and her married 
son, Robert Harding, both of whom located 
near John McCormick's; Robert Barnhill and 
his son-in-law, Jeremiah Corbaley, who came on 
March 6, and located on Fall Creek, above In- 
diana avenue; and probably two or three others 
whose names are not preserved. Richard Cor- 
baley, born August 7, 1820, was the first white 
child born in the county; and Mordecai Hard- 
ing, second son of Robert, was the first child 
born on the donation. James ilorrow, son of 
Samuel Morrow, was the first child born oi^ 
the original town site.' 

For many years there has been a controversy 
as to whether the first of these settlers was 
John McCormick or George Pogue — or rather 
a difference of opinion, for, curiously enough, 
it never took the form of a direct controversy, 
as such things usually do. The most notable 
champion of Pogue was Ignatius Brown, while 
McCormick's most stalwart defender was John 
H. B. Nowland, and these two were the most 
careful of the early historians, though both 
trusted too much to unverified tradition. Mr. 
Brown declared Pogue's priority in his origi- 

nal history of the city, published in the city 
directory of 1857, and reiterated it in his re- 
vised history, published in the city directory of 
1S68. On February 25, 1870, in the Sentinel. 
Mr. Nowland proposed a celebration of the semi- 
centennial of the coming of John McCormick, 
whom he asserted to be the first settler. In 
his "Early Reminiscences," published in the 
same year, he renews his statement that John 
iEcCormick was the first settler. In his "Prom- 
inent Citizens/' published in 1884, he refers to 
liis statement of 1870, and says: "This fact had 
been patent up to that time, and had never been 
denied, biit I was surprised that some person 
had informed one of the city editors that I 
was in error, and that George Pogue was the 
first settler, and had come here in March, 
1819." = 

On August 17, 1898, after it had been pro- 
posed to demolish the old National Road bridge, 
a sort of old settlers' indignation meeting was 
held on the bridge, and here, for the first time, 
the McCormicks got their story before the 
public in such a way that its essential features 
went into print. On September 9, 1899, ^Ir. 
Brown printed in the News a review of the 
wliole matter, in w-hich he said that for "more 
than fifty years" after Pogue's arrival "the 
tradition in his favor was universal and un- 
questioned, not only by those who had come 
liere shortly after him, but all their descend- 
ants ; and all the later comers had heard and 
believed the story." To this he made but one 
exception, which he had himself discovered, 
that in 1822, Dr. S. G. Mitchell, the first physi- 
cian at Indianapolis, had published an article 
in the Gazette — the one Indianapolis paper at 
that time — in which he denied the Pojnie storv. 

'News, March 22, 1879. 

-'p. 14. 



aud stated tliat John MeCormick was the first 
settler. He found the copj' of this number of 
the Gazette in the possession of Calvin Fletcher, 
but it has now disappeared, ilr. Fletcher's 
bound files of newspapers were presented to the 
City Library, but the Gazette goes back only to 
June 1, 1824, though an earlier volume of this 
paper was evidently in existence.-' However, 
^[r. Brown's statement as to this, or any other 
matter of fact in his knowledge, is entirely 

In the light of all the evidence, the statements 
<if both Nowland and Brown are too sweeping, 
and the case is one of the co-existence of two 
conflicting traditions, the holders of which for 
many j-ears either ignored, or were not aware 
of, the opposing claims. And after these claims 
were made jiublie none of the historians re- 
corded a simple statement of the story of either 
the I'ogue family or the ^IcCormick family, 
as they are preserved today : nor have I found 
any newspaper record of their full stories. Tho 
Pogiio story is that George Pogue and his 
family, excepting his three older children, 
started from Connersville in February, 1819, 
and arrived hero on starch 2. The party con- 
sisted of Poo\ie and his wife :* Joseph — an 
adjilt son ; John — then aged 1 ', : lieiinett — 
aged l.j : and two yoxinger cliildiiii. James 
and Stincy. They came in wagons, and cut 
their own road through the woods, following 
the general line of the Brookville road. Pogue 
had intended going farther, but found White 
River too high to cross, and turned back and 
located on the high ground east of Pogue's Run, 
near where Michigan street crosses it. The 
exact location was on the premises now known 
as 420 Highland avenue, and there was a fine 
spring some three rods west of the cabin, which 
long since disappeared. The McCormicks did 
not come till February, 1820, and stopped at 
the Pogue cabin while building their own. The 
year after the Pogues came, two of the boys 
went back to Connersville and helped move out 
Hains Tyner, one of the old residents of War- 
ren Township. The clearest living witness to 

''■Jouninl, .Tune 7, IS.").'). 

* Her name is given Cassa Ann in the land 
roiords and the census returns of 1S;!(). Miss 
Xaney Pogne savs that her niai<len name was 

this story is Miss Nancy Pogue, daughter of 
Bennett Pogue, now 65 years of age, who lives 
with her brother, James Pogue, northeast of 
Brightwood. She says that her grandmother 
lived until she was sixteen j-ears of age; that 
she was with her much of the time; and that 
she has often heard her tell the story as above. 
The same tradition is given by Thomas Pogue, 
of Sullivan County, and other members of the 
Pogne family." 

The MeCormick story is that John MeCor- 
mick started from Connersville for the mouth 
of Fall Creek, with his family, in February, 
1820. He was accompanied by his family, his 
two brothers — James and Samuel — and nine 
employes who served as teamsters and axmen. 
They followed Whetzell's trace to a point near 
Rushville, and cut their own road from that 
point. When they reached Buck Creek, some 
twelve miles east of White River, they were de^ 
layed for several days by a heavy snow. They 
started on again on the morning of February 
25, and arrived at White River on the 26th at 
10 o'clock in the morning. The twelve men at 
once set to work on a cabin, and had it up 
and covered by night, so that John McCormick's 
family occupied it. Pogue and his family ar- 
rived in March, and did not build a cabin, but 
moved into one that had been built and aban- 
doned in 1819 by Ute Perkins, of Rush County, 
on Pogue's Run, which was known as Perkin's 
Creek until the time of Pogue's disa])])earance 
in 1821, when it began to be called Pogue's 
Run. The oldest living witness to this is Amos 
MeCormick, a son of Samuel, who was brought 
here a baby, one year old, in the fall of 1820. 
He lived at Indianapolis until he was si.xteen 
years old and now lives on his farm near Car- 
te rsburg. The accompanying cut shows him 
seated at the table at which the commissioners 
ate, when they were selecting the site for the 
capital in 1820. It is a solid cherry table, and 
originally had balls at the ends of the legs; 
but it has been slid over rough floors until 
these are all worn away except a small disc on 
one leg. The same story is told by descendants 
of all three of the JlcCormick brothers. They 
have been holding annual family reunions since 
1901, on August 23, which is the birthday of 

'■' See also N'eir.'<. JainiMry ■.'; .iml Aiigusi IS, 
1 !)()()■, Star, Se])teinber 1.'). l!Hi:. 



Amos >rc('oriiiiik. and tlicso liavo liecn duly 
noticed in the citv |)ii])ei's.'' 

After gcttinj; John McCorniifk settled James 
and Samuel returned to (^'oniiersvilie, James 
came back with his family on March T, and 
Samuel with his family on October 4. They 
located northwest of Military Park, Samuel's 
cabin standinfi about wliere the ilaus brewery is 
located. In liS"^:> they moved farther north, 
.fohn built a sawmill on the side of White 
River at the upper end of Riverside Park, op- 
posite "Sycamore Island", where the remains 
of the dam are to be seen at low water to this 
day. Samuel located just below Emmerichs- 
ville, on what was later known as the Garner 
farm, and in 188~ erected the brick lunise which 
still stands Just west of the Riverside dam. The 
brick for it were made on the place, and it is 
now the oldest brick building standing iu In- 
dianapolis. At this point he operated a ferry 
for a number of years, and his account book, 
in which he entered the names of all who crossed 
and the toll paid, is still preserved by his grand- 
son, Louis ilcCormick, of Cartersburg. 

In tliis ])eculiar conflict of the two families 
for precedence there have been occasional 
charges of misrepresentation and bad faith, but 
none of the members of either family that I 
have met have shown any inclination to mis- 
represent the facts as they understand them, 
and all declare that the statements above given 
are as told to them by their parents and grand- 
)iarents. Of necessity one of the traditions has 
become distorted — possibly both to some e.xtent 
— and as a preliminary to their consideration it 
will be well to take a glance at the condition 
of the region at the time. It was well known 
to the Indians, and fairly well known to the 
whites, (^onner had been at his trading-post 
sinci' 18()'2. and a number of white men had 
])assed through the region at intervals. Tipton 
and Bartholomew identified several ])laces 
where they had stopped on an ex])edition 
against the Indians in 1813. Among other 
white visitors are recorded Dr. Douglass, who 
came up the river as far as the Blutfs in the 
fall of 1818; Isaac JlcCoy, the missionary, who 
went ut) the river and visited Thief .Vnderson 

in 1818, and again in hSllt; and James Pa.\ton, 
who came down the river from the head-waters 
in the winter of 1819-21). To the whites the 
place was known as "the mouth of Fall Creek", 
which was virtually the Indian name, for they 
designated it simply by the name of the creek. 
Chamberlain gives the Delaware name of the 
creek as "Soo-sooc-pa-hal-loc", and says it means 
"S])ilt Water." This is fanciful. "Sook-pe- 
liel-luk", or "Sokpehellak" is the Delaware 
word for a waterfall, and the name refers to 
the falls at Pendleton. The Miami name is 
Chank-tun-oon-gi, or "Makes a Noise Place", 
which also refers to the falls; but they also 
applied this name to the site of Indianapolis, 
and to the town itself in its earlier years. 

There was no Indian village at this point. 
The nearest one. some twelve miles north, was 
what Tipton calls "the Lower Delaware Town", 
but it was not inuih of a town. On the east 
side of the river, a Delaware known as "The 
Owl" had a clearing of about \'i acres, whicli hi' 
cultivated ill a way, and he also raised souie 
pigs and chickens. On the west side was a 
l-'rench half-breed doctor, named Brouett 
( yBrouillette)— often called Pruitt — who had 
a white wife that had been captured and brought 
up by the Indians.' He practiced medicine 
after the Indian fashion, and had considerable 
l)atronage. Both of these were just north of 
the Hamilton County line, and they constituted 
the "town". Just south of the line, on an ele- 
vation on the east side, were ti'aces of Indian 
occupancy, and the old settlers called that i)oint 
"the old Indian town". The place was com- 
mon! v called "Brouettstown". and was some- 
what noti'd for the wild ])lnni thicket there.'' 
The Delaware's had a sugar camp within the 
present confiiu's of the city where they com- 
nionlv made sugar in the spring, and sometimes 
eamjK'd when hunting. It was not far from 
the end of Virginia avenue, on what was know n 
a> the Sander's place, later the Birkenniayer 
|jlace, and still later the Weghorst ])lace.'' 

The whole county at that time was covered 
with a dense forest, with more or less under- 
growth, and the few ojien spaces were .still more 

"See also Strir. August 2(i, li)0-i and Deeeni- 
her 31. 1!)0.-): Sun. ?ilay M. li)()(i; Xms. Jan- 
uarv 27. IDoc. Aui;ust is. 1 !)()(;, August li). 

"Broirii's llisl., p. 1. 

"Xnirlniid's Eurlij Urntiiilsccnces, ji. loT. 

•' The northeast quarter of section 13 : i. e., 
east of East street and south of Morris street. 
See Xoirland's Bcininixrrnrrx. pp. Tt'l. 4(11. 40.5. 

iii.sToKY UK (;i;i;atku i.xdiaxai'uljs. 


(leiiisely oovt-rod with undercrowtli. It was im- 
[Mifsible t(i taki' a waf;on aiiywluTO without 
euttiiifT a road, but there were several Indiau 
trails that eould he followed on horseback. 
The i)rinei]ial trail from Coiiuer's to the Bluffs 
crossed to the east side of the river at Brouetts- 
town, and from Indianapolis down the river 
followed quite closely the line of the Blutf 

In the summer of liSlS Jncoij Wlu-tzell visited 
Chief Anilerson. and obtained |)ermission to 
out a road from Connersville to the Bhitfs on 
White Hiver. He was the eelel)rated Indian 
fighter— brother of Lewis Whetzell. the still 
more celebrated Indian fi^diter. Tlieir father, 
John Whetzell, a "Pennsylvania Dutchman", 
settled near Wheeling. West Virginia, in KliSl, 
and in KTi liis house was attacked by Indians. 
John Whetzell was killed, and his two sons, 
Lewis, aged Hi, and Jacob, aged 11, were taken 
captive. Young as they were, the boys made 
their eseajK' on the night out, evaded pur- 
suit, and returned to the settlements, where they 
vowed eternal vengeance against the red man : 
and most fearfully they ke()t their vnw. But 
the Delawares had long been friendly, and 
Whetzell who had been living on the White- 
water since l.sil, desired to ))ush farther into 
the wilds — in fact it is said that he urged the 
commissioners to locate the capital at the mouth 
of Fall Creek, rather than at the Bluffs, as he 
did not desire to he crowded by a town. Hav- 
ing obtained Chief Anderson's consent, he be 
gan cutting iiis trace in July, ISIS, aideil by 
his son Cyrus and four men. Its general 
course was slightly south of west. ])assing aliout 
si.\ miles south of l{ushvillc, and about four 
miles north of Shelhyvillc. In Man-h. ISli), the 
Wliotzells moved to the Bluffs over this trail,' 
and located aiiout a quarter of a mile below 
Waverlv, arriving llicrr nn March !!•. This 
trace was mucli used by early immigrauls.'" 
\t practically the -auv time the fii'st 
wagon road was o]iened to the Delaware towns. 
It ran west of north from Connersville to 
Bucktown. a few miles above Anderson, where 
it crossed the river and went down it to .\nder- 
son, Strawtown and Conner's. .\ number of 
settlers went in over that road in March and 
Ajiril, 1S1!I. including George Shirts. Charles 

Lacey, George Bush, Solomon Finch (uncle of 
Judge Fal>ius .M. Finch) and Israel Finch." 
These located northeast of Conner's Prairie, and 
the settlers there rai.sed an abundant corn crop 
in 1820, which was a godsend to the people at 
Indianapolis and the scattered settlers else- 
where. In fact, Conner's Prairie was a granary 
for the whole region for several years. In 
IS'^'i Benjamin Thornburgh of Morgan County, 
bought a boat load of corn there and floated it 
down White River to a ])oint near Mooresville.'" 
In IS'M and 1S25 c-orn was brought from Con- 
ner's to Johnson County when squirrels and 
raccoons had destroyed the crops there.''' 

If Pogue came to Indianajwlis on March 2, 
1819, he started from Connersville only a few 
days before the Whetzells started to the Bluffs, 
and the other families to C'onner's Prairie, from 
the same point : and in that case they would 
certainly have known of it. But the Finches 
and their associates claimed to be tlu' first 
fanulies that located in the New Purchase ex- 
cept the Whetzells.'* and it seems improbable 
that they would have gone by their cir- 
cuitous route, which took them two 
weeks, if Pogue had o])ened an almost direct 
road to the mouth of Fall Creek. The Whetzells 
were in e(|ual ignorance, for on March Id, 1870, 
Cyrus Whetzell wrote to Xowland: "T'lie sub- 
ject to which you call my attention I thought 
was settled many years since, i. e., that John 
McCormick built the first house in Indianapolis 
in February, 1820, and that George Pogue set- 
tled on the bank of the creek that takes its 
luune from liim the following ^larcb. 1 am con- 
fident that there was not a whiti' man living 
in Marion County in 1S19. My father and 
self settled where I now live in the spring of 
181S), when I was in my nineteenth year, and 
at an age calculated to retain any impression 
niailc iin my iiiiiul." '' 

-Vt first blush this would seem to bear as 
strongly against the Perkins story as against 
the Pogue story, but it does not. .V solitary 
man might have come into this region, and have 

'"Judge I ». I), r.aiita. ill llisl. ./iilnisiiii Co. 

tip. •.'!i:i-(;. 

"Sliirt.s' Hist, (if Ildiiiillijii ('('.. p. !>. 

'-Hist. Morgan Co.. pp. 101-'.'. 

"'Johnson Co.. pp. 331-2, 3 11. 

'*Sul!/rorc's I ndiannpolis jip. -.'1. "-Ml I); 1 ii- 
diamipolis papers, Mai-cli I'.'. llHio -death n|' 
Judge Finch. 

^^Nowldnil's I'rdnniiriit ('ili;rns. p. II. 



built a cabin in llie dense forest, more thau a 
mile from any known trail, without even the 
Indians knowing it. But it is not possible that 
the Pognes could have cut a wagon road branch- 
ing off from Whetzell's trace, without the 
knowledge of the Whetzells, when they moved 
in over the trace two weeks later. The Ute 
Perkins story has very strong contirmation out- 
side of the McCormick family. His grand- 
daughter, ]ilrs. Laura A'ewman, and his great- 
grandson, Mr. Orville Bartlett, both of Eush- 
ville, inform me that it has always been the 
Perkins family tradition that Ute Perkins 
came to the site of Indianapolis in 1819 and 
built a cabin, but became dissatisfied and re- 
turned to Rushville. Ellsbury Perkins, a well- 
known old-time printer of Indianapolis, and a 
grand-nephew of Ute Perkins, says he has al- 
ways heard the story in the several branches of 
the Perkins family. Hon. John F. Moses, the 
historian of Kush County, furnishes me the 
following statement from Jefferson Carr, 75 
years of age, a native of Rushville. and a son 
of one of the first settlers there : "He knew the 
Ute Perkins in question well, is familiar with 
the tradition of his having built a cabin on the 
site of Indianapolis, and says that in early 
days it was a matter of common report locally, 
and generally accepted as true. After quitting 
his cabin, Ute Perkins came back here and 
spent the remainder of his life in this neighbor- 
hood. His home was a cabin on the Brookville 
road, about one mile southeast of Rushville. 
He supported himself and family by making 
hickory baskets. Ho was a large man, five feet 
ten inches or more in height, and quite corpu- 
lent. He had keen, black eyes and even when 
well advanced in years his jet black hair was 
almost unmixed with gray. He possessed pe- 
culiarities which made him a well-known char- 
acter in his lifetime."" Perkins was a native of 
Xorth Carolina. His descendants do not know 
why he was called "Ute", but say that was his 
proper name. He died at Rushville in ^larch, 
1S.")S, aged 75 years. 

Of equal, if not higher rank as evidence 
than these traditions is the recorded statement 
of Dr. S. G. Mitchell, which is presented by 
Brown as follows: "Pogue's claim as the first 
settler has been contested, and in a published 
article by Dr. S. d. ;Mitchell, in the Indian- 
apolis Gazette, in the summer of 1822, it is 
stated that the ^rcCormicks were the first emi- 

grants in February, 18:20, and that Pogue ar- 
rived with others in March, 1820, a month later. 
It is singular that this statement, if ill founded, 
should not have been contradicted publicly in 
the paper at the time, but the weight of tra- 
dition is against it and concurs in fixing 
Pogue's arrival in 1819.'"' This is all that is 
now known concerning Dr. Mitchell's article, 
for the paper containing it has disappeared, 
but so far as it goes Mr. Brown's statement may 
be accepted without question. It is much to be 
regretted that the article itself is not pre- 
served, for it would probably give some clue as 
to why it was published. And why was it pub- 
lished? If the Pogue tradition were correct it 
is not only singular that this article was not 
denied, but it is at least equally singular that 
it should be published at all. Dr. Mitchell 
had no conceivable personal interest in the 
matter, and was an intelligent and reliable 
■ man. He got his information on the subject 
from others. The Pogues, McCormicks and 
others familiar with the facts were here at the 
time. No possible explanation can be given 
for such a publication if it were not true. 

But, on the other hand, if the McCormick 
story be true the cause of the publication is 
i[uite obvious. Pogue had disappeared in the 
spring of 1821. The little stream, formerly 
kno\\Ti as Perkins Creek, was beginning to be 
known as Pogue's Run. It would be natural for 
newcomers to inquire the reason of the name, 
and for the information to be given that it was 
named for the first settler on that stream. Like- 
wise, if a newcomer should inquire whose was 
the first cabin built here, the answer would be 
■"Pogue's"; because both traditions agree on 
that point. From these conditions the impres- 
sion would naturally develop among the later 
arrivals that Pogue was the first settler and Dr. 
Mitchell, meeting this growing error in his pro- 
fessional rounds, was moved to correct it, in 
the village newspaper, and settle it permanently. 
It is hardly possible that such a publication 
would be made at that early day unless there 
was some difference of opinion to call for it. 
.\.fter it had been made, those who had taken up 
the Pogue theory, and might he disposed to 
question the article, found on investigation no 
basis for questioning it among the then living 
witnesses. On this basis the incident is nat- 
ural enoujrh. but on the thoorv that the Posiie 



irailitiou is correct it is wholly incoinprehen- 
>ible from begiuuing to end. 

One other item that might be classed as 
primary evidence is Mr. Brown's quotation of 
Gen. John Colmrn as saying that "iiis father- 
in-law, Judge Charles H. Test, was a chairman 
in the surveying jjarty under Judge Laughliu ; 
that the party camped for a long time in 1819 
on the river l)ank where Kingan's packing-house 
now stands" ; and that Judge Test spoke fre- 
quently of repeated visits to Pogue's cabin while 
there. This is clearly erroneous, for Laughlin 
did not do any surveying here in 1819. The 
township lines were run in 1819, those for 
Township 15 being completed on August 10, 
but that would not have called for any lengthy 
stay, and, as shown by the field notes on file 
in the office of the Auditor of State, that work 
was done by John McDonald. Tlie subdivisions, 
or section lines, were run by Judge Wm. B. 
Laughlin's ])arty in the summer of 1820, as 
shown by Ti]iton's Journal and by the field 
notes. This Coburn statement, which Mr. 
Brown treats as conclusive, is simply an error 
of one year. 

Passing to what may be called secondary evi- 
dence, Mr. Brown states that, when he was 
preparing his original publication of 1857, he 
found so much of coiillict in the statements of 
old-timers on various points that he called a 
meeting of a number of old settlers at his office, 
and those wlio attended w^ere "Sidney D. Max- 
well (son of John), James Vanblaricum, An- 
drew Wilson, Calvin Fletcher, James M. Ray, 
George Norwood, James Blake, Douglas Ma- 
guire, and Daniel Yandes." As 'Sir. Brown 
justly observes, "their united testimony would 
settle questions of property or life in any court 
in the country"', and yet he furnishes conchi- 
sive evidence of their united fallibility in tra- 
ditional matters by the statement that when he 
mentioned Dr. Mit^^hell's article to them, they 
unanimously denied that any such publication 
had ever been made. On being convinced that 
it had been, thoy explained the fact that it 
had never been denied on the inferential basis 
that "it was so generally known to be untrue 
tliat nil one ihouglit it necessary to denv it". 
But they all agreed that the common tradition 
was that Pogue was the first settlor. Maxwell, 
who was the first to come of those ])resent, 
having arrived with his father earlv in ^rarch. 
1S-3II. .aid tlint ■■he iiersonallv knew MilcheH's 

story to be false, for Pogue's cabin had evi- 
dently been built for a considerable time, prob- 
ably a year, while the McCormick cabins were 
not then completed.'" '" Vanblaricum aiul Wil- 
son confirmed this; and, according to J[r. 
Brown, they came "about two months after the 
McCormicks"', which is probably correct, al- 
though Nowland places both of them in 1821.^' 

This argumentative conclusion, however, is 
not well founded, for the facts would apply 
quite as w'ell to a cabin built by Ute Perkins 
as to one built by George Pogue. But evi- 
dently none of those present had heard of Ute 
Perkins ; and, indeed, it is singular how little 
had been heard of him generally. It is certain 
that Mr. Brown never heard the Perkins story 
until the old bridge meeting in 1898, and Mr. 
Xowland's daughter, who did all of his writing 
in his later years, informs me that her father 
had never heard it until then. Nevertheless 
this idea that a cabin was built here in 1819, 
and tenii)orarily abandonded, crops out repeat- 
edly in the confused traditions of the early 
settlers. At the semi-centennial celebration 
which was held at "the Crown Hill picnic 
ground" on Jime 7, 1870, this story was told, 
i)ut the builder was said to be "Samuel Hard- 
ing, of Connersville,"' and some denied this 
story and ascribed ]n-iority to the ^[cCormicks.'*' 
On "May IC, 1870. ^Irs. Beriah King, widow of, 
John ^rcCorniick, was reported by tiie Journal 
as saying in an interview that Pogue, the Mc- 
Cormicks. and others, twelve in all, came here 
in 1S19 and built a cabin into which her hus- 
band witli herself and family moved in the fol- 
lowing spring. In this interview. iMrs. King, 
M'ho was tlien seventy-five years of age, was 
either woefully confused or sadly misrepresent- 
ed by the reporter: and the latter is not im- 
probable, for he calls her "Xlrs. Bethiar King'", 
and avers that she said she was "the first ])erson 
that ever wore a bonnet in this neck of woods". 

While Mr. Brown's assembly of old settlers 
agreed in the tradition that Pogue was the 
first comer, there were others who did not. 
The Nowland family held to tlie ^IcCormick 
tradition, and ^fattjiias R. Nowland and his 
brother-in-law. .\nilrew Bvrne, were hen> with 

'"See al-ii sanif statenieiit in uliiniiii'v sketch 
of Saniuei 1). ^laxwell, Xrirs. Jiih "i. Is;:!. 
'' l-!iirh/ Ii'riiiiinsrcnrcx. p]i. 80. 1 1 1. 
^''.Jiiiiniiil. June 8. 1870. 






















the commissioners in 1820. Xowiand returned 
with his family on Xovember 4. 1820, and 
Byrne in Mareli, 1821. Lsaac Wilson arrived 
on April 6. 1820, and ilrs. Frank Riley, who is 
a jrranddaughter, lioth of Isaac Wilson and of 
Robert Patterson, who came in 1821, informs 
iiie that her family always put the McCormicks 
lirst, and that her mother, Mrs. Patsy Patter- 
son, and her aunt. ilrs. Betsy Harris, both 
daujrhters of Isaac Wilson would wax indignant 
if anyone claimed that the Pogues were the first 
settlers. It must he l)orne in mind, however, 
that tradition is an uncertain guide — more un- 
certain than is commonly realized. To ilhis- 
trate. Sarah T. Bolton would naturally he sup- 
posed to be informed on this subject, as her hus- 
band's family were among the earliest settlers, 
and she had live(l here from the vear 1831 ; and 
yet in her poem "The Last Adventure and 
Death of (Jeorge Pogue." written for the meet-, 
ing of llie Pioneer Association, on October 2, 
1878, .she says: 

"It chanced one year in autumn, that a liardy 

From bis Iiome in obi Kentucky, came and made 

his cam]i fire here ; 
Witli Ills wealth on two stout horses, he had 

threaded the pathless woods. 
One bearing his wife and children, the otlier 

bis JiouseJiold goods. 

* * ;(c 

While the wild birds sang aliovc him. and the 

free waves sang below. 
He built the first log cabin six and lifty years 


It was built of Inickeye sa]dings, with mmlar 

and chunks between. 
But it led the van of our city, the beautiful 
Railroa<l Queen". 

It is unipu'stionabb' tbat I'nguc canir in 
^farch, instead of autvimii: and tliat be lanie 
from Rushville, and not from Kentncky. It 
is ('([uaJly certain that his wife and children 
were not on one horse, for there were five of 
the children, and two of them were grown boys. 
"Six and fifty years ago" would make 1822, 
and no one questions that Pogue came at least 
two years earlier than that. Xo pioneer ever 
built a cabin of "saplings"": and it is not prob- 
able that there was ever a cabin built of "buck- 
eye"" logs in Indiana, altbcmgh it has been tlie 

literary fashion to sav so ever since John Fin- 
ley introduced it in "The Hoosiers Xest"'. 
Buckeyes were not so plentiful as that, and 
there was an abundance of l)etter limber. 

In all this traditional conflict, tlie real ques- 
tion is whether the Pogues came in 1819 or in 
1820 ; for all agree that they came in the month 
of March, and all agree that the ilcCormicks 
came in February, 1820. Aside from the rela- 
tive question of priority tjiere is considerable 
direct evidence that the Pogues came in 1820, 
and it includes nearly everything in the natitre 
of documentary evidence. The original Pres- 
byterian church records jiut the first settlement 
in 1820, the historical entry, made by Dr. Isaac 
Coe, in 1823, mentioning the sale of lots in 
1821, and adding, "a few families, however, 
settled in and around the town the year pre- 
vious"'. In 184(i, Rev. .1. ('. I'letcher wrote a 
series of articles for tbe ■Imtninl on "Indian- 
apolis a Quarter of a Centui-y Ago", in which 
he made this statement: "As early as February, 
1820, Samuel and James ^IcCormick erected 
a cabin near the spot now occupied by the steam 
mill. Soon other cabins crowded the banks of 
White River near the place where now stands 
Scudder and Hannaman's Carding ]klachine. 
In ^larch, ilessrs. Harding, Wilson, ^laxwell, 
Cowen and Pogue made ini])rovements near the 
town."" '" These articles, as Mr. Fletcher stat- 
ed, were based on the diaries of his father and 
mother, reinforced by inquiries of them, and of 
other old settlers. The earliest historical pub- 
lication in book form relating to this region, 
that mentions the subject is Chambi'rlaiii'a 
Gazetteer-" and it states that Pogue came in 
1820. Tliis statement is entitb'd to weight, 
liccause wliile the ])ook was jmblished over 
('haniberlain's name,-' most of tbe historical 
matter was prepared by Samuel Merrill, who 
came here in 1824, as Treasurer of State, lie 
was a very careful and methodical man, nmcli 
interested in liistorieal matters: and by bis 
labors contributed materially to tbe preservation 
of tbe early bistm'v of tbe state. It may be taken 
as assured that his statenu'iit was made on tes- 
timonv tbat was at least satisfying to him. 

'"■/(jiiniiil. Xovemln'r 2i), IS 1(1. 

-"184<)-r)0, p. 2.55. 

-'Chamberlain was a bookseller, who bad a 
little store at what was then 2(! Fast Washing- 
Inn street — now in tbe neiLibborbodd <if Xo. .-)2. 



Sulgrove quolus Robert Duncan as stating 
that he heard George Rogue's widow say at an 
old settlers' meeting, in 1854 he thought, that 
they came on llarch 3, 1820.-- As to this Miss 
Nancy Pogue says that her grandmother was 
liere in 1854. but that if she ever attended an 
old settlers' meeting she never heard of it; and 
she feels certain that she never said they came 
in 1820, because she hoard her say repeatedly 
tliat they came in 1819. Nevertheless, Mr. Dun- 
can was a very accurate man, and there was an 
old settlers' meeting here on June 6, 1854, at 
the house of Jlorris Morris, where an association 
was formed, limited to those who were here 
prior to 1826, which was to meet annually OJi 
the first Tuesday in June. This was a very 
early meeting of the kind, and the JoxLrnal, 
some months later, said that if the idea of such 
meetings did not originate here, this meeting 
at least "gave an impulse to the formation of 
such companies." Meetings were hold there- 
after, at Calvin Fletcher's in 1855 ; at James 
Blake's, in 1856; and at the Fair Grounds in 
1857 and 1858. In 1859 the meeting was post- 
poned to September,-^ but was not held. There 
is no mention of Mrs. Pogue in the reports of 
the meeting of 1854, nor indeed of others, 
though there were more than fifty present who 
came before 1826. Neither were there lists of 
those in attendance at any of the meetings pub- 
lished in any of the newspaper reports. And in 
none of the reports of any of the meetings is 
there any reference to the Pogue-McCormick 
question, except, constructively, in the fact that 
in 1856 Mrs. King (widow of John McCor- 
mick) claimed and received a bouquet as "the 
fir-^t lady settler," "* 

But Mrs. Pogue was at the meeting of 1855, 
for Calvin Fletcher kept a diary, which is still 
preserved, and in his record of this meeting, 
at his house, he speaks of the presence of "Old 
Mrs. Pogue, one of the first settlers, whose hus- 
band was killed by the Indians in 1820 or 1821. 
He went to an Indian camp for his horses but 
never returned. She is now about 90 vears of 

"TTist. of Iinlianapolis, ]>. 22. 

-"Locomotive, June 18, 1859. 

-'' The best reports are JounuiJ. June 12, 
1854; June 7, 1855; June 10, 1857; Locomo- 
tive. June 11, 1856: June 13, 1857: June 26, 

age. ]\[r. Hiser-^ and wife brought her in"". 
And again he mentions, "Old Father Mat- 
thews, 84, and Mrs. Pogue, 90, the old- 
est present." In his account of the meeting 
of 1854, Mr. Fletcher says: "The 55 present 
registered their names and the time of arrival 
in Indianapolis from its settlement in 1820 
till 1825". This registration was continued at 
the later meetings, and in 1855 !Mr. Fletcher 
again speaks of "the first settlement in 1820". 
But on this day Mrs. Pogue was his guest, and 
attracting his especial notice, and if she had 
registered as coming in 1819 he would hardly 
have made this error. Further, in the Journal's 
account of the meeting of 185G, at James 
Blake's, Berry Sulgrove, the editor, .says: "Be- 
fore the meeting was called to order, we spent 
some time in looking over the register of names, 
which contains the date of arrival of each Old 
Settler and his place of birth. The earliest 
arrival that wc noticed, was that of Fabius M. 
Finch, who came (to Conner's Station) in Sep- 
tember, 1819"".-" Mr. Fletcher includes this in 
liis diary, and it is very conclusive 
proof that ^Irs. Pogue did not register 
as of ilanli 2, 1819. at the meeting 
of 1855. Probably 1855 is the meeting 
to which Mr. Duncan referred, for ]\Ir. Fletcher 
would have been apt to mention Mrs. Pogue if 
she had been at the meeting of 1854, and he 
did not. Considering Mrs. Rogue's advanced 
age, a divergence of one year in her story of 
this and later years woiild not be at all sur- 
prising. W 
In 1884 Elijah Hackleman published a series 
of "Reminiscences" in the RushviJle Republi- 
can, in one of which was the following sketch 
of George Pogue, apparently obtained chiefly 
from his oldest .son. William Pogue :-^ 
"George Pogue cuiigrated fmni South Caro- 
lina in the year 1841. and settled at tlie 
'Block-house' at William Wilson's, on the west 
fork of Whitewater, six miles above the town 
of Brookville, Franklin County. At that time 
it was necessary for all immigrants to settle 
near some military post, for protection against 
Indian invasions. In the spring of 1816 he 

-^Samuel IToizor, a neighbor and friend of 
^[rs. Pogue. 

-'■Journal. June 11. 1856. 

-" Republislicd in Ilisl. Fai/i'th' Citiiiil i/. jip. 



moved to Fayette County, about live miles 
>outliwest of Conuertville, and in 1818 he 
moved to the town of Counersville, remaining 
there until 1S20, when he fitted up a team, and 
with two or three of his sons started to locate 
a home on White River. Mr. Pogue was ac- 
loiiipauicd by John McCormack and family 
(a wife and two children) wlio had resided 
for many years in the vicinity of Conuersville. 
Mr. McCormack went out with the douljle pur- 
pose, hrst of boarding Mr. Pogue's hands while 
engaged in building a cabin and clearing a few 
acres of ground; and secondly of locating a 
home for himself. * * * (His (Pogue's) 
famil_v, after the cabin was built, immediately 
moved from Counersville to their new home. 
The next year (1821) Mr. Pogue's ncigiibors 
were John Willson, Thomas Chinn and Harris 
Tyner. * * * The land on which the cabin 
stood was bought by Governor Noble, and the 
only time I ever visited the site was on the occa- 
sion when the Great Commoner from Kentucky, 
Jlenry Clay, made his first and only visit to 
the capital of our state, in October, 1842, and 
made his celebrated speech to 30,000 persons 
assembled in tlie beautiful grove near the resi- 
dence of Governor Noble. » * * After the 
speech, William Pogue invited me to take a 
walk with him, a few rods north from the speak- 
er's stand, and visit the site where he. twenty- 
two years before, had helped his father erect the 
first cabin in all that country, on the banks of 
a beautiful little creek that still bears the name 
of Pogue's Run. * * * After the erection 
of Pogue's cabin, ^Ir. McCormack located and 
built up a home somewhere in the vicinity, 
probably on what was aflcrwards the 'Donation', 
but of the e.\act site neither history nor tradi- 
tion affords any satisfactory information at this 
late day. Mr. McCormack died a little over 
fifty years ago, and part of his large family 
found homes in Rush County. * * * ]y{j.g_ 
McCormack always claimed to be the first white 
woman that lived within the limits of Indian- 
apolis, and her claim was probably correct. She 
died, abo\it the year 1878, having lived a num- 
ber of vcars with a second husband, a Mr. King, 
near tlie Ttlufi's of White River." -^ 

It will be noted that this version of the Pogue 
story varies in several respects from that given 
by the Pogue's of Marion County, as is very 

commonly the case with family traditions when 
the branches of the family are separated. But 
they agree in several respects, and one note- 
worthy point of agreement is that Harris Tyner 
came "the next year" after the Pogues. This 
was impressed on the Marion County branch 
of the family because two of the boys went back 
to move him out, and because he was here when 
Pogue disappeared, in the spring of 1821. They 
preserve a story of Mrs. Pogue going to Tyner's 
house for aid and counsel after Pogue's dog 
came back alone. But Hackleman states that 
Tyner came in 1821, and this is confirmed by 
Tyner himself, for he went on record to that 
effect at the old settlers' meeting in 1857. ^'■' 
On the whole evidence, the conclusion seems 
irresistible that Ute Perkins came here in 1819, 
and built the first cabin ; that Johir McCor- 
inick was the first permanent settler; and that 
George Pogue came on March 2, 1820, and oc- 
cupied the Perkins cabin. The JlcCormick and 
Perkins traditions, with their coufinnatory evi- 
dence, cann<it be explained away on any rational 
l)asis. The Pogue tradition is readily explained 
as an error of one year in date which probably 
developed after the tradition had been started 
l)y the facts that Pogue was the first settler on 
Pogue's Run. and that his cabin was the first 
one built at Indianapolis. Dozens of erroneous 
traditions have growoi up on slighter founda- 
tion. Its persistence is largely due to Pogue's 
Hun which has been a permanent and obtru- 
sive memorial to Pogue, while I'erkins and Mc- 
Cormick have had no monuments to keep their 
memories alive. Moreover Pogue was a center 
of romantic interest, for he was the one man in 
all the settlement that was killed, or supposed 
to be killed by the Indians. In the spring of 
1821 he missed his horses. One story is that 
111- was told by a straggling Indian, known as 
"Wyandotte John", that he had seen horses 
"with iron hoofs" at the camp of a party of 
Delawares on Buck Creek, and went there alone 
in search of them.'''" Another is that he went 
to Conuersville in his search, and on his return 
sto]iped at the house of his relative Rieliard 
'I'yner, on Blue River, near Morristown. Here 
lie heard of some horses at an Indian town on 
Sugar Creek, aiul wi'ut after them. All the 

■'Hist. Fayette Co., pp. 194-5. 

-''Locomotive, June l.'i, 18.-(7. See also Sid 
grove, p. 614. 

■"'Nowl(ind'.<< Early liemiuiscrincx. p. 2il. 



stories agree that he never returned, and the 
mystery of liis fate was naturally a common 
topic in early times, giving rise to several 
somewhat conflicting stories.''' Of his children, 
Joseph died here in 1855, John in 1858, and 
Bennett in ]85"i. The yonnger children, John 
and Stincy, died earlier, the latter soon after 
her marriage to James Sailors. Pogne had 
three older children who never lived here, ac- 
cording to Jliss Xancy Pogne. Of these, 
'J'hoinas died at Cumberland, William at Ensh- 
villc, and Anna (Airs. Fuller) at Crawfords- 
ville. Ill addition to iliss Xancy Pogue and 
her brother Joseph there are two grandchildren 
now living at Indianapolis — Mrs. A. L. Mar- 
shall, of 151 r Yandes street, and A. W. Pogue, 
of 15 X. Tacoma avenue. 

In addition to the very early settlers of In- 
dianapolis that have been named, the following 
may be mentioned among the arrivals in 1820 
and 1821: 182(i: Samuel Morrow, William 
Townsend (miller). Thomas Anderson (wagon- 
maker), Conrad Brassell (baker), Henry Brad- 
ley, James B. Hall (carpenter), Milo E. Davis 
(plasterer), Robert Wilmot (merchant), Thom- 
as Johnson (farmer), Jacob E. Crumbaugh 
(justice of the peace), Michael Ingalls (team- 

'■"Nowland's Jlfiiiliiisrences, pp. 20-22: Uol- 
loway, p. 9 ; Brown, p. 2 ; Sulgrove, [i. 2^5. 

.-ter). 1^21: Daniel Shatter (January — mer- 
chant), Daniel Yandes (January — tanner). 
Dr. S. G. Mitchell (April), Dr. Isaac Coe 
(Jlay), Alexander Eussell (May — merchant), 
Caleb Scudder (cabinet maker), Jos. C. Eeed 
(tirst teacher), David ilallory (barber), John 
G. Osborn, ilaj. Thos. L'arter (tavern keeper), 
Dr. Livingston Dunlap (July), James Blake 
(July 25), Dr. K. A. Scudder, Rice B. Law- 
rence (teacher), Daniel Larkins (grocer), Lis- 
mund Basye (Justice of the peace), James Kit- 
tleman (shoemaker), Wilkes Reagan (butcher), 
Obed Foote (lawyer), Amos Hanway (cooper). 
James iL Ray (first county clerk), Samuel 
Rooker (painter), James Linton (millwright), 
John \A'ilkins (tanner), Enoch Banks. Demas 
L. JIcFarland (farmer), Calvin Fletcher 
(lawyer), George Smith (printer), James Scott 
(Methodist preacher). James Paxtoit (October 
9), George Myers (potter), Xathaniel C. Bol- 
ton (editor), John Sluink (hatter), Isaac Lynch 
(shoemaker), Robert Patterson (farmer), Sam- 
uel Henderson (first postmaster), Harvey Gregg 
(lawyer), Xathaniel Cox (carpenter), Morris 
Morris (October), Dr. Jonathan Cool, Hugh 
O'Xeal (lawyer), James and Jolin Givan (mer- 
chants), John Wyant, Samuel ilcGeorge, John 
Hawkins, David Wood, Xicholas McCarty, 
Aaron Drake, John McClung (Campbellite 
preacher) James Loucks (carpenter). 



After the acquisitidii of 'Flic New I'ui-chaso, 
the legif^hiture added small traets of it to the 
counties of Fayette, .lackson and Wayne. By 
the aet of January ''O. 1S30, it also added sniail 
traet.-i to the eounties of Franklin. Handolpli 
and Jennings, and divided all the remainder 
into Wabash and Delaware eounties. A map of 
the state published in Cary and Lea's American 
Atlas in IS'i'i purports to show these new eoun- 
ties, and it was rc]iroduecd in the t^iatc Legisla- 
tive Miiiniiil for lUO.i.' Ii\it the boundaries 
shown arc wholly erroni'iiu>. In ccality the two 
counties were divided by the Second Prin- 
cipal .Meridian, all the region east of it 
being Delaware County, and all west Wa- 
bash County. To insure immediate govern- 
ment, the circuit courts of all the counties bor- 
dering on The N'ew Purchase were given con- 
current jurisdiction in it in civil cases; that is 
to say, the courts of V'igo, Owen and Monroe 
were given concurrent jurisdiction in Wahasli 
Countv. and those of Jackson, .Jennings, Ripley, 
Franklin, Fayette, Wayne and Randoljih were 
given concurrent jurisdiction in Delaware 

But these counties of Wabash and Delawai'c 
were never organized, an<l by the ne.xt session 
of the legislature it was felt necessary to make 
some provision for government at Indianapoli.-. 
Accordingly, by aet of January H, IS-.'I, the 
Governor was authorized "to appoint and com- 
mission two or more persons to act as justices 
of the peace, at Indianapolis, who shall continue 
in otlice until the county of Delaware is organ- 
ized, and justices of the ])eace shall be elected 
and (|ualifleil." Provision was made for ap|ieal 
from their <lecisions to the circuit court of Bar- 
tholoiiiew Countv, which was created at the 

same session, and added to tlie second judicial 
circuit. I'nder this law, Governor Jennings on 
January !) commissioned .John .Maxwell, and 
on February '■}, Jacob R. Crumbaugh. as justices 
of the jjcace for Indianapolis. Maxwell re- 
signed in June, and his place was vacant for 
some time. On Septeiuber 24 William Vande- 
griff was eommi.ssionod ; but this was "recalled", 
and on October 2, a commission was issued to 
James Mcllvain, who served until justices were 
elected for Marion County. Mcllvain seems to 
have had most of the iiusiness, and Brown says 
of him: "His twelve-foot cabin stood on the 
north-west corner of Penn.sylvania and Michi- 
gan streets,- where he held court, pipe in 
mouth, in bis cabin door, the jury ranged 
in front on a fallen tree, and the first 
constable, Corbaley. standing guard over 
the culprits, who nevertheless often esca|)ed 
through the woods". But escapes were not 
mourned. There was no jail here, and none 
nearer than Connersvillc .\t that time the 
criminal jurisdiction of a justici' extended only 
to the imposition of a line not exceeding $3 for 
jietty offenses. For anything more serious all 
he could do was to bind the prisoner over to the 
circuit court. For this reason criminal business 
was largely dis])osed of on a basis of "bluff". 
Brown records a characteristic instance. Ivirly 
on Christmas morning, lS-^1, four tough Ken- 
tucky boatmen, who had strayed to the Bluffs, 
and had come up from there for a Christmas 
spree, undertook to break into the grocery of 
Daniel Larkins. where tlu're was a barrel of 

')>. I K 

- His grandson. S. II. Mcllvain, informs me 
that it was at the southwest corner of Ohio and 
Meridian, where the City Library stands: and 
this is confirmed bv Rev. J. C. Fletcher. .Yews, 
May 31, 1879. 




whisky. The alarm was spread, and citizens 
gathered at the scene. When asked to desist 
the Kentuckians showed fight. But Indian- 
apolis did not lack nerve. A consultation was 
held, and James Blake offered to grapple the 
leader if the rest of the citizens would take the 
other three, and this program was speedily exe- 
cuted. The prisoners were taken before Mcll- 
vain who bound them over to the Fayette cir- 
cuit court, and, in default of bail committed 
them to jail at Connersville. But getting the 
prisoners to Connersville would have been a 
greater hardship on the community than the 
punishment would have been to the prisoners, 
so while ostentatious preparations were made by 
a posse for the journey on the following day, 
the guard was cautioned not to be too watchful 
that night, and under cover of darkness the 
broilers softly and silently vanished away, to 
the great relief of the settlement. 

But the sitiuition involvi?d more serious con- 
siderations than mere inconvenience. The legal 
power of a justice was to bind an offender over 
to the circuit court of his county, but there 
was no county in fact and no court. The courts 
of the bordering counties had been given con- 
current jurisdiction in civil cases, but the law 
said nothing about criminal cases, and in gen- 
eral a criminal case had to be heard in the 
county where the offense was committed. More- 
over the constitution provided that "justices 
shall be elected in each township in the several 
counties", and said nothing about their ap- 
pointment, even where there were townships for 
them to serve in. In the fall of 1821 a meet- 
ing was held at Hawkins' Tavern to consider 
the situation, and it was decided to ask the 
legislat\iro for the organization of a new county. 
James Blake and Dr. S. G. Mitchell were se- 
lected to go to Corydon to secure the passage of 
the law. 

They were successful in their mission, and 
on December 31, 1821, the law creating Marion 
County was approved. The county was unique 
in two respects. It was surrounded entirely by 
unorganized territory — not touching any other 
organized county, although cut out of what 
had been set off as Delaware County ;, but it was 
touched at the southwest by Morgan County, 
and at the southeast by Shelby County, both of 
which were created at the same session. It 
was made twenty miles square, with its present 
boundaries, but for the time being there was 

added to it, for governmental purposes, a tract 
of land larger than itself lying to the northeast. 
This tract began at the first section corner east 
of White River on the north line of the county, 
the boundary running thence north 20 miles to 
the present north line of Hamilton County ; 
thence east 24 miles to a point two miles west 
of the present east boundary of Madison 
County; thence south 18 miles to the present 
south line of Madison County; thence west 21 
miles; thence south 2 miles; thence west 3 
miles to the place of beginning. The object 
of this addition was to provide government for 
the settlements forming at Anderson, Pendle- 
ton, Strawtown, and near Xoblesville and Con- 
ner's Station ; and tlie law provided that '"the 
inhabitants of the said district of coimtry shall 
i)e entitled to all the privileges of citizens of 
said county of Marion, and shall be subject to 
ilie same taxation and other regulations and re- 
strictions". The "privileges" were construed 
to include office-holding, and one of the first 
county commissioners of Clarion County was 
Wm. McCartney, who lived at Pendleton. 

For judicial purposes the new county was 
added to the Fifth Judicial Circuit, including 
also the coimties of Lawrence, Monroe, Morgan. 
Green, Owen, Henry, Rush, Decatur, Bartholo- 
mew, Shelby and Jennings. The court was to 
sit "in the county of Morgan on the fourth 
^londays in March and September, and shall 
sit three days if the business require it; in the 
county of Marion on the Thursdays succeeding 
the rising of the courts in Morgan, and shall 
sit three days if the business require it". At 
that time the circuit court consisted of a "presi- 
dent judge" who was appointed by the Governor 
for the whole circuit, and two "associate 
judges" Avho were elected by the people in each 
county. On January 3, Governor Jennings 
appointed William Watson Wick president 
judge of the Fifth Jtidicial Circuit. He was a 
young Pennsylvanian who had settled at Con- 
nersville in 1810, and had for some time served 
as a clerk in the State Senate. He was after- 
wards prominent at Indianapolis, and in the 

The act creating the county established 
square 58 as "the seat of justice", and provided 
that the courts should be held at the house of 
John Carr "until a court house or other house 
more suitable can be had". It gave to the new 
cciunty $8,000 from the proceeds of the sale of 

isToin' OK (;i;i;ati 



lots to build a court, wIulIi w;i- to be "in 
eizo at least lil'ty feet squaiv. to lie Iniilt of 
brick of the bust <[uality and two stories hiuli, 
to be completed in a workmanlike manni'r, 
which shall be coniiiunced within one year from 
the taking eti'ect of this act, and be completed 
within tlireo years thercal'tcr, and when the said 
court house shall be completed it shall be lor 
the use of the CJeneral Assembly, the Supreme 
and federal court, until a state house shall lie 
completed at the seat of Government"". The act 
furtlier reserved 'i per cent of the receipts from 
the sale of lots for a county library; and pro- 
vided that "the .said new county of ilarion siiall 
form and after the first day of April next, en- 
joy all the rights, privileges and jurisdictions 
which to separate counties do. or may properly 
appertain and belong'". 

The manner in which a new county should 
organize "as prescribed by the general law of 
January '2. 1818, which directed the Governor 
to issue a writ of election to some resident of 
the county whom lie should appoint as sheritf, 
until a sheriff should be elected at the next 
general election. This appointed sheriff was to 
call a special election, on the day set in the writ, 
at sucli ]daces as he misjlit designate, for choos- 
ing two associate circuit judges, a clerk of the 
circuit court, a recorder, and throe county com- 
missioners. The election was by ballot, and 
was managed wholly by the sherifC, who gave 
10 days notice by posting three notices in each 
election district or precinct. He a])pointed the 
elect inn ollicers, administered the necessary 
natlis, received the returns, canvassed the vote, 
issut'd certilicates to the successful candidates, 
and Sent co])ies to the Secretary cd' Slate, who 
issued their commissions. 

On January 1, 1822, Harvey Bates was com- 
missioned sheriff — an excellent man for tiu' 
place, though not a resident of the county at 
the time. He was born in ^7^5 at Fort Wash- 
ington (later Ciiuiiuiati). his father being a 
master of transportation during the Indian 
wars that ended in that year. He ha<l a fair 
Knglish education, and, on attaining manhood, 
moved to Brookville, Indiana, where he married 
Miss Sidney Sedwick, a cousin of Senator 
James >Joble. Soon afterward he moved to 
Connersville, where he lived until after his ap- 
pointment, and then came to Tndianajiolis, ar- 
riving here on February 22. On the same day he 
issued his proi-lainalion foi- the I'lrelioii In be 
Vol. 1—4 

held on A]iril 1, fixing the \oting places at 
(icneral John Carrs house in Indianapolis, at 
John FiuclTs above Conner's Station, John 
l*aige"s at Strawtown, John Berry's at Ander- 
son, and W'm. AicCartney's at Pendleton. 

The campaign hail l)egun in fact before the 
law for the creation of tlie county was passed; 
and Galvin Fletcher notes in his diary that on 
Christmas, 1821, he found the candidates a.s- 
sembled at ^IcGeorge's store, treating promiscu- 
ously. Mctieorge had the oidy barrel of cider 
in town, and it had frozen on to[); so a hole 
was bored through the ice with a red hot poker 
and the concentrated Huid was disilt out to the 
crowd, after which, says ^Ir. Fletcher, ■"they 
took brandy, which soon produced intoxica- 
tion"". At least it did with some, for ]Mr. 
Fletcher thought it best to guide one of his 
overloaded friends home, leaving the crowd, as 
to which he adds: "The candidates led the con- 
course from one place to another until sun- 
down"".'' He also mentions a [lart of the can- 
didates, as follows: "For associate judges 
James JIcMllvain and .\lr. I'atti'rson; county 
clerk James M. Ray, ^lorri> Morris, .Milo K'. 
Davis, J. Hawkins, et al.; for inunty coinini>- 
sioners Messrs. Hogdeii, (Jsborii and .Morrow". 
l>ut, as the campaign warmed up, more candi- 
ilates came out, there being a total of li.'i an- 
nounced in the Gazelle, and Mr. Fletcher men- 
tions several others, making in all lU'ar -40. 

Theoretically there were no parties, no con- 
ventions, no caucuses, but the election was a 
free fight for all comers. Yet Rev. J. C. 
Fletcher writes: ".Vlthough caucuses we're not 
known in the first political canvass in Indian- 
apolis, yet there was a great deal of free inde- 
l>endent campaigning and there were cliques 
and inner circles. The divisions were not ac- 
cording to the political ]iarties of the day. 
They •\vere local, or rather geographical divi- 
sions. My father informed me that the combat- 
ants Were ranged under the titles of 'White- 
water' and 'Kentucky". The emigration from 
these two sections was simultaneous. The peo- 
ple fnuii Whitewater were as clannish as those 
from Kentucky. Each wished to have the dis- 
tribution of the ])ublic loaves and fishes. The 
Whitewater paity had some advantages over 
Kentucky in that it had received some acces- 
sions from people from Ohio and Pennsvlvania, 

Sews. A|n-il i:. is: It. 



who had re^idi'il \in\g enou<ih in tlio casteru 
part of the state to qualify them as voters. 
Here the Keiitueiviaiis were at a ilisailvautage 
for many of them had not resided a year in the 
state. The Whitewater peo()le were eonsum- 
mate politicians; they had been led and disci- 
])lined by such men as Governor Jennings, the 
two Xohles, and Jesse 1?. Tlionias, ])revious to 
their arrival in the 'Xew Fureliase". My 
father informed me that they were men of 
talent, and that greati'r adepts at political 
warfai'e never lived"".'' 

But in reality this contest was one of the state 
political organizations. Whitewater was not 
merely clannish from local prejudice. Jt had 
been molded in the old Territorial struggle 
over the slavery question into a \erv com])act 
mass. In the race of Jennings with Randolph 
for Congress, in 1807, the upper Whitewater 
district had given Jennings every vote but one. 
and as politics developed that solidarity had 
been nourished and preserved. The organiza- 
tion Ijecame as compact as any political organi- 
zation of today, and any one who doubts it may 
profitably read Oliver H. Smith"s account of 
the manner in which Seiuitor Xoljle. (Jovernor 
Jennings, and William Hendricks controlled 
legislation, ami divided patronage."' 

The contest centered principally on the otfice 
of clerk, which was considered the most im- 
portant county office at the time. Whitewater 
put forward James M. Ray, an excellent young 
man from X'ew Jersey, who had studied at C'o- 
luml)ia College and had had jn-actical experi- 
ence as a deputy clerk at Lawrenceburgh and 
Connersville. Kentucky's candidate was Morris 
Morris, a strong and able man, who fired the 
first gun by issuing a campaign i)ami)hlet on 
January 30, — the first literary ])roduct of the 
city outside of the newspaper. Calvin Fletcher 
had alhliated with Whitewater, and was evi- 
dently put in ciiarge of the literary bureau, for 
on January ;iO Mrs. Fletcher entered in her 
diary: "Mr. Morris has written a pami)hlet and 
had it put in print. Mr. Fletcher has just left 
me to write an answer to it, and I am all alone 
this evening". On February 2, she noted that 
Mr. Osborn. Whitewater candidate for county 
commissioner, "canu' and staid all night"": and 
on Sundav, Fcbruarv .'!: "The handiiills canu' 

*Xewg. A])ril -.'(i, is:!i. 
''Knrhj Iiiilidiiii Trials, p. 84. 

out in opposition to what Mr. Morris wrote" . 
On February 1"). ilorris came back with an- 
other handbill and that next night Mrs. 
Fletcher wrote: "1 went to bed early, i)Ut ilr. 
F. was writing an answer to the handbill ami 
did not go to bed that night. Sunday, Mr. F. 
went to bed early in the afternoon and sle]it 
until after 8 p. m. when I aw^akened him, and 
we both went to the printing office and stayed 
until two o'clock in the morning"". And so the 
war progressed. ^Irs. Fletcher mentions nu- 
merous long consultations, and threats of libel 
suits; and probably grew weary of the whole 
business, for on May 31, the day before the 
election, she wrote: "I spent the day very un- 
satisfactorily, for there were so many candidates 
coming in that I could lU'ither read nor write, 
nor do anything else"". 

The election was a lan<lslide for Whitewater. 
Bars were not closed on election days then, aiuJ 
any man who went thirsty neglected the privi- 
leges of a freeman. Mr. Fletcher says that 
"Whitewater and whisky carried the day against 
Kentucky and whisky"", and it is probalile that 
whisky did not much affect the result, for both 
sides supplied it in almost unlimited quantity. 
James M. Ray received the highest vote — 217 
out of 33G votes cast in the county. There 
were 22-1 votes cast in Indianapolis. James 
Mcllvain and Eliakim Harding were elected 
associate judges; Joseph C. Reed recorder, and 
John McCormick, John T. Osborn and Wm. 
McCartney County ccunmissioners. Among 
those who went down in defeat was Alexander 
Ralston, who hail been a candidate for recorder. 

The newly elected commissioners met on 
.Vpril 15, but McCormick not being present they 
ailjourned to the next day, at .lohn Carr's 
hou.^e, where their first business was the ap- 
pointment of Daniel Yamles as county treasurer 
and the approval of his bond. He was a Penn- 
sylvanian who had served in the war of 1812, 
attaining the rank of major at the age of 21. 
He came to Indiana in 1818 and located near 
Connersville till the spring of 1821, when he 
came to Indianapolis, and built him a log- 
cabin at the northeast corner of Washington 
and Illinois streets. He brought with him 
about $4,000, which made him the ranking 
capitalist of the ))lace for some years. His 
service as Treasurer was so satisfactory that he 
was reappointed every year until 1829, when he 
withdrew to give his attention to his j)crsoual 




atfairs. The next business oi' the eoniiiiissioiiers 
was (lividins; tlic c-ouiity proper into nint' towii- 
sliips, practieally as they still exist — Pike, 
Washiiiirton ami Lawrence at the north; Wayne, 
Centre and Warren aeross the center of the 
county; and Decatur, I'erry and Franklin at 
the south. The principal change since made 
in tlieni is in the line between Decatur and 
Perry, which was originally an extension of the 
west line of (.'enter townshi]), but later was 
made White Hiver — the part of Decatur east 
of the river being added to I'erry. On March 
;!, l!-i".i.S, three sections of Pike townsiiip — o, !l 
and Ki — were added to Washington. Otherwise 
the townsiiips stand as originally made. But as 
the population did not justify tJie immediate 
establishment of nine separate township gov- 
ernments, they were consolidated for the time 
being into four, known as "Washington-Law- 
rence", ''Cent re- Warren". "Decatur-Perry- 
Franklin", and "Pike-Wayne". These combi- 
nations were continued only until population 
and |)ul)lic convenience called for separation. 
Decatur first was made a separate township on 
August 12, 182;!. Pike and Wayne were sep- 
arated on May 10, 1S24; Centre and Warren 
on .May 1, 182(1; Washington and Lawrence on 
Octoijer (i, 182(i : and l-'rankjin and Perry on 
Septendier :i, 1827. 

The tract to tiie north, which was a<lded for 
temporary governmental purposes, was divided 
as nearly as possible into four equal parts. The 
northeastern (piarter was made Antlerson Town- 
ship, and included the settlement at Anderson. 
Till- southeastern was named Fall Creek Town- 
ship, and included the settlement at Pendleton. 
'I'he southwestern was named Delaware Town- 
ship, and included the settlements at Conner's 
Station and near .Noblesville. The northwest- 
ern was named White Uiver Township, and in- 
cluded the settlement at Strawtown. This con- 
nection of this territory lasted onlv about a 
year, as both Hamilton and Madison counties 
Were established by tiie legislature in January, 
lM2;i, and were organizeil a few months later. 
.\ similar adilition to the county was nuule li\' 
the act of February 12, 182."), of a tract of ter- 
ritory eight miles wide and twelve miles broad 
(east and west) in the southeast cornt'r of 
Hoono County, it was ailded to i'ike Townsiiip 
bv the countv eninnn>-inners'' iiiul mi i-eniameil 

till the creation of Uoone County iiy the act of 
January 2!), 18;i(i. 

Xext came provision for the election of 
justices of the ])eace for the townships, of which 
two were assigneil to each of tlie eombiuation 
townships exce)it Centre-Warren, which was to 
have three. For the outside district one justice 
was assigned to each township. The election 
was set for May 11, and the voting-places and 
the election ins])ectors were specified as follows: 
Washington-Lawrence, house of Klijah Fox, 
with Joel Wright as inspector; Centre- Warren, 
house of John Carr, with Thomas Carter as in- 
spector ; J)ecatur-l'erry-Franklin, house of 
Peter Harmonson, with Peter llarmonson as in- 
spector ; Pike-Wayne, house of Mrs. Barnhill, 
with Jeremiah J. Corbaley as inspector; Fall 
Creek, house of Wm. ilcCartney, with Adam 
Winsell (Wincbell) as inspector; Anderson, 
bouse of John Berry, with John Berry as in- 
spector; Wliite Kiver, house of John Paige, 
with John Paige as inspector; and Delaware, 
house of John Finch, with Solomon Finch as 

On Ai)ril IT, the c(unmissioners adopted a 
comity seal, desci-ilied as follows: ".V star in 
til. centre, with the letters 'M. C. C." around 
the same, with inverted carved stripes tending 
to the centre of the star and "Marion County 
Seal" written thereon". This si'al did not come 
inlo actual use, for on May 1 I the commission- 
ers adopted another described thus: "The words 
'.Marion County Seal, Indiana" around the out- 
side, with a pair of scales in the centre emblem- 
atical of justice, under which is a |)loiigli anil 
sheaf (d' wheat in representation of agricul- 
lure"". This seal was continued in use until 
Dec. 8, 1811, when the commissioners adopted 
the one now in use, described as follows: "On 
the margin of the eirch' the woi'ds ■Commis- 
sioners Seal of Marion County" and inside of 
this marginal engraving the engraving of a 
P.asket of fruit and likewise the representation 
(d' a Berkshire pig"".' 'I'radition ascribes this 
ch.-uige to the intluence (d' John W. 
Hamilton, who was llien county auditor. 
It doubth'ss ri'presenti'd an advancing] senti- 
ment in farming, for Henry Ward Beecher 
and his allies were jusi then preaching fruit 
culture and the improvement in stock in In- 
diaiia])olis, and llie "l!erk-liii-e pig" deliniMled, 

''•Pifvord. p. l!i;. 

'•Record, p. Kii. 













was a maniic'st iinprovenient on the "razor- 
back", which had hekl exclusive possession in 
this region, both in quality and in disposition. 
On September '27, 1832, the Circuit Court 
adopted the same seal as tlie commissioners — 
the scales, sheaf and plough — but at a later date 
the sheaf and plough were dropped, and the seal 
now appears with the scales only. When the 
court adopted the seal it also entered an order 
to "ratify, confirm and approve all legal \ises 
of the same by tiie Clerk since the organization 
of this county of JIarion, as the seal of this 
court". Inasmuch as the clerk originally pro- 
cured ibe seal for the commissioners, under 
their direction to get a differing one, it is ob- 
vious tluit the responsibility for the first seal 
devolves on James .M. Eay. 

Following the adoption of the seal came two 
ri'gulations of rates that seem odd now, but 
M liich were reasonable enough then : when many 
persons were forced to travel, and when fer- 
ries and taverns along the roads were in the 
nature of monojiolies. Many things were left to 
local control tlicn that are not now, and often 
the powers of control in one county differed 
from those in others, for it was an era of spe- 
cial legislation — the special laws of a legisla- 
ture being usually more voluminous than the 
general laws. The first of these regulations was 
of the rates of ferriage over White l{iver at 
Washington street, which were fi.xed as follows: 
For each wagon and four horses or o.\en.$.C3i4 
For each wagon and two horses or oxen. . .37V-> 
For each wagon (small) and one horse 

or ox 311/4 

For each extra horse or ox l^^^ 

For each man or woman and horse f2i/o 

For each head of neat cattle 03 

For each head of swine 02 

For each head of slieep 03 

For each footman 0(ji/4 

The "tavern rates" were lixcd as I'dllnus: 

Fncb half-pint of whiskey $.l'2i'o 

iviih hair-]iiiit of imported rum. brandy 

gin. or wine 25 

Kach ([uart of cider or beer 12i/> 

Kaeb i|uart of porter, cider wine or cider 

oil 25 

Each half-pint of ])eaeh brandy, cordial, 

country gin, or apple brandy 18% 

l']acli nu'al 25 

Ka.-h iiiglit's bidixing ^•>^U 

Each gallon of corn or oats 12V^ 

liach horse to hay per niglit 25 

These tavern rates were revised on February 
11, 1S23, 'but the only change made was to in- 
crease the price of a half-pint of imported 
goods from 25 to 50 cents. Possibly this may 
have been because somebody had actually made 
an importation, or was thinking of it. llaving 
now disposed of the most pressing affairs of 
government, the commissioners adjourned for 
that session. 

The people now proceeded to the election of 
justices of the peace, which resulted in the se- 
lection of Wm. D. liooker and Joel Wright for 
Washington-Lawrence; Abraham Hendricks 
and Isaac Stephens for Pike- Wayne ; Peter 
Harmonson for Decattir-Perry-Franklin — there 
was no other chosen then, or, at least, none 
commissioned; and Wilkes Reagan, Lismund 
Basye and Obed Foote for Centre-Warren. For 
the district outside the county proper, Wm. C. 
Blackmore and Wm. Bush were chosen for 
White Kiver and Delaware townships ; and 
Judah Learning and Abel Ginney for Ander- 
son and Fall Creek. This election was not so 
exciting as tlie former, but the result in Cen- 
tre-Warren was contested by Moses Cox. His 
objeeUoiis are not set out specifically in the 
record, but the decision of the commissioners 
is to the effect that votes had been received 
that were "evidently and constitutionally il- 
legal, although received unintentionally", and 
therefore they held the election "null and 
void"", and ordered another on May 25." At 
this election tlie same justices were again 
chosen, and on Juiu' G and 7 all of the justices 
elected were commissioned by the Governor. 

Aside from the county oilicials, the justices 
were the only local officials for the next ten 
years, and therefore filled important places in 
the commtinity. Keagan was the village butcher 
with a .shoj) at (he northwest corner of Dela- 
ware and Washington strec^ts, and a little 
slaughter-bouse on Pogue"s Run, between New 
Jersey and East streets. His supplies of jus- 
tice and meat were both very satisfactory. 
Basye was a Swede, who was not very learned 
in the law, but is credited with having usually 
decided for the plaintiff, wliich secured him 
business, and was quite as apt to be right as 

^Urronl. pp. ;')0-3-.'. 

iiisToKv OF <;i;eater Indianapolis. 

wrong, if mil inni-c sci; inr. as one of tlie old- 
tiiiu' jii:<titt's argued: "It stands to reason that 
a man would not bring a lawsuit against an- 
other unless there was some eause for it.'"'" Now- 
lantl says that Nathaniel Cox, wlio was the 
recognized village joker, approached Basye dur- 
ing the campaign and asked: "Should you be 
elected, ^Ir. Basye, and a jjerson was brought 
before you charged with ijurghiry, and jiroved 
guilty beyond the shadow of a doubt, what 
would you do with hiin ?"" Basye studied the 
case for a moment, raised his spectacles, looked 
wise, and replied, "I would fine him one hun- 
dred dollars, and compel him to marry the 
woman"". Possibly this was au early effort at 
fiction, but it is recorded that Squire Basye was 
at one time going to send a man to the peni- 
tentiary, who had been brought before him on a 
charge of larceny, and Prosecuting Attorney 
Fletcher had some difficulty in convincing him 
that his power extended only to binding him 
over to the Circuit Court. 

The justice who had most of the business, 
and far outranked the others, was Obed Foote. 
He was a native of Delaware, a man of nat- 
ural abilit}' and well-informed, but quite er- 
ratic. He had read law and practiced some. 
He was at the time of his election a bachelor, 
and had acquired some characteristic bachelor 
habits while keeping "bachelor"s hall"" with his 
brother. He made a fad of French, and read 
a chapter in his French bible every day to 
keep in practice. He affected a brusqueness 
in speech, but in reality was a very kindly 
man, and a friend of the children. But he 
had no tolerance for cither ignorance or con- 
ceit, and was very outspoken in his views ; so 
much so that he incurred the displeasure of 
Basye's friends by his criticisms of his colleague. 
All of his peculiarities cropped out in his 
administration of justice. He was fond of 
roasting potatoes in the ashes of the open fire- 
place in his office, and when he settled down for 
a hearing he would cock his feet on the table, 
extract a potato from the ashes, and observe: 
"Now, Messieurs Pettifoggers, you can pro- 
ceed with your arguments while 1 eat my pota- 
toes."'" But his decisions were pretty sound, 
and he was re-elected to the ol!ice up to the time 
of his death in May, 1833. He was indicted 
for malfeasance in otlico in 1823. but was tri- 

■■fn,l. Hist. Sor. Piihs.. Vol I. 

umphantly accpiittcd. and the Court ordered 
the indictment erased from the record.'" 
Basye also sued him for slander, but 
after some legal fencing it was dis- 
missed, on a written agreement, entered of 
record, as follows: "This eause is to be dis- 
missed at defendant's cost, and indemnifying 
]ilaintiif against his attorney's fees, and de- 
fendant stati's and acknowledges that whatever 
he stated against plaintitt' in the premises he 
stated in a passion and in heat of })lood, antl 
that the foundation of the charge he is now 
convinced originated in a mistake of himself or 
jilaintift' on a law question."" '' In all his ail- 
vertisements. and both lawyers and doctors 
advertised then, Foote announced that he would 
"attend to any business in his profession, not 
coming under the dciiominatiim of jicttifog- 

On May 13, 1822, the county commissioners 
met again in regular session, and. the tax 
listers having finished their work, the fir.-t 
action was the approval of their reports. This 
was the necessary legal preliminary to estab- 
lishing the tax-rate, which was fixed on the 
next day as follows: 
For every horse, mare, gelding, mule 

or ass, over three years old $ -37'/^ 

For stallions (once' their rate for the 


For taverns, each 1 <>.()() 

For every ferry . 00 

For every $100 of appraised valuation 

of town lots .50 

For each and every pleasure carriage 

of two wheels . 1 . 0( t 

For each pleasure carriage of four 

wheels \ .'ir, 

For every silver watch 2.") 

l"or every gold watch .jO 

For every head of work-oxen over 

three years old, and upwards, per 

head 2.J 

On each male person over the age of 

twenty-one years .50 

Provided that persons over the age of fifty 
years and not free holders, and such as are 
not able from bodily disability to follow any 
useful occupation, and all idiots and paupers 
shall be exempt from said last naiutvl tax. 

'"Order Bool-. Mav 9, 1823. 
''Order linnl- 1. p" 12(5. 


These taxes were for eouuty purjxises oiiJy, 
and in reality were nearly all fixed by law, the 
diseretionary powers of the commissioners ex- 
tending only to ferries, which were "not less 
than five nor more than twenty-five dollars"', 
and taverns, which were "not less than ten 
nor more than fifty dollars'", as the commis- 
sioners might determine. There was no such 
thing as a general ])roperty tax in Indiana, un- 
til established by the act of February ",. ISlio, 
but the property subject to taxation, and the 
rates, were specified by the legislature. At 
this time the state was experimenting with 
the principle of the separation of the sources 
of state and nuinici|>al revenue, a ])i'inciple 
that might be adoj)ted now with manifest ad- 
vantages. Hy the acts of January '^1, 1820,'- 
and .lannai-y 8, 18".il,''' the state tax was levied 
exclusively on lands, not including town lots, 
at rates from $1 to $1.50 per 100 acres, ac- 
cording to quality fixed in three grades, to- 
gether with 'io cents on each $100 of bank 
stock-, and these Avere not taxable for county 
jmrposes; while the objects above named as 
taxed for county purposes were not taxable for 
state purposes. 

The "tavern license" was practically a retail 
licjuor license, for at that time, in order to get 
a retailer's license, it was necessary to give 
l)on<l "to keep constantly on hand the bed- 
ding and stabling, with the other acci)mnio<la- 
tiohs necessary for the comfort and convenience 
of travellers"', and also to produce a certificate 
of "4^velve respectable householders that such 
l)er.<on is of good moral character, and that it 
would be of lienefit and convenienc(! to travel- 
lers for such person to be licensed'". The ap- 
]ilicant had also to give bond to prevent gam- 
bling and disorder, and not to sell on Sundays 
"exce])t to travi'llers"".''' This continued until 
the act of January 24, 1828 authorized 
dro])ping the "bedding and stabling"" ipiali- 
fieation wheir llie licensee was not a tav- 
ern-keeper. ;ind aniliorized such licenses to 
sell "foreign and domestic groceries."" Fur 
some years afterward the two forms of retail 
license were known as "tavern license"" and 
"grocery license"'. In 1831 it was provided that 

'-Arts p. 1,-iO. 
'■'Arts. pp. 8, 9. 

'*Arl i,f Jdinian/ .'S. ISIS: Rrr. Sluts.. ISJJ,, 
p. ioT. 

incorporated towns Tuiglit impose a license tax, 
equal to and in addition to the county tax. on 
"what is commonly called a tijipling house".''' 
I'nder all these laws the retailer was rc- 
ipiired to keep the legal rates |)osted, and 
could not sell to children, apprentice oi" 
servants without tlu' consent of tbi' pai-- 
ent or master, nor to anyone "in a state of in- ' 
toxication'". There was an interval, from the 
act of January, 1821 to the act of January, 
1824, when the licenses were granted by the 
Circuit Court instead of the commissioners, but 
the commissioners fixed the I'atc during that 

After the a])i)roval of the reiiorts of the tax 
listers the sheriff was directed to let the "clear- 
ing"" of the court house yard to the lowest bid- 
der, and in due time the contract was let to 
Earl Pearce and Samuel Hyde, who on August 
14, were awarded $59 for their services. At 
the suggestion of James Blakt', two hundred 
sugar trees were reserved for a grove, but when 
the surrounding forest was gone these were so 
readily damaged by wind that within a few 
years they were all cut down and removed. On 
April 12, 18:58, the county commissioners 
turned the square over to the common council 
of Indianapolis "for ornamentation"", authoriz- 
ing it to .set out "a ])roper number of shade 
tni's with necessary shrubbery""'" and a num- 
ber of young trees were planted, lint in Jan- 
uary, 1843, Henry Ward Beecbcr wrote that 
they were promptly destroyed by llu' jailor"s 
cow, which was pastured on the sipiare : and "a 
gentleman not without a taste for horticulture, 
from day to day, saw, from his office door, this 
destruction, as he infoiiiicd me with great iwi-, as though it were a sin to interfere and 
save the trees"".'' But this is not so shocking 
when it is remembered that the |)lanting oc- 
curred while the horrible delusion of planting 
evergreens and black locusts prevailed in the 
west, and Mr. Heecher says these court house 
trees were cbielly locusts. Since- llieii there 
have been no shade trees on the sepuire, l)nt 
some young ones are now planted, and may 
eventually produce shade if some change of 
official |)olicv does not call for their removal. 

1'he board next took up petitions for ojiening 

'■■Her. St<ils.. p. 527. 

"7iV'c. ;). 11. 2(i5. 

''fii/I. MiUj. of llisl.. \. 


HISTOKV 01-' Ch'i'lA'I'l'. 


new roads. Win. TDWuseud, the lirst Quaker 
in the settlement wanted two — one to "the 
Mills at the Falls of Fall Creek", and the other 
from the north end of Pennsylvania street to 
Strawtown. Viewers were appointed for both. 
The first, as established was the continuation 
.of Massachu.setts avenue beyond East street, 
and the old Pendleton road. The second has 
now become l"t. Wayne avenue. Central ave- 
nue, Sutherland avenue in part — the old Xobles- 
villo road. Eliakim Harding asked for a road 
west of the rivei-, on the future line of the Na- 
tional road. John ilcCormiek wanted a road 
from the end of Indiana avenue to his mill on 
■Wliite Kiver — about the line of the old La- 
fayette road. Demas JIcFarland wanted a road 
to the southwest — the line of the old iloores- 
ville road. All of these were ordered "viewed", 
and in due time "cut out"', so that in dn' 
weather a driver had no difUeulty in getting 
through, if he could steer around stumps. 

On the 14th the commissioners divided the 
county into road districts and appointed road 
supervisors. The "donation" was made a sepa- 
rate district, with John Yanblaricum as super- 
visor. The board then appointed constables as 
follows: in the outlying districts — for Fall 
Creek Township, Isaac Jones ; for Anderson, 
Allen Makepeace; for White Kiver, Levi Dick- 
son ; for Delaware, Chapel W. Brown and Ed- 
ward M. Dryer: in the county proper — for 
Washington-Lawrence, Wm. Cris and John 
Small ; for Pike-Wayne, Joel A. Crane and 
Charles Eckard; for Centre- Warren, Israel 
Harding, Josejih Duval, Francis Davis, George 
Harlan, Wm. Phillips, Caleb Eeynolds, Daniel 
Lakin, Lewis Ogle, Samuel Eoberts, Joseph Cat- 
terlin, Henry Cline, Joshua Glover and Pat- 
rick Kerr. Later in the day Elias Stallcop 
was appointed for Dt>catur-Perry-Franklin. The 
large number appointed for Centre- Warren may 
have been in view of probable calls on them for 
police duty in the town. The preponderating 
element in the settlement was determined to 
preserve order, and indictments for "assault and 
Ijattery" and "affray" were quite common in the 
early days. 

On May 15 the commissioners made np their 
lists of petit and grand jnrurs — 72 of the for- 
mer and 54 of the latter — from which the 
sheriff was to take his venires. As the treas- 
urer. Daniel Yandcs, declined to take cliarge of 
the tax duplii-atr. Harris Tyner was a])p(>inted 

collector of taxes, as provided by law. At that 
time there was no treasurer's office, and the 
collector usually gave public notice "to all who 
have any taxes to pay" to call on the collector 
at some specified place and pay. And this they 
were in no greater hurry to do in those days 
than at present, as appears from the first an- 
nual report of the treasurer, which was made on 
Xovember 13, 1822, as follows: 


To amount of receipts up to this date, 
for store licenses, tavern licenses, 
and taxes on certificates and sales 
and writs $169.93% 

To certified amount of county 

revenue assessed for 1822 726. TO 

To the balance in vour favor on set- 
tlement this day 79 . 11^4 



By payment to grand jurors to this 
"date" '. 2.25 

By payment to county commission- 
ers ' ." 36.00 

Bv pavment to listing, appraisers, 
"etc. ". 70.50 

By payment to prosecuting attorney 15.25 

By payment to expenses of the courts 

and juries 40 .30 

By payment to returning judges of 

of elections 9 . 50 

By payment to building county jail ^ 
account 140 . 50 

By payment to Mork on court house 
"square 59.00 

Bv pavment to viewers and survevors 

of roads ."... S.lSi/o 

P.y payment on poor account 5.00 

By payment on school section ac- 
count 1 . 50 

By payment for printing 32.871/^ 

To treasurers per cent, on $421.00 

at 5 i)er cent 21 .00 

By amount of county revenue yet due 
from Harris Tvner, collector, for 

the year 1822 490.841/2 

Bv amount deducted from revenue 
'by delinquents 42 . 871/2 


insTORV OF (; 



The "county jail"' iiiuutioiiud in tliis state- 
ment was ordered ou ilay 15. IS'i'i. when Har- 
vey Bates, sheriff was directed to take bids for 
a log structure, fourteen feet cquare inside, and 
two stories higli. The lower story, or dungeon, 
was to be of hewed logs at least 12 inches square, 
with two rounds of oak or walnut logs under- 
ground. The sides and second floor were of 
logs of the same size, '"of walnut, oak, ash, 
beech or sugar tree"". The third floor, or more 
properly the ceiling of the second story, was 
of logs six inches thick and at least one foot 
wide, .\bove this was a roof covered witli 
jointed shingles. There was no door in the 
lower story, and but one window, which was 
one foot square and furnished with grate liars 
of iron 11^4 inches thick, let 3 inches into the 
logs. There was a similar window, two feet b}' 
six inches in the second story, and also a door 
four feet by two, by which the jai! was en- 
tered. This door was reached by "a carpenter's 
ladder" on tlie outside, and the prisoners were 
put into the dungeon over another ladder from 
a traj) two feet .square in the center of the 
second floor. Both doors were of double thick- 
ness of two-inch oak iilank and furnished with 
heavy strap hinges and locks. The contract was 
awarded to Xoah Leverton. on a bid of $312, 
and the jail was built on the northwest corner 
of tlie Court House Square, and accepted liy the 
commissioners on August 12. 

But liie grand jury was more critical than 
the commissioners, and six wi^eks later, on Se]i- 
tember 28, it reported that it found "the lower 
room in the jail of said county insuflicient to 
hold criminals for want of sealing the inside 
and boxing the corner.s". and further "the said 
lower room in said jail at this time needs 
cleansing" ; from which it would appear that 
Jeremiah Jolinson, the first jailor, set the pace 
for his successors in oflice, for there have been 
few jail examinations since that time that did 
not result in some criticism. The Grand Jury 
was quite right as to the insecurity of the jail, 
for though such a structure might seem impreg- 
nable to the uninitiated it was far from secure 
to people wiio were aeeuslonied to jirying up 
a log in a cal)in wall and throwing out the cross 
log under it for an entrance when they did not 
want to take time to cut a door. .Vnd experi- 
ence convinced tlie commissioners of this, for 
in July, 1825, they ordered the jail rebuilt, or 
rather reinforced by building a second log struc- 

ture around it, leaving nine inches between the 
two all around, which space was filled by logs 
set on end. This looked safe, but they had over- 
looked the to]), and the prisoners did not. On 
January 19, 1831, the aroused commissioners 
ordered the sheriff "to have a new log put in the 
upper loft of the jail, and have the said loft 
of logs closely spiked over with two-inch plank, 
and all other necessary repairs requisite to 
make the jail secure for prisoners, as well debt- 
ors as criminals" ; also to "have chains and bars 
to secure any prisoner safel}' in the criminal 
room, so as to render confinement entirely se- 
cure therein, and also to employ a sutlicient 
guard", if deemed necessary. 

This brought peace to the commissioners for 
a few months, but on September 24, 1831, the 
Journal contained this discouraging item: "The 
fall term of the Marion Circuit Court com- 
mences on ]\Ionday next. Those persons who 
were confined in jail on suspicion of criminal 
offences have made their escape." After ma- 
ture deliberation, on Xovember 9, 1831, the 
commissioners ordered "the upper log to be 
spiked up, and the jail made as secure as it 
was before the late General Jail Delivery". 
These precautions sufliced for a time, presum- 
ably because the county had a less ingenious 
class of prisoners, but in the summer of 1833 a 
new nightmare arose before the commissioners. 
The original "Buffalo J^ill"' came to town — a 
strolling negro, wearing a black cap with a red 
leather band, and leading or riding at jileasure 
a ijuffalo, from the exhibition of which he eked 
out a precarious existence. For offense against 
the peace and dignity of the state he was locked 
up in the dungeon, and, whether inspired by the 
spirit of the youth "who fired the Ephesian 
dome", or that of Samson in the tenqile of the 
Philistines, he set fire to the building. He did 
it so efi'ectually that he narrowly escaped death, 
and left nothing of the jail but the Imle- where 
the underground logs had lain, which re- 
mained many years to mark the spot. 

The commissioners took some time to devise 
a system of imprisonment that would imprison, 
and on January (i, 1834. ordered a new jail 
"built of brick principally", that was at least 
ingenious. It was 4fix20 feet and two- stories 
high, with a hall G feet wide across the middle, 
making two rooms 20 feet square on each side, 
on both floors. One side was occupied by the 
jailor, and on the (itliev I he upstairs room was 



(From a sketch by James B. Dunlap.) 



for ili'blur.- anil thai iluwn.-tairs i'or (jrunioals. 
Tlie walls of the criminal room rested on a 
brick foundation 32 inches thick, and were 
made with it inches of brick outside, then 10 in- 
ches of log, and inside 1.'5 inches of brick. He- 
tween each two layers of logs there were three 
courses of brick the width of the wall. On the 
inside, at intervals of 3 feet, were scantling, 
''ironed into the timber between the two walls", 
and over these a sheath of two-inch oak plank, 
fastened with (j-inch spikes. The floor was on a 
base of 8-inch timliers laid close together, above 
which were two courses of brick laiil in mortar; 
then scantling l(i inches apart and "levelled u|i 
between with bricks and mortar", to which was 
spikeil the floor proper of "-i-inch oak plank. 
The ceiling was of brick, set on edge and archeil, 
with a spring of 18 inches. And finally, the 
walls and floors were covered with "thick 
sheet iron'', nailed on with 8-penny nails which 
were not more than 4 inches apart in any direc- 
tion. The contract for this jail was let to 
Jacob Turner, for $2,500, and it served to hold 
the prisoners thereafter. The only reinforce- 
ment it received was a cover of weather-board- 
ing which was put on in IS-H).'" Sulgrove 
states that "a hewed-log addition" was 

' made on the north side of the jail in 
!m4.") "fni- the confinement of the \\ih>\ 
[irisoners", but there is no mention of this in 
the commissioners' records. .\ singular fatality 

j occurred in this jail on .\ngnst .'!, lS5;i. (ieorge 
Lingcnfelter was arrested and confined in the 
u])per room for into.xication. He fell through 
the hatchway to the lower room, and as he 
fell caught the open trap door with his hand, 
pulling it to on his head. Jt wa.< of honvy onk, 
cased with iron, and crushed his skull, killing 
him instantly. 

By 18.);} this jail bad liccmiie ant iipuitrd. 
It was too small, and there was no provision 
for separation of prisoners. It was decided to 
build an up-to-date jail, and on February 12 of 
that year a new jail was ordered, with walls of 
<-ut stone, 18 inches thick. It was 24 feet high, 
including 2 feet of hard limestone underground, 
and till' floors were of flagstones .'! inches thick, 
laid on 2 feet (d' concrete. Within were twd 
rows of cut-stone cells, set back to back, if, in 
all, se])arated by walls of cast or hoiler iron. 
For the building of this jail $10,000 of ccnnity 

'"/.Vc. .">, pp. i; I. 111.",. 

bonds wci-e issued, and a spi'cial tax of 15 cents 
on each $100 of jjroperty, and 25 cents poll, 
was levied to meet the bonds and jiay interest. 
Jnchuled with the jail was a jailor's house of 
brick, 45x20 and two stories high. There were 
rooms in this that were used by some jailors 
for the confinement of favori'd prisoners, who 
were willing to pay for .separation from the 
common run. These buildings stood at the 
northeast corner of the square, and were fairly 
serviceable, though there were occasional es- 
cajH's, one ])ai-ty resorting to the ungentlemanly 
mode of pulling up a flagstone in the floor and 
crawling out through the sewer. The citv out- 
grew the jail and the additions that were made 
to it, and when the Hoard of State Charities 
was organized in 1889, the jail fell under its 
condemnation. It had been overcrowded for 
several years, and the ventilation and sewerage 
were wholly inadecpiate. There was no suHi- 
cient provision for (deanliness of either the 
prisoners or their clothing. In 1891 a new 
jail was decided on, and $15(1,000 of bonds 
were issued for its construction. Over consid- 
erable protest it was located half-a-scpiare south 
of the Court IIou,se Square, and, on its com- 
pletion the old jail was removed and the Court alone left on the s([uare. 

In taking leave of the old jail it is worthy of 
note that it was the scene of the only judicial 
executions that ever occurred in Marion ('(uinty. 
Marion County had hecm singularly free from 
cold-blooded homicide, until, on Se|)tember 13, 
18()8, the community was startled and shocked 
by "the Cold Spring murder", the most cele- 
brated in its annals. The dead bodies of Jacob 
'I'oung and his wife were found in a chun]) of 
willows on a gravel-bar, now in Riverside Park, 
just above "the Cold S])ring", which is at the 
west cml of the foot bridge over White I{iver 
just at the north of Emmerich's (irove. The 
ease was puzzling at first, but investigation soon 
wove a web of circumstantial evidence about 
Xancv E. Clem, her brother Silas W. Hartman, 
and \Vm. J. .\brams, who was proved to have 
bought the gun found on the ground. They 
were indicted on October 20, and on the elec- 
tion of the defense to try Mrs. Clem first slu- 
was brought to trial on Decend)er 21. (ien. 
!'>' nj. Harrison, W'ni. P. Fishhack and John 
T. ! )ye were employetl to assist in the prosecu- 
tion of the case. The prosecutor, John S. Dun- 
can, was the voungest that I'ver hrld the office — 



not yet 22 — but he won his spurs in the trial. 
The defense was ecjndiicted by John Hanna, 
(ien. Fred Knefler, and W. W. Leathers — Jon- 
atlian W. Gordon was added at the second trial. 
The evidence was wholly circumstantial. On 
the night that the State finished its case the 
defense held a consultation and Leathers, who 
was i^erhaps the best criminal lawyer at the 
bar, desired to i;o to tlie jury on the State's 
case, as the defense had nothing to otfer but a 
weak alibi ; but he was overruled. The jury dis- 
agreed, eleven for acquittal and one for con- 
viction, and that one, Anton Wiese, stood on the 
gi'ound that if Jlrs. Clem was not at the scene 
of the murder she could prove where she was, 
and she had tried it and failed. 

A second trial soon followed, and in it 
the State had some additional evidence in the 
statements of two witnesses who had seen Mrs. 
Clem and Hartnum driving in a buggy from the 
direction of the tragedy on the afternoon when 
it occurred. On iMareh 2, the jury returned 
a verdict of murder in the second degree — prob- 
ably a compromise verdict. A few days later 
Hnrtman made a confession, which nobody be- 
lieved, intended to exculpate his sister, but 
merely establishing his own guilt. It was pub- 
lished with critical comment on March 10, and 
that night Hartman committed suicide by cut- 
ting his throat, or, as some believed, was killed 
by Abrams, who was his cell-mate. ]\Irs. Clem's 
case went to the Supreme Covirt and was re- 
versed.^" It then went to Boone County on 
cliange of venue, and the trial resulted in an- 
other conviction of murder in the second de- 
gree; but it was likewise reversed by the Su- 
preme Court.-" Following this the case was 
dismissed by Prosecutor Wall, of Boone County. 
There was much jiublic dissatisfaction at the 
result, and some urging of a now indictment, 
l)ut some important, witnesses had left the state, 
and it was thought impossible to make a case. 
On :\rarch IS, 1874. the Board of County Com- 
missioners recorded a declaration that they 
"would incur no further expense in the prose- 
cution of Nancy E. Clem".-' IMeanwliile Ab- 
rams was convicted and sentenced to life ini- 
]irisonment, but he was pardoned by Governor 
AVilliams, on .Tulv -T. 1878. There was evidence 

"33 Ind., 418. 
="42 Ind.. 420. 
-']'rrnr/l 12. p. ().")•"). 

adduced in the cases tending to show that 
Mrs. Clem was operating a system of inter- 
changeable loans, like the more recent Cassie 
Chadwick system, and at a certain point fright- 
ening her duped creditors into silence by threats 
of exposure of participation in the profits of 
counterfeiting, or some other illegal business. 
It was commonly believed that the Youngs were 
involved with her in the business, and that 
they were killed to get possession of a large 
sum of money that was in their possession. 
The theory of the character of the business was 
.-trengthened a few years later by the disclos- 
ures in a case where Mrs. Clem was convicted 
of perjury, for which she served a term of four 
years in tlie Women's Prison. 

The next shocking crime after the Cold 
Spring murder was Wm. Cluck's murder of his 
wife, on April 2.'), 1872. He was a natural 
brute, made unnatural by liquor, in which he 
indulged freely. He habitually mistreated his 
wife, and one day, after snapping a gun at her, 
informed her that he would pour coal oil on 
her and her child while they slept, and burn 
them up. The terrified woman left him at the 
first opportunity and took refuge with a friendly 
family. On the day mentioned, Cluck came 
there and undertook to drag her to his house. 
She broke away from him and he shot her — 
shot her a second and a third time as she was 
on her knees begging for life. He w-as con- 
victed and sentenced to be hanged on December 
20, 1872. His case was taken to the Supreme 
Court and aflirmed.^^ Some well-meaning ]ieo- 
ple became active in his l)e]iall', jn-obably 
influenced most by tlie idea that an execu- 
tion would be a disgrace to the county. 
Governor Baker declined to commute the sen- 
tence, hut gave the man a respite to January 3. 
to make preparation for death. He prepared 
by issuing a letter in which he denounced his 
lawyers, the press, and the ]nibiic in genci-al,-''' 
and securing a sufficient amount of morphine 
which he took on the night of December 31, 
lie ended his existence. 

On December 24, 1877, William Greenley, a 
negro, killed Ida Kersey, a married woman with 
whom he was maintaining illicit relations. He 
was indicted at the January term, 1878, con- 
victed and sentenced to death. The case was 

"40 Ind.. 2r>3. 

-•'Jnunifil. Deceinber 30. 1872. 



appealed to the Supreme Cuurt and allinuod,-' 
but Governor Williams commuted the sen- 
tence to imprisonment for life on May 15, 
1S78. On July 3, came the pardon of 
Abranis, and following it came a carnival 
of blood. On July 16, John Achey, a 
gambler, killed (Jeorge Leggett, a supposed 
partner whom he charged with robbing him, 
and who probably did. On September 16, 
Wra. Merrick, a livery-stable keeper, killed his 
wife under peculiarly atrocious circumstances 
— a woman whom he had seduced, robbed, and 
married to secure the dismissal of bastardy pro- 
ceedings ; and who sued for divorce before 
her child was born on account of bad treat- 
ment. On Se])tomber 19, Louis Guetig killed 
Mary Mc(ilrw. a waitress at his uncle's hotel. 
who had declined to accept his attentions. Achey 
might have escaped the death penalty but 
for the state of public mind caused by the 
combination. He was convicted on Xovember 
7 and sentenced to death. Guetig was con- 
victed on Xovember 28 and sentenced to death. 
Merrick was convicted on December 13 and sen- 
tenced to death, the jury being out only eleven 
minutes. They were all sentenced to be hanged 
on January 29, 18T9, but Guetig's case was 
appealed to the Supreme Court which reversed 
it on a small technicality in an instruction. 
Achey and Merrick were hanged at the same 
time, on one scaffold, in the jail yard, on Jan- 
uary 29. Guetig was tried again, convicted, and 
sentenced to death. The Supreme Court af- 
firmed this decision-"' and he was hanged on 
September 29, 18'<9, at the same place. 

After these executions there was a lull in 
capital offenses until 1885. On June 24 of that 
year Kobert Phillips, a negro, killed his wife, 
in a fit of insane jealousy, and cut his own 
throat. Tlie doctors patched him up sufli- 
ciently to allow of his conviction on December 
14, and his execution on April 8, 1886. These 
four cases were the only executions that ever 
occurred within the county limits, and as on 
March 6, 1889, an act was passed requiring all 
future executions to be made at the state pris- 
ons,-" it is probable that they will be the last. 
But the death penalty has been pronounced sev- 
eral times. On .Vugust 24, 1889, Edward Az- 

nian murdered Bertha Eltf and then cut Iiis 
(jwn throat. He was rescued by the surgeon, 
convicted, and sentenced to death; but the Su- 
preme Court reversed the case-^ and on 
change of venue to Johnson County he was 
allowed to plead giiilty to murder in the sec- 
ond degree and take a life sentence. On April 

14, 1893, Parker and McAfee, two young negro 
toughs, murdered Chas. Eyster, a druggist on 
North Senate avenue. They were convicted 
and sentenced to death, but the Supreme Court 
reversed the decision-'' and on change of venue 
to Johnson County they received life sentences. 
On September 9, 1902, Orie Coppenhaver mur- 
dered his wife, and his sentence to death was 
affirmed bv the Supreme Court-" and he was 
hanged at":Michigan City. On May 12, 1903. 
Edward Hoover murdered his father-in-law. 
Frank Sutton. Hoover's wife had left him, and 
he sent word to her father to come and get her 
things or he would sell them; when he came 
Hoover shot him. The Supreme Court affirnicil 
the death sentence^'' and he was hanged at 
:\Iichigan City. On January 26, 1905. 
Bei'kely Smith was convicted and sentenced 
to death for murdering his wife; and he 
was executed at ilichigan Citv on June 3(1. 
On September 30, 1906, Patrolman Chas. J. 
Russell and I'>dward J. Petticord were killed 
by Jesse Coe and George Williams, two negro 
desperadoes, while resisting arrest. Williams 
was captured, convicted and sentenced to death 
on Octol)cr 12, and banged at .Michigan City. 
Coe escaped, and liafllcd pui-suit for nearly two 
years, but was betrayed by a cousin, lured into 
a trap and killed by officers on August 25, 1908, 
in Kentucky. 

The act of December 31, 1821, cstablisiiing 
the co\inty as mentioned, bad donated $8,000 
for a court bouse, suitalile for use as a state 
house until a state bouse should be built, wjiich 
was to be commenced within one year after the 
taking effect of the act, and completed 
within three years thereafter. This matter 
was given prompt attention, and by August 

15, 1822, satisfactory plans luid been prepared 
by Jolni E. Bak(>r and James Paxton, which 
were adopted by tlie commissioners, and on that 

='60 Ind.. 1 11. 
"' 66 Ind., 94. 
-\icix ISSO, p. 192. 

" 123 Ind., 3-11. 

"136 Ind., 284. 

=M60 Ind., .540. 

■"•161 Ind., 318. 



date the clerk was iiistriiuted to advertise for 
bids for the erection of the building. It was 
to be forty-live feet front, facing Washington 
street, by sixty feet deep, and '•ninety-four feet 
high", but of this last dimension forty-nine feet 
six inches was cupola, dome, belfry, spire and 
vane. The building was two stories liigh, the 
first story "K; feet between joists"' and the 
second lo. It stood on a foundation 3 feet 
thick and j feet high, of which 1.S inches was 
under ground. The walls were of brick, "-iT 
inches thick in the lower story, and 'i'i inches 
in the second. The specifications called for a 
roof of jjoplar shingles, five inches to the wea- 
ther, and "a Doric cornice gutter on the roof, 
and four tin conductors with capitals". The 
entrance from the front was into a hall 13 14 
feet wide running across the building, east 
and west, except that a room I0I4 feet square 
was cut oflE the west end. Back of these was the 
main court room, or house of representatives, 
which was 40^/0 feet square. From the hall a 
stairway led to the second story, to a similar 
hall with a similar room cut oil' the west end. 
Back of these, on each side, was a room 1(> 
feet square, and lietween them a hall led to the 
second court room, or senate chamber, which 
was 411/4 feet by 'i'>. At a special meeting 
on September 3, the commissioners awarded 
the contract to the architects John E. Baker and 
James Paxton, for $13,990. This was a stiff 
advance on the legislative appropriation of 
$8,000, but by act of January -i. 1824, the 
legislature appropriated the additional $.5,991). 
This was with a jiroviso that the commissioners 
should provide a gallery across the south end of 
the representative hall, ■"surticient and suitable 
for the accommodation of spectators and others, 
with at least two rows of seats therein"' ; and 
should furnish the two legislative chambers with 
"good, suitable, suthcient and complete seats, 
with good, substantial, sufficient and complete 
tables in front of the same, for the accom- 
modation of one hundred persons: ami the 
said tables sliall have in them one hundred 
drawers, of a large and convenient size, with 
good locks and keys thereto for the use of sena- 
tors and representatives, and the said seats and 
tables shall he made substantial, firm, sulfi- 
eient and suitable and be finished in good and 
complete, plain, workmanlike manner"", other- 
wise the agent of state >lioul(l "pay over none 
of the a])pro|)riation." The conditions were 

jironiptly accepted; in fact the commissioners 
Went beyond them, and on February 11, 1824, 
called for a contract to furnish "eighty Windsor 
chairs of a plain, substantial kind, to be suit- 
ably painted and finished.""-" 

But, to return to 1822, the commissioners 
proceeded on their march of improvement <<[ 
the Court House Square by providing, on No- 
vember 13, for a public well, "to be dug so deep 
that there will be at least three feet of water 
therein"", to be curbed with a good, strong and 
sufficient frame, as customary, with fit boards"", 
and also with "a strong and suitable sweep". 
On February 11, 1823, they provided further 
for a pound, at the northeast corner of the 
square, to be made 50 feet square and se- 
curely fenced — the posts to be made of walnut 
and the rails of oak — and with a strong gate, 
fastened by a heavy lock. These were the 
only additional structures on the square for 
some years. The court house was completed 
and accepted on January T, 1825, by the com- 
missioners, although they were not then in 
office for other purposes. By the act of Jan- 
uary 31, 1824. boards of county commissioners 
were discontinued in Indiana, and the county 
business was transacted by boards coni])osed of 
the justices of the peace of the county. Part 
of the counties were put hack under the old 
system by special acts — Clarion County by act 
of January 19, 1831 — and the commissioner 
system was restored. By special act of Feb- 
ruary 7, 1835. Marion County again went back 
to the Board of Justices. This act was re- 
pealed on February 7, 1837, and the Commis- 
sioners were permanently restored. 

The court house was tlie only public building 
in Indianapolis for some years, and the only 
one suitable for public meetings. In addi- 
tion to its use as a state house and a court 
house for federal, supreme and local courts, the 
Board of Justices on March ',, 1825, provided 
that "the Representative Hall shall be appro- 
priated for religious worshij) on particular 
occasions"", and put the buihling in charge of 
the sheriff with an evident understanding that 
others might use it. for they "provided, that 
each society or other person using any of the 
rooms shall leave such room in as clean and 
>rood order a> tlir >.-nrii' mav lii' in when rc- 

■■'L'rronl. p. 12!. 



ceivi'd by tliclii""."- Tlu' public, liowcvur, did 
not cxiTfisr as jtrcat can' of tbe i)uibling as 
Ava? aiiticipatfd. Toi- on September 4, IS'.i'i, as 
the eierk bad ottered to provide rooms for bis 
and the recorders" oHices "in a good brick buihl- 
ing, in a ])ublic |iart of Indianapolis, at his 
own expense, it i.- m-dci-ed that the said ((uii't 
house be kept closed bv the sheriff of the county 
excej)! at courts or sessions of the Hoard or 
Legislature, after the clerk's otlice is rc- 
niove<r'.''"'' The c(Hnmissioners paid $;],U()1.-II 
for repair- tn the liuilding on Ai)i'il 'i'i, 1S4(I, 
and tliere i> no i-ci-di-d of tlie building being 
opened to the public till September 8. 184"^, 
when it was ordered that it might be used by 
"any iteligious society, or any Horticultural or 
Agricultui-al society, or the Washington or 
other temj)erance society", the occupants 
to be res])onsible for any damages and 
to ])ay the sherilf foi- extra work occa- 
sioned. From that time on it was the 
chief assembling ]ilace for all sorts of meetings 
and entertainments until private halls wcie 

On January 'iii. lS-.'7, the legislalure appro- 
priated !f;.")()0 to build an ollice for tbe (dcrk of 
the Supreme Court, on the Court House Sipuirc. 
This wa.s a one-story brick building, l!(ixl8, and 
stood next to Delaware street, opposite Court 
street. It stood until 1855, when it was tmii 
down, and the otlice moved to the state house. 
On June 7, 1844, the commissioners ordered a 
building for the county ollicers, which was 
built on the west side of the square, east of 
the little otlice of the clerk of the Supreme 
Court. It was a onc-.story brick (il '/-.'x;?!. di- 
vided int« three offices, each of which hail a 
fire-proof vault. .\ second story was ;idded to 
it in 1805, and it was used unlil tlu^ prcs- 

^^Record, p. 182. 
"■'■Rcronl. p. -'I!). 

cut court house was completed. In preparation 
for tile building of the present court house. 
a temporary court house was constructed in 
18U8 north of the county oflices. It was at 
first intended to rent quarters for the courts, 
but the lawyers were of opinion that the courts 
were legally l)ound to sit on the Court House 
Sipiare, and so it was built there. It was a 
two-story brick, 'i'he contract was let to ^lil- 
liT \' Schaaf on .May .">. for •$()..■>■; <l, and it was 
completed and accepted on Scptendn'r ■;. When 
the Superior Court was created in 1871, more 
room was needed, and an addition 44x50 was 
built on the west side, reaching to Delaware 
stre(>t. The contract for this was let to George 
I'arkci- for $;!,lll(l. These were the only offi- 
cial buildings erected on the Court Honso 
Square. in 18G4 the rcjiublicans put up a 
rough Iranic structure, HOxlO on the south 
side of the sijuare, for political meetings. It 
was "dedicated" Septendjcr 21 by Senator 
Henry S. Lane, and the Journal tried to chris- 
ten it "the Union Tabernacle", but everybody 
i-alled it "The Wigwam". It stood for a year' 
or so and was ust'd for other meetings after 
tbe campaign. In 18t)7 a temporary building 
was ])ut uj) in the southeast corner of the 
square for the saengerfest. This closed on 
September (J, and the Y. M. ('. A., with com- 
mendable enterprise secured the building for 
"big meetings" on September 7 and 8 ; after 
which it was also used for a short time for 
other meetings. In 187'^ another "Wigwam"' 
was built by the republicans on the northwest 
corner of the square. It was here that Henry 
Wilson, candidate for Vice President, spoke on 
.Vugust 5, but that is not so well remembered 
as the speech by Hen Hntler at the same place, 
in which, incensed by some s\iggestion of 
"spoons" in tbe Scniuii'l. he paid his respects 
to J. .1. Hiiigham ami also lt> Thos. A. llen- 
di'icks in his most caustic style. 



On Decembur 1, 1823, Calvin Fletcher wrote: 
"Seven Indians in with venison and bear's 
meat. Vouison hams arc I2V2 t-ents a piece, 
Captain John, a Wyandotte chief, is among the 
number."" Tliis serves to introihiee tliree not- 
able classes of denizens of this region when the 
settlement began, the Indians, the deer, and 
the bears. Altliough one occasionally finds a 
statement from some old settler that "the 
Indians were very bad"" in the early times, it 
is unquestionable that they were not. The Del- 
awares, under their treaty of 1818. were al- 
lowed to occupy their lands for three years, and 
after their removal the Indians of the north- 
ern part of the state occupied part of their 
villages, and hunted throughout the region for 
several years. As a rule they were very well 
behaved, but they were fond of the white man's 
firewater, and occasionally made some small 
disturbance under its intiueuce. The Wyan- 
dotte Jolin mentioned above was considered a 
dangerous man because he had left his tribe 
on account of some oJl'ense ; but no charges of 
any kind are recorded against him, although he 
lived about the settlement for some time, oc- 
cupying a liollow sycamore log on the east bank 
of the river, just above' Washington street. It 
was quite commonly believed that George I'ogue 
was killed Ijy Indians, but there were many 
who did not believe it. The only real Indian 
tragedy anywhere near Indianapolis was the 
brutal murder by white men of an inoffensive 
party of Indians, east of Pendleton in 1824. 
This caused some alarm lest the Indians should 
retaliate, but they were entirely satisfied bv the 
prompt execution of the chief offenders, Hiul- 
son. Bridges and Sawvi'r.' 

\Siiiit]i'K Indiana Trinja. pp. .SI-' ; Diuin' 
True Indian Stories, p. 1!)7. 

Uut there were many people who were afraid 
of Indians, and sensible people took some pre- 
cautions to prevent pilfering by them. Con- 
sequently an occasional Indian, with an ab- 
original development of the bump of humor, 
would undertake to scare somebody. Xowland 
records a case of a drianken Delaware, called 
Big Bottle, who started to chop down John 
McCormick"s door, in 1821, because Mrs. 
ilcCormick had refused to ferry him over the 
river; but he promptly tiesisted when her cries 
brouglit several white men to the scene, and 
explained that he merely wished to "scare white 
squaw". He was put across the river with the 
admonition that any further jesting would 
probably result in his being shot by her hus- 
band. Complaint was also made to Chief 
Anderson \\ho took measures to prevent any 
similar annoyance thereafter. In 1822, a small 
party of Indians passing Samuel McCornuck"s 
house, about where the ^laus brewery st^inds, 
picked up Amos ilcCormick. aged three years, 
and started off with him. His mother's cries 
brought some men who were working in "the 
deadening", and the Indians dropped him wWen 
they saw that the joke was getting serious. Some 
wliite men were similarly facetious. Nat Cox 
iunl an Indian costume, and it was a favorite 
diversion of his to dress in it, and sit scowling 
on a log, to see people shy away from him. 
These were as near Indian hostilities as ever 
occurred at tins ]ioint. Berry Sulgi-ove re- 
lates an incident of his grandfather being 
alarmed by an Indian following him in the 
woods where West Indianapolis is. He was on a 
horse, with a child before him. and whipped 
up to avoid his pursuer, but t]u> Indian in- 
creased his speed also. Seeing that ho would 
be overtaken, Mr. Sulgrove stopped, and when 
the Indian came up he held out a shoe which 




the child had lost aud which he desired to 
return. - 

So far as the abundance of game was con- 
cerned, this might be called a hunter's para- 
dise. There were plenty of bears and wolves, 
and an occasional panther, or catamount as 
they were commonly called, but the chief 
trouble the settlers had with them was in pro- 
tecting their stock from them. Probably Elisha 
Reddick, the first settler in Lawrence Township, 
had the most varied experience in this line. He 
was the first settler there, and brought in with 
him twenty-five hogs and a dozen sheep. Soon 
after his arrival he had a lively fight with a 
predacious panther that weighed about a hun- 
dred pounds, and finally succeeded in killing it 
with an ax. He also killed three bears and 
fifty wild cats before he got peaceably settled.'' 
The venerable Dr. AVm. H. Wishard had an un- 
pleasant experience with wolves, in 1826, when 
a boy of twelve. His parents lived at the edge 
of Morgan County and ho had come up to get 
some meal ground at the old bayou mill. It was 
nearly dark when he got started home, and in 
the darkness of night, in the dense forest, he 
found his path obstructed by a pack of wolves 
that had pulled down a deer on the trail. But 
he was "nervy"', aud with considerable effort 
he succeeded in making his way around them, 
through the thick underbrush, and got safely 
home. Amos Hanway aud Cloudsberrj' Jones 
(older brother of Wm. Jones, of Cobum & 
Jones) when boys, saw a black bear on Gov- 
ernor's Island, which was opposite Greenlawn 
Cemetery before the river shifted its channel ; 
and some years later a large bear was chased 
out of the corn fields near Xorth street. Row- 
land mentions a bear being killed near where 
Morton place now is, about 1846.'' 

Deer were very abundant, and not very shy. 
Robert Duncan said he had killed many of 
them, but never shot at one running, because 
powder and lead were expensive and he could 
get all he wanted standing. Owing to the 
dense underbrush, the larger part of the deer- 
liunting was done on the river. Says Mr. 
Duncan : "As an evidence of the great abund- 
ance of wild game in this section of the coun- 
try at that early day, and the easy manner of 

'Hist. Iiidianapolis. p. G9. 
'Sulr/rnve Hist., p. .537. 
*Rem{niscences, p. 42. 
Vol. 1—5 

capturing the same, it is only necessary for 
lue to state that Robert Harding, one of the 
very early settlers named in my former sketch, 
during the summer of the year 1820, on one 
occasion pushed his canoe containing his hunt- 
ing material from the mouth of Fall Creek 
(near which he was living) up the river to a 
jioint about the fourth of a mile below where 
the bridge across While Eiver on the Michigan 
road is situated, being about five miles north of 
Fall Creek, from which point he started home- 
ward about 10 o'clock p. m., and on his way 
home killed nine deer, all bucks, having de- 
termined that night to kill nothing but bucks. 
On another occasion, during the fall of the 
same year, he and his brother Eliakim, who had 
by this time joined him, at a point near where 
the pork-houses of Kingan and Ferguson now 
stand, killed thirty-seven turkeys out of one 
dock, Robert killing twenty-five and Eliakim 
twelve. Tills kind of slaughter was not fre- 
quent but the killing of three or four deer, a 
half dozen to a dozen turkeys, and fifteen or 
twenty pheasants by a single person in a single 
day or night hunt (deer being mostly killed in 
the night time) was not unfrequent." ■' 

Rev. J. C. Fletcher bears testimony to the 
abundance of game at a later date. He says 
that one day, in 1834, when walking with 
lus father, he saw a flock of turkeys light in a 
tree in what is now Military Park. Soon ;Mr. 
Pulliam, partner of Samuel, Henderson in the 
tavern, and Jacob Cox, the early artist, who 
were pursuing them, came up, and Pulliam 
killed nine and Cox three out of the flock. Mr. 
Fletclier also makes the following statement: 
"In the first week of January, 1831, I was 
with my uncles James and John Hill, who 
were on their way to the farm of the former 
(which was very near where Brightwood is 
now) and I saw a large herd of deer bound 
across the road into the woods not far from 
the present locality of Fletcher & Thomas's 
brick yard. Wild 'turkeys in 1821 were \-2\'.> 
cents apiece, but if several were bought there 
was a large discount. In the spring of 1822, 
wild pigeons were sold at 25 cents by the 
bushel. In marked contrast to this were the 
prices of all manufactured or imported ar- 
ticles. There were two stores, if sucli little two- 
penny shops could be dignified by that name. 

'"hid. Hist. Soc. Pubs.. Vol. 

].. 387. 



Thesi' wcro kc[)t liy .1. iS; J. (iivan ami by •!. '1". 
Of^ljonu-. The lattur alturwards weut to Nuw 
Orleans. The roads rroui this place ti) the 
Ohio Were almost impassable, and most of the 
importation came from the Whitewater coun- 
trv. I'oor coffee was 50 cents per pound, tea 
$1.50 ditto, while coarse, thin, shabby muslin 
for shirting was from 43% to io cents per 
yard. 1 do not find the price of flour in my 
mother's journal in, but 1 learn that, in 
1822, good flour, brought from 'Goodlander's 
mill, in yonder on Whitewater" was from $7 
to $8 per Ijarrel : a coarser flour brought $3 
per hundred pounds. Corn meal was 75 cents 
per bushel and corn was 50 cents per bushel; 
jiork was from $2 to $2.50 per hundred, and 
beef \v:is from $2.50 to $3 per hundred"." 

Turkeys often came into the town. Xow- 
land mentions one being killed at the corner 
of Washington and Missouri streets on Decem- 
ber 24, 1820, that weighed twenty-three pounds, 
and was so fat that it burst open when it fell 
from the tree ; also one being shot from the 
top of Hawkins" tavern in 1825, during the 
session of the legislature; and adds that "it 
was no uncommon thing, about the years 184(i- 
T for turkeys to be killed on the northern ])art 
of the Donation"".' .\aron D. Olir caught one 
in the (i()\i'rnor"s Circle in 1841. it bad been 
frightened by hunters from the woods 
about the present Blind Asylum and 
on being pursued took refuge in the base- 
ment of the old mansion house. Waterfowl 
of all kinds were abundant, especially ducks 
and geese, in the fall and s])ring. Swans were 
rare. Amos Ilanway saw Hocks on the river at 
three times, but the only one killed, of which 
there is any record, was bagged by George 
Smith, the pioneer ]iublisher, in the spring of 
1822. The smaller fur-bearing animals were 
very numerous, especially raccoons and squir- 
rels, which occasionally did very serious dam- 
age to the crops. At the same time many a 
settler was enabled to hold out while he cloareil 
his farm, and got a start by the sale of 'coon 
skins, which always had a cash value. In fact 
this advantage of the abundance of game ranks 
next in importance to its increase of the supply 
of food, and that was almost vital to some. 
Robert Brown wlio li\cd for eiijht vears cm 

^Xrirs. :Marcli 2!i. 18:!). 
''Remniisii'iii-i's. pp. Ki. 42. 

the site of the Blind Asylum, would kill 
enough game to last his family for a week or 
two, and then go out and work on his farm, 
south of Irvington, until he got it cleared, and 
a house built. 

The last Indianapolis man who made any 
business of hunting was George W. Pitts, who 
said of his experience: "I commenced trapping 
about this town with my father in 1838. as 
a boy only fourteen years old, and made a 
business until 1849 of hunting and trapping. 
1 u.sed to take my traps and float down 
White I\iver, staying out until the stream froze 
up. I knew all the hollow sycamores along 
the river, and many a night have I slept in 
them with a big fire blazing out in front. I 
trapped muskrat, mink, "coon, otter and fox. 
"Coon skins paid the best. I gave a cow and 
a calf to old Josh. Hinesly for a "coon dog. 
He was a good "un. Many a time in one night 
I got enough "coons with him to pay for that 
cow and calf. * * * j always went alone 

* * * and nuide my living trapping. ^Yhen 
1 was going to school to the old Clarion County 
.seminary I kept up my tr<ipping on Fall Creek 
and the river as far as iIcCarty"s farm. I 
made enough money outside of school hours to 
])ay for my schooling and something over. Dur- 
ing the winter, while going to school, I caught 
one night in Pogue's Run, near its mouth, 
three otters at one slide, and one about wliere 
the Belt crosses the run. Along in "45 I cleared 
as high as $(50 a week, trapping between this 
town and Waverly. * * * I think I caught 
the last otter ever trapped in Clarion County. 
That was in 184!), upon Fall Creek a mile 
north of the Fair (irounds. (i. e., ilorton 
Place.) I got twelve dollars for the skin. 

* * * In tliose days wild turkeys wero 
plenty all "round town, esjjecially north 
of town in the Fall Creek bottoms. I have 
sliot goliblers weighing twenty-two pounds when 
cleaned. I used turkey for bait for "coon and 
mink; jiarsnip is best for muskrat. In 1847 
I killed a deer, a big buck, on the river, twelve 
miles below town. Around Crown Hill used 
to be, along about '40, a splendid place foi 
turkeys and .squirrels ; some deer there too. Any 
man who could shoot at all could calculate on 
getting fifteen oi' twenty squirrels in an hour 
or so in the afternoon. I used them to bait 
with. They were a great pest to the farmers, 
in '44 or "45 thev came travelling through here 


from tilt' iiortli : st-oivs and scores of tiiousamls 
of tlu'iii. 1 haw si'iMi tht'iii swiiniiiing the river 
iu great clrovi's, anil stood on the bank witli 
a eluh and killed them. They were verv lean 
and seemed to have been starved out. They 
were the old fashioned gray squirrel. Fox 
gquirrels were rarely seen then, but about 'i-j 
they began to appear, and soon drove the gray 
squirrels out. * * * There was no end 
of fish in the streams in those days. I went up 
to ^Ie('ormick"s dam (just above the Country 
Club) four miles above town on the river one 
day and sat down at a chute that had broken 
out and where the fish were running through. 

* * * There were wagon loads of fish, and 
I threw out with my hands eighty-seven bass, 
ranging in size from one pound up to five. 

* * * The boys used to shoot fish Indian 
fashion with bow and arrow, the arrow being 
seeureil with a string so that it would not 
be lost." * 

There was no dillieulty about catching fish 
in the early times. Xowland says that his 
father introduced hook and line fishing hero in 
June. 1820, and that, after finishing his day's 
work, he would often "catch enough to sup- 
ply our family for several days"." But there 
were others, for on ^lay '2'), ]S2(l. Tipton re- 
cords: "Bartholomew. Durham and myself 
went fishing — caught plenty of fine, large 

fish. Amos Hallway's favorite mode of 

lisliiiig was with a gig, at night, befin'e be tmik 
to seining, but Xowland says: "He was ei|ually 
successful with hook and line, and his favorite 
bait was a worm which he called helgramite, 
which be ])rocured under old logs." " This 
demonstrates that there was good founda- 
tion for his reputation for knowledge of lish 
and their ways, hut there was little need of 
skill or cunning in the early days. The fish 
were numerous, hungry, and not shy. Almost 
any bait was good for a bite, and a bite was 
usually gootl for a fish, for minnows were not 
usciv and tlierc was no "letting a bass run". 

Hook and line was too slow a process for most 
pi iipli'. mid the popular methods were the spear 
nr gig when the river was ojien and clear, and 
stumiiiig them by striking the ire above them 

^■hiiiniiil. Octiilirr n. issn. 
"Uriiiinisrciiccx. pp. 40, 41. 
"7/1-/. ^f^(|. of Ifisl.. Vol. 1. p. 12 

' ' L'l IllillisCCIICI'S. |1. 0" . 

with a club or a.'i when it was frozen. John 
.McCormick was verv skilful with a gig, and 
used not only to sui)i)ly his tavern table with 
choice lish, but occasionally to take a canoe- 
load of gars and other worthless varieties to 
feed his hogs. Perhaps the most notable of the 
early fishermen was the Kev. Amos Hanway, 
before he became a fisher of men. He was a 
son of Amos Hanway, the cooper, who came 
here in 1.S2], and enjoyed the distinction of 
living in the first shingled house — the shingles 
split out and shaved by himself. Young Amos 
jneferred fishing to coopering, and probably did 
better at it, for he says: "for years 1 supplied 
the family with coffee, sugar and tea, to say 
nothing of many other things, hy fishing". The 
varieties of fish taken, he says, were '"bass, sal- 
mon, red horse, ordinary suckers, quillbacks, 
or as they were sometimes called s})earbacks, 
perch, pike, catfish, etc. * * * The big- 
gest salmon I ever caught weighed sixteen 
potmds. I once catight a pike that measured 
four feet and two inches ; at another time a 
gar-fish that measured over three feet, and a 
blue catfish that weighed sixteen and a quarter 
pounds. The finest rock bass I ever took was 
one which weighed eight and a quarter pounds, 
and that was near Waverly ; while the liiggcsi 
river bass 1 ever lifted from the water weighed 
six and luii'-rniirtb pounds." '- 

By "rock bass" lu' means the big-moulhcil, 
black bass: by "river bass"' the little-mouthed, 
black bass: bv "perch" the rock bass or redeye; 
by "salmon" the wall-eyed pike or pike-percli. 
The "(piilliiack" is the carp-sucker. .\s the 
market for lish develo|>eil, young Hanway pro- 
cured a good-sized seine, with which he used 
to take fish by wholesale. He says that once 
in Morgan County, above the Cox dam, when 
the fish were running, he and his brother Sam 
"at one haul seined twelve barrels of fish, and 
thei-c were thirty fish that averaged, undressed, 
ten ])ounds each. They were mostly bass and 
salmon, but there were also large redhorse. 
white i)erch, (piillbacks and ordinary suckers". 
Koberl Duncan tells of seeing a haul with a 
seine at "(!onner"s Hole", near ('onner's Sla- 
tinn at which a large wagon-load of lish was 
taken, and the fishermen threw away a ])ile of 
gars as large as a haycock.' ' It i> a pity thai tlif 

'-Xnrs. .\ugus( !l, IS^!). 
'■'./(iiinnil . Septelliber ".'."). 1S^ 





gars were not cxtenninatod, but tlicre are still a 
few in the river. On a bright day they may 
often be seen in Riverside Pari<, liasking at the 
top of the water below the bluU' ;it Eniniericlrs 
grove. Some of the other varieties that were 
common in the river then are seldom taken at 
Indianapolis or higher up the river now, and 
have not been for thirty years or more, prob- 
ably on aceount of the pollution of the river 
by sewage at this point. One of these is the 
white perch — commonly known as the sheeps- 
head or fresh-water drum on the great lakes, 
and as the croaker, or crocus in northern In- 
diana — but it is still common below Waverly. 
Another is the pike-perch, or wall-eyed pike, 
which is found in the river below, and in the 
Wabash and its other tributaries. In 190-4, 
there were 900,000 of the fry of this fish placed 
in the river at Riverside Park, in the hope 
that this would permanently stock the stream, 
at least from that point up. 

The expense of manufactured goods had a 
marked effect on the clothing of the early set- 
tlers. In summer, home-made tow-linen was 
widely worn, and in winter, home-made linsey- 
woolsey by the women and jeans by the older 
and more sedentary men. But, says Mr. Dun- 
can. "The outer apparel of the male population, 
particularly the younger and more active, soon 
became buckskin. This material was fre- 
quently procured already tanned by purchase 
from the Indians, but more frequently by tlie 
party killing the deer, dressing and tanning 
the skin himself, and thus making it ready for 
the tailor. Usually the only articles of cloth- 
ing made of this material were pantaloons and 
coats, called in these times 'hunting-shirts', be- 
ing much in the shape and style, barring the 
neat fit, of the sack coat so much in use among 
the gentlemen of the present time". The owner 
was usually his own tailor, "the thread used 
in the manufacture being the sinews taken 
from the legs -of the deer, or a thread called 
'wliang', ])repared by cutting a long strip, as 
small as possible so as not to make it too 
weak for the purpose intended ; a large needle 
and a shoemaker's awl being used in the sew- 
ing process. * * * jj. ^j,g gQQjj found that 
tliis l)uckskin apparel was the very best that 
could have been devised for the country and 
times. It resisted the sting of the nettles, the 
scratch of the briers, the bite of the rattlesnake, 
and the pcnetratiou of the cold, lileak winds of 

winter, and at that time was cheap and within 
leaeh of all. * * * Indian-made moc- 
casins, which were abundant and cheap, were 
much worn by both sexes (particularly the 
younger and more active classes) in dry 
weather both winter and summer, being very 
comfortable and pleasant to the feet, and pre- 
senting a rather neat appearance. For wet 
weather strong, well made leather shoes were 
used. Bare feet were quite as seldom seen 
then as now. The head dress for the male 
population for winter use consisted mostly of 
a strong, well made wool hat with a low, broad 
brim something in the style of the hat in use 
by the elder of the Quakers at this time. A 
rather unsightly but very warm kind of fur 
cap was used by some, made out of a well- 
preserved 'coon skin. For summer wear, a 
rather rough home made straw hat was made 
out of the straw of rye, which was consider- 
ably grown for that purpose — the hat being 
very much in appearance and style of similar 
hats now in use. The female head-dress con- 
sisted in part of a straw bonnet made of the 
.same kind of straw, and in part of a sunbonnet 
generally made out of some kind of fancy 
colored calico worked over a stiff pasteboard; 
both straw and sunbonnets being of a style 
then in use, and of such shape and construc- 
tion as to protect both the face and neck from 
the hot rays of the summer sun and the cold 
blasts of the winter winds".'* 

The mention by Mr. Duncan of "the bite of 
the rattlesnake", is a reminder of this the one 
venomous reptile found in this region. It was 
not uncommon in the very early days, one 
species in stony places, and another in swampy 
or prairie lands. The most notable "den" of 
them was discovered in the winter of 1835-6 
on the farm of Isaac Hawkins, about half a 
mile east of Valley Mills Station, and in the 
spring a number of the neighbors assembled 
and dug them out. There were 120 snakes of 
various kinds, over 100 of them rattlesnakes, 
that were coiled u|) togi'tlier in a ball, and all 
were killed. Dcmas McFarland gave a vera- 
cious account of this to the Gazette, but Mr. 
Bolton improved the story by making it "150 
snakes from 10 to 3 feet long", and in reply 
to McFarland's protest blandly desired to Icnow 

'*r>i,l. Hist. Soc. I'lilis., \'(,1 •.'. pp. ;590-393. 



wliMt Uii< the ditt'creiu-t' in a snake .-torv.'' 
TIh' stoiy IS antlicntic-, howuxur."' ami rat- 
tlesnakes were at least eoniniun enough to call 
for the following advertisement in July anil 
Augu>t. lS->: : 

"The suhseriher is authorized to purchase a 
quantity of pure RATTLE !5^XAKE OIL at 
his store in Indianapolis. The mode of saving 
it is, after taking off the pieces of fat, put them 
into a ghiss, pewter or tin vessel, and expose 
it to the heat of the sun one day, then pour it 
into a glass bottle and cork it tight — if any 
pieces of the fat are not melted squeeze them 
through a rag. 

JEg'^lf the snake bites itself the oil must not 
be saved. 

John Givan". 

But rattlesnakes, and all other kinds of 
sn;d\es. disaiqieared very rapidly as hogs, tame 
and wild, multiplied in the woods. They were 
fond of snakes, and an old-fashioned razor- 
hack could and would kill any snake, and eat 
it. ilany years have ])assed since a rattlesnake 
was heard of in Clarion County. 

Buckskin continued to be more or less worn 
for a number of years, and in evidence of its 
recognized cheapness and durability may be 
iu)ted the fact that on June 8, 1843, the County 
Commis.sioners allowed Hervey Hindman "$'l, 
for making buckskin pants for pau]>ers"".'' 
( )f ciiurse the clothing here described means that 
of the masses. There wa,< always a class that 
used manufactured textile fabrics, as is evident 
from the advertisements of such goods. (4ivan 
and Oshoi'iie did not hold the monopoly of 
"stores" very long. Luke Waljxjle arrived in tlie 
summer of IS'i'i. coming uj) the river in a keel 
boat, in wliich, in addition to his family of 
thirteen and a coloreil servant girl, with their 
baggage and household furniture, he lirought 
a general stock of goods, a large part of which 
he sold at airction in the fall of 1S23. In 
.March, 1823, Robert Siddill advertised "a neat 
assortment of dry-goods, queensware, hardware 
and groceries, consisting of calicoes, ])laids, 


April 1 

. lS-.'( 



. ///.-•/.. 

p. .Mi: 

^'('oiiirx. 1 

•>;:. 1. , 

1. 132. 

Irish linen, steam loom and power shirtings, 
Hag handkerchiefs, etc., knives, spoons, Ijutts, 
hinges, screws, nails, etc., tea, coffee, loaf sugar, 
tobacco, scgars, pejjper, allspice, nutmegs, etc.", 
at his store on Washington street. In June 
John Hawkins advertised "an assortment of 
<lry goods, groceries and medicines""; and on 
July 2, Conner, Tyner k Co. announce the 
opening of their store with a detailed list of 
dry goods, hardware, ([ueensware, groceries, 
tinware, etc., too lengthy for reproduction. In- 
dianapolis had a hatter from 1821. when John 
Shunk. the pioneer in that line, came and es- 
tablished himself in a cabin near Kingan"s 
jiork-house, where he manufactured old-fash- 
ioned beaver, or "plug"" hats, as well as other 
kinds, until he roasted to death, in a drunken 
stu])or, at his own fireside. And he soon had 
rivals and successors. XoY was the town with- 
out a tailor after Andrew Byrne returned in 
March. 11S21, following liis visit with the com- 
missioners in ]82(). 

In fact the arts and crafts were creditably 
represented in Indianapolis at a very early 
date. On February 25, 1822, the Gazette said: 
"Tlie improvement of this town since the sale 
of lots in October last, has surpassed the e.x- 
])ectations of those wlio entertained the great- 
est hopes of its future prosperity. There have 
been erected 40 dwelling houses and several 
workshops since that period, and many otiier 
buildings are now in contemplation. One grist 
and (one) saw inill are now in operation with- 
in one mile of the centre of the tow'n, and sev- 
eral others are nearly ready to be put into 
operation equally as near. Business is com- 
])nratively lively at this time. We liavc al- 
leadv mechanics and professional men of the 
following description and number, to wit.: 
thirteen carpenters and joiners, four cabinet 
makers, eight blacksmiths, four boot and shoe 
nuikers, two tailors, one hatter, two tanners, 
one saddler, one cooper, four bi'ickhiyers, two 
merchants, seven houses of entertainment, three 
groceries, one school master, four jihysicians, 
one ministci' <if the gospel, and three counsel- 
lois at law"'.'"' TJiis, it will be noted, mod- 
estly overlooks the press, which was early on 
hand. Oeorge Smith, a Pennsylvania printer, 
married the widow Xancy Bolton, who had one 
son, Xatbanicl, born Julv 2.-). 1803. She was 

"Ouotcd in ]'iiiii'iiiii'y Sim. Mai'cb '.I. 1S22. 



a sister of Xathaniel Cox, ht'ttiT kimwii as 
"I'ncle Nat. Cox", a pioneer par))entei', iuinter, 
and all-roiiiid iiieelianical sieniiis of liuliaii- 
apolis. In 18"2() tliey were all seizeil witli the 
fever of emigration, ami floated down the 
Allcjilieny and Ohio IJivcrs to Jetfersom iile on 
a timl)erl)oat. Here they o|)ened a printing 
oftice with a Mr. IJrandon, wliile awaiting the 
sale of lots at Indianapolis, to whieh .Mr. Smith 
went on foot. lie lionght two lots, on one of 
which was a cabin Iniilt by a Kentucky .squat- 
ter who had become homesick and deserted it. 
It was at the corner of Maryland and Missouri 
streets. Smith trudged back to Jeifcrsonville 
and packed back with his belongings and fam- 
ily, except Bolton wlio remained tem|iorarily 
for some state ])rinting work, arriving at In- 
dianapolis aliout the middle of December. The 
cal)in Avas (piickly tittetl up for a joint resi- 
dence and ])rinting otfiee. Iik le Nat Cox and 
a journeynnin printer wiio had been hii-ed for 
a time, being lodged in tlu' neighboring cabin 
of Dr. Ivenneth A. Scudder. 

On January 28, the lirst number of ilie 
Gazette apjieared. It was printed on an old- 
fashioned, two-pull, Ramage hand jjress. The 
forms were inked by hand with buckskin balls 
stuffed with wool, which wiic kept soft when 

I not in use by being greased with "coon oil. 

! The two outside ])ages were usually printed 
early in the week, and the two inside on Fri- 
ilay, the paper being circulated on Saturday. 
Mr. Smith became one of the associate judges 
of the circuit court on August S, 18"^."). and re- 
tired from active managi'ment. lea\ing Xa- 
thaniel Holton in exclusive charge. Tlir '/"- 
zelti' was the only pajx'r until March ". 18-^;i, 
when the first number of the Wi'strni Crnxur 
and Einujranls' Guide ai)])eared. It was jjub- 
lished by Harvey Gregg and Douglass Maguire. 
Mr. Gregg was the chief editor until October 
2!l, when he retired and was succeeded by .lohn 
Douglass, Mr. Maguire taking on the editorial 
work. On January 11, 18-J."), the i)a])er was 
enlarged and the name changed to The Indiana 
Journal. Later on the Dcmoerat, and still 
later the Sentinel, were successors to the 
Gazelle, 'j'he oTiginal office of the Censor was 
on Washington street. o[)|iosite the New York 
store. Both pajiers were fairly regular in tbeii' 
i.=sues after getting well started, though there 
was an occasional failure of an issue on arcmint 

of inaliility to get paper, or a suspension of tlte 

The relation of the neusjiapers and rlie mails 
was close and important. Tlieie had lx;en no 
|iost-office at the place, and no regidar mail up 
to the start of the daielle, but a news|)aper 
could not be published withinit "disiiatches"', 
especially at a time when local news was "all 
over town" by the time it got to the editor. 
So Mr. Smith got busy with an agitation for 
mail I'eform. On January 'M) a citizens" meet- 
ing was ht'ld at Hawkins' tavern lo make ar- 
rangements for a ""private mail'", which was 
not uncommon at the time, i. c. to have all 
the mail for this point gathered at one post- 
ottice, and brought here by a private carrier. 
The meeting selected Aaron Drake as carrier 
and postmaster, and made an agreement with 
him to bring the mail from Connersville once 
a month. Drake at once issued a circular to 
the postmasters, whom Indianapolis mail was 
likely to reach, asking them to forward it to 
Connersville. Says Brown: "\\v returned 
fi-om his first trij) after nightfall, his horn 
sounding far through the woods, arousing the 
people who tumetl out in the bright moonlight 
to greet him and learn the news"". By uu'ans 
of this enterprise, the message of President 
ilonroe, delivered December 3, 1821, came to 
hand in Februarv% 1822. and began to appear 
in our homo paper — it took two or threi' issues 
to print a message, though Moni"oe"s messages 
were mere epigrams as compared with those of 
recent years. Meanwhile the congressional 
dehgation was laboring in Washington, and in 
l-'ebruai'y lndiana])olis was made a postotlice, 
and Samuel Henderson was ap])ointed post- 
master, lie began business on March " , and 
showed his diligence by ])id)lishing a list of 
live letters '"not calle<l for"", on .Vpril .'!. .Vt 
first all the mail canu' from Connersville, but 
nn ()ctol)er ."). 1822, Wetum Jonathiin Meigs, jr., 
I'oslmasti'r (ieneral, advertised in the Vin- 
cennes Sun for proposals for carrying the mails 
to Indianapolis from two other points. 

"l'''rom Washington, by Burlington, Spencer 
ill Owen County, and ^lartinsville in M(U"gan 
1(1 I iidiaiia])olis, oikc in two week.-, r.'."i miles, 
heave Washington I'very other Tuesdav at li 
a. 111. iind arrive at Indianapolis on Friday 
by Ki a. m. Ijcave Indiaiutpolis every other 
I'riday at 2 p. m. and arrive at Washington on 
Monday by (i ]). m."' 


"From Liuvreiicfburgli by Xapoleon to In- 
dianapolis, once in two weeks, 89 miles. Leave 
Lawrenceburgh every other Friday at 6 a. m. 
and arrive at Indianapolis on Sunday by 10 
a. m. Leave Indianapolis on Sunday at 2 p. 
m. and arrive at Lawrenceburgh on Tuesday 
by (j p. m." 

From this time on there was a constant im- 
provement in the mail service, but the Censor 
evidently started in "agin the government" for 
it promptly registered a complaint on June 1 1, 
1823. It admitted: "We believe there is no 
town in the state, of the same age and popula- 
tion, which is better supplied with mails than 
Indianapolis. We have regular weekly mails 
from Madison and Brookville, and semi-weekly 
(it means fortnightly) mails from Centreville, 
Lawrenceburgh and Washington'". But the 
system was bad. Most of the eastern mail was 
sent "by the Lawrenceburgh mail, which ar- 
rives here but once in two weeks", while it 
might just as well come by Brookville or Madi- 
son, and thus the public was deprived of the 
latest news. The public was not apparently 
much disturbed, for correspondence at the time 
was rather expensive, and the charges were 
based on distance as well as matter. A letter 
from New England cost 37i?^ cents postage; 
one from Xew York 25 cents; and one from 
Ohio 12i/2 cents. It was perhaps not wholly 
due to oversight that within a year the regular 
advertised list of unclaimed letters at the In- 
dianapolis postoflice often numbered one hun- 
dred or more. But even at the high rates of 
postage the Indianapolis office was decidedly a 
luxury to the national government. The total 
postage receipts here for the year ending March 
31, 1827, were onlv $372.36'; for 1828, $379.- 
23; and for 1830, $.359.12. And yet the state- 
ment of the Postmaster General on January 
14, 1825, showed the character and cost of the 
service to this point as follows: 

Route — 

Dayton, 0., to Indianniwlis 

Corydon to Indianapoiis. . . 

Indianapolis to Washingrton. 

Indianapolis to Lawrenceburgli. f'tnightly 

Indianapolis to Terre Haute. . f'tnightly 

Indianapolis to HrooUnJlc. . 


Time. Miles, carried. Cost. 

. weekly 7il 13.832 $ 560 

. weekly lOfi 11,024 1.042 

f'tnightly 103 5,356 260 

90 4,680 204 

91 4,732 500 
weekly 06 6.864 300 

One of the worst drawbacks to Indianapolis 
life in 1821 was the lack of mills. Man may 
not live by bread alone, but he seldom enjoys 
hini-self without it, no matter how plentiful 
fish, game and vegetables mav be; and grating 

corn on a piece of tin with holes jjunched iu 
it is monotonous, to »ay the least. But this 
evil was soon to disappear. In the summer of 
1821 came James Linton, millwright; and by 
November he had completed the first grist mill 
for Isaac Wilson on Fall Creek, where Walnut 
street crosses the old bed of the stream, and 
also a saw mill for himself on Fall Creek just 
above Indiana avenue. Tliese are the mills re- 
ferred to by the Gazette on February 25, 1822, 
as quoted above. They were quickly followed 
by the saw mill of Daniel Yandes and Andrew 
Wilson on the bayou west of the river, and in 
the summer by the saw mills of William Foster 
and John McCorraick on the river. Linton 
also added a grist mill to his establishment on 
Fall Creek. On March 7, 1823, its first issue, 
the Censor said: "The town now contains 
about ninety families, among which are me- 
chanics of almost every description, and men of 
all professions. * * * There are at this 
time four saw mills in operation in the county, 
three of which are within less than a mile and 
a half of the town. There are also two grist 
mills wdthin the same distance, and several 
more grist and saw mills are now building, 
together with carding machines, etc." In fact 
the town was sufficiently advanced in civiliza- 
tion to admit of the formation of a trades 
union, for, on April 23, the Censor gave notice 
i)f a meeting of master -carpenters, at the school 
house, on the 26th at 2 p. m., to consider "'the 
propriety of organizing a society and regulat- 
ing the prices of work". There had been an 
evident anticipation of much carpenter work, 
for the Yandes & Wilson saw mill started in 
on a large scale. On April 13, 1822, Mrs. 
Fletcher records: "The waters are very high 
at this time, and have been for a week back. 
.Mr. Levington and many other men have been 
ten miles up the river, on the public lands, cut- 
ting saw-logs for several weeks. They have 
made a contract with Daniel Yandes to deliver 
him 2,000 logs at one dollar per piece, and 
since the rain the saw-logs are coming down 
tbe river"'.'" 

This performance, of going ten miles up tlie 
river to cut logs on the public lands, was de- 
lightfully American, for at this time there 
were hundreds of thousands of feet of fine tim- 
ber on the town site that evervbodv wanted 

''■'Xcws. June 2. 1879. 



ivinovfd. Ill tlie ])i-«:-c(ling Fall the State 
AjU'ut had oflVred tho timber in ihe streets to 
anvone who would cut it, aud Lisiimiid Basye, 
tempted by the cheapness of it, undertook to 
dear Waslunjitim street. After getting a large 
amount of the timber cut he concluded that 
there would be no profit in it, either because the 
saw mill was not yet in operation or because of 
the trouble of getting it to the mill, and aban- 
doned his nndertaking, leaving the trees where 
they were felled. The street, which was the 
one thoroughfare of the place, was completely 
blocked by the logs, stumps and brush, and the 
whole community joined in clearing it by fire.-" 
This occurrence was long a favorite topic of ■ 
the old-timers, and gave rise to Uncle Jimmy 
Blake's justly celebrated joke: "The early set- 
tlers spent their evenings one winter in cutting 
and rolling logs in Wa.shington street. They 
employed two or three hundred negroes to cut 
the logs in two and keep the heaps burning".-^ 
This really needs a diagram, for there 
is no dictionary or glossary, that I know 
of. that gives the exact meaning of the 
word '"nigger"' in backwoods parlance. As a 
noun it means a small log, rail or chunk of 
wood, that is set well ablaze and used to fire 
log heaps, brush heaps, etc. By laying a hraiid 
or two of this kind across a large log and re- 
]ilacing them if the fire dies, or keeping it u|) 
with brush, the log is burned through: and 
this is what is meant by "niggering off" a log. 
One man can keep twenty or thirty of such fires 
going and cut as many logs in less time than he 
could do it with an ax. At the same time the 
"nigger" did all the work, and the employer, 
like the Irish hod-carrier, had nothing at all 
to do but carry it to the place. This was prob- 
ably the idea that gave origin to the term, for 
"nigger" was the common expression for any- 
one who had to do drudgery: hut ])ossibly it 
might Jiave come from tli(* thought that this 
was a lazy man's way of working, or it may 
even have come from the old Xorthumberland 
dialect in which "nigger' is used for an andiron 
or fire-dog. It may he added that "nigger" is 
used in this backwoods sense in the expression 
"a nigger in Ihe wood pile", i. e., something 
that destroys the jmrpose of the wood pile, 
and not that an African is despoiling the wood 
pile, as is verv eommnnlv supposiMJ, Hut. to 

■" Bni«ir> llisl.. p. (I. 

-'J'lKI-Udl. .luilc 111. IS.-)'. 

get back to the subject, these logs that were 
Imrned up, and thousands of others not cut in 
other streets, could have been used at the 
Vandes & Wilson mill just as well as those ten 
miles up the river. Even in the absence of 
heavy wagons, they could easily have been 
sledded to the river while the snow was on the 

. Notwithstanding the improvement of local 
conditions of living, the growth of the town 
was not as rapid as had been expected by 
some. There was no advance in real estate as 
had been anticipated. The capital did not 
come in fact. More or less people were coming 
in, but others were moving to the country. 
Why invest in a town lot when you could get a 
farm for the same money? Others sought 
more rapidly developing localities. On Sep- 
tember 22, i823, the Censor declared that the 
])lace contained between 600 and TOO souls, 
and the estimate was probably liberal. A cen- 
sus in April, 1824, by the Sunday school visi- 
tors showed 100 families, with 172 voters and 
45 unmarried women between the ages of fif- 
teen and forty-five years. The number of chil- 
dren is not stated but it was presumably not 
far from the number of voters, for a census in 
February, 1826, showed a loin I nf 730 souls, 
209 of whom were children of school age. 
Aloney was not very plentiful, but that did not 
cause much inconvenience, except in the pay- 
ments for lots and lands, as business was al- 
most universally conducted on a basis of barter, 
with money prices as the measure of value. 
Hides and furs were always practical legal 
tenders. The newspapers advertised from time 
to time that they would accept "country sxigar", 
"corn", "poultry", "clean linen and cotton 
rags", "furs and tallow-", and other commodi- 
ties. Tn April, 1824, James Givan advertised 
that for general merchandise he would accept 
"ginseng, beeswax, honey, sugar, deer and fur 
skins, or almost anything else in preference to 
]iromises", but cash only would be taken for 
"powder, shot, whisky and salt". The prices 
of agricultural iiroducts decreased somewhat 
as farms were cleared. On January 12. 1824, 
Amos Grilfith. cabinet maker, advertised that 
he would accept corn at 37i/> cents per liushel, 
]iotatoes at the same price, and pork at $2. .'50 
])er hnndicd. On Pecember 2(i. 1820, the 
Jouninl staled lliat one could purchase here 
"corn at l-"i lo 20 cents a bu-lu'l and ])ork and 
bee!' ill $!..■>(• iier hundred". 



For its first five years. Inilianapolis was an 
answer to tlie conuutlriini, "WlK'n is a capital 
not a capital ?"" The one essential jnirijose of 
its existence was to Iw the seat of state gov- 
ernment, but the legislature showed little dis- 
position to make it that in fact. By the con- 
stitution of 181t), Corydon was made "the seat 
of government of the State of Indiana until 
the year eighteen hundred and twenty-live, and 
until removed by law".' The important point 
was to secure the removal as soon as the consti- 
tution permitted it. Of course it was useless to 
talk about moving the state offices here until 
there were buildings for the transaction of state 
business, but there was no haste about getting 
the buildings. The people early realized that 
they must have representation if they wanted 
their interests cared for. and on Septendjcr 
2t), iJS'-^'i. a meeting was held at C'rumiiaugh"s 
which petitioned for representation. The peti- 
tion was successful and, by act of January T, 
1823, .^[arion County was included in a reju'c!- 
sentative district with Madison, Johnson and 
Hamilton counties, and in a senatorial district 
with Decatur. Kush, Henry, Shelby. .Madison, 
Hamilton and Johnson counties. The election 
came on August 4. There were oidy two can- 
didates for representative, .James Pax ton and 
John W. Ueding, and Paxton carried every 
county in the district, being elected l)y :{T4 
votes to 13(). For the senate there were foni' 
candidates. James (iregory of Shelby County, 
Dr. S. (J. Mitchell of >Iarion. John Hryson 
of Decatur, and Wni. B. i>aughlin of Hush. 
The votes received bv them were Uregorv. I'^M; 
:Mitchel!, 291 ; Bryson, 299 ; Laughlin, 2S9. 
A bill was introduced at the next session, mak- 
ing Indianapolis "the ))erniancnt seat of gov- 

ernment of this state upon. from, and after the 
second .Monday in January (January 10) in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-five", and recpiiring all state officials 
to be established there at that time. The bill 
was warmly contested, and would have been 
lost but that "Whitewater" stood loyally by 
the New Purchase. It was passed by the 
House, but was amended in the Senate and 
then ])assed only by the narrow margin of 9 
to 8. H came back to the House and on Janu- 
ary 1. Dennis Pennington, of Harrison, moved 
to amend by striking out the words ""second 
Monday in January in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-five", and inserting 
"first ^londay in Decendwr one thousand eight 
hundred and twenty-five": luit the jirevious 
ipicstion was demanded, and the amended bill 
par-scd by a vote of 2.") to \',.- On 
January 23, Pennington introduced a bill to 
suspend the operation of this act until 182G, 
but it was laid on the table until the following 
Tuesday, and remained there ])ermanently. The 
act was approved on January 20.-' It was hailed 
with joy by Hulianapolis, and on February 2lt a 
sn|)per was given in honor of Paxton and Greg- 
ory at Washington Hall, at which some thirty 
gentlemen were present. After the edibles were 
disposed of Dr. S. G. ^[itchell was chostMi presi- 
dent, and Judge Wick vice-president, and "nu- 
merous toasts and sentiments were proposed 
and dnmk", beginning with one by the presi- 
dent: "The Representation from the Xew Pur- 
chase — Our thanks are due to them for their 
industry and .zeal in jiromoting our welfare and 
prosperity". This was drunk standing, and 
"Colonel Gregory in behalf of Colonel Paxton 

An. II. Sei (inn I 1. 

-Si'll. ■Jiiiinifll, ]l. 188; House .Iniininl, |i. 1 ".';!. 
■■Hvr. L'liry IS'J,. i). 3:0. 



and himsolf. n-tunicd thanks in :i very ^lll)I•t, 
but feeling and appropriate manner". \\'e are 
told that '"Great Iiarniony and good feeling 
prevailed during the festivities of the evening". 

The act for removal provided: "And Samuel 
Merrill esqr. is iu'rel)y apixiinted on lielialf 
of the state, to superintend, generally, the re- 
moval of the reeords. dociuuenis and ]>uldi(: 
projjerty of every description, as well those 
above referred to as all and e\eiy other article 
or species of ))roperty, which now is or here- 
after may be ri-maining at ('(u-ydiin. the picsciit 
temporary seat of government, which may be- 
long to the state, U) Indiamipolis, aforesaid. 
previous to tiie said second ilonday in .lanu- 
ary, in the said year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and t wenty-fivi' : and he is i^ecpiired to keep 
a fair and exact a<-connt of the expenses neces- 
sarilv iticurri'(l in the said transportation and 
renu)val. to be submitted to the gi'iu'ral as- 
sembly at their ne.xt regular session". This 
was modified by a joint resolution of January 
30, which authorized Mr. Merrill "to sell at 
public vendue, to the highest bidder, all the 
chairs, tables and other fnrnitui'e lielonging to 
the state, which, in his opinion, cannot be ad- 
vantageously removed to lndiana|)olis", giving 
twenty days notice of the lime ami place of 
sale in the Indiana Giizrllc, a))proi)riating the 
proceeds to the expense of the removal, and 
rendering "a just account" to the next general 

Samuel Merrill was an ideal man for such a 
task, thoughtful and jiainstaking. lie made a 
two weeks' trip to Indianajiolis in Septendter, 
1824, to arrange for ])laces for his fandly and 
the state property,'' and in Ndvcndier disposed 
of the state's surplus funiilni'i' at auction, and 
started for Indiana|iolis. aciiiin|)<inied by .Inlm 
Douglass, the state |)rinter, and Ids fandly. Says 
Colonel Merrill. "The joui'ney of about one 
hundreil and si.xty miles occu|)ied two weeks. 
The best day's travel was eleven miles. One 
day the wagons accomplished hut two ndles, 
passages through the woods having to he cut 
on account of the imjiassable character i>( the 
TiM\i\. Four four-horse wagons and one or two 
saddle horses fornu'd the means of conveyance 
for the two families, consisting of about a 
dozen persons, and for a printing press and 

'Sl,frl,ll Arts. IS-.M. p. 1 i:l. 
"Jldllsr ■hiiinidl. IS'.'C. p. IS I. 

the state treasury of silver in .strong wooden 
boxes. The gentlemen slept in the wagons or 
im the ground to protect the silver, the families 
found shelter at night in log cabins which 
stood along the road at rare though not incon- 
venient intervals. The country people were, 
nnuiy of them, as ru<le as their dwellings, 
which usually consisted of but oiu^ room, serv- 
ing for all the pur))oses of domestic life. — 
cooking, eating, sleejiing, spinning and weav- 
ing, and the entertainment of company. At 
one place a young man, who perhaps had come 
miles to visit his sweetheart, sat up with her 
all night on the (mly vacant space in the room, 
the hearth of the big fireplace. He kept on 
his cap, which was of coonskin, the tail hang- 
ing down behind, and gave the children tlv 
im|)ression that he was a bear''. 

It was the venerable .Mi-s. Ketcham, then one 
id' Samuel ilerrill's tots, who awoke in the 
night to see the coonskin cap in the flickering 
light of the dying fire, and dropped asleep 
again thinking she had seen a bear. The one 
other vivid impression of the trip on her in- 
fantile mind was the memory of how their "am- 
bitious teamster would ])ut on all his bells in 
honor of the Treasurer of State and the State 
Printer, so that every man, wonutn and cliibl 
would run to the frimt to see", whenevci- I bey 
apjjroachcd a \illagc on the road. But the 
feature that made the most lasting impression 
on Samuel Merrill was the bad roads, and. 
twenty years aftcrwai-ds, he wrote: 

"Though the <li>tani-c was only l"^.") ndles, 
such was the stall' wf the roads that it rc- 
i(\dred about ten days Id pcrroiin the journey in 
a wagon. Specimens of bad roads that it is 
thought cannot well 'be beat", nuiy still be found 
ai some season- of the year: but the xctcran- 
of those days, unless their memories deceive 
them, have seen ami experienced of the depth 
and width of iniul-h(des that cannot wcdl be 
coiu-eivcd in this 'degenerale age.' " The writer 
of this article, on two dccasions. after bmii-s 
of weary travel, fiuind bimsclf. vcrv unwill- 
ingly, at his starting place in llic moi-ning. ami 
his good friends the jn-escnt Postmaster al 
Indianapolis and I be .\iiditoi- id' States, after 
a day's travel, as they thought, towards Cin- 
cinnati. ])aused in wonder at evening, at their 
own town, which al lir<l they su]i|)osed was 
some unknown .-ctlleincnl in the wilderness. 
.\ res])ectahlc cilizen of Ohio having tra\iTsc>d 



this state about that time, was asked, on his 
return home, about his travels, and whether 
he had been pretty much tlirough the state. 
He said he could not tell with certainty, but 
lie thought he had been pretty nearly through, 
in some places." The closing jest was ilr. 
Merrill's favorite story in later life. The get- 
ting lost did not occur on the journey to In- 
dianapolis, but is illustrative of another fea- 
ture of the difficulties of early travel. The 
Indianapolis trip was made at the best season, 
for if an Indiana mud road is ever dry, it 
should be so in Xovember. What it must have 
been in the spring can be left only to the im- 
agination, with no danger tliat any imagina- 
tion will picture the road worse than it 
actually was. 

Of course this tedious removal of all the 
state's belongings over these appalling roads 
was an expensive aifair. Here is the bill that 
Samuel Merrill rendered to the next legisla- 
ture for the cxjiense of it:' 

To Messrs. Posey and Wilson for boxes $ 7.56 

To Mr. Lefler for one box .50 

To Seybert & Likens for transporta- 
tion of 3,945 lbs. at $1.90 per hun- 
dred 74.95 

To Jacob & Samuel Kenoyer for trans- 
portation of one load 35.06 

Deduct for proceeds of sale of fur- 
niture at Corvdon, Xovember 23nd, 
1824 ■. ' 




One is moved to wonder if there is not a typo- 
graphical error in the specific appropriation 
act of February 12, 1825, which allowed to 
Samuel Merrill, "sixty dollars and fiftj'-five 
cents for cash advanced by him for expenses 
incurred in removing the property of the state 
from Corydon to Indianapolis". There is surely 
a need for some explanation of that cut of five 
dollars. However, the legislature was generous, 
and allowed Mr. Merrill ''also one hundred 
dollars for his personal trouble and expendi- 
ture in packing and moving the property of the 

"Chnmhfirlniit's Gazetteer, p. 
'Sen. Jonrnal, 1825. p. 7. 


state". And all future generations must 
acknowledge that this was not a case of "graft", 
for evidently he must have done most of the 
work himself or have exercised an ability in 
getting it done that could hardly be measured 
in mone}^ And this covered also a two-weeks' 
trip to Indianapolis to prepare there for the re- 
moval ! Yerily, we shall not soon see his like 

Arrived at Indianapolis, the clerk of the Su- 
preme Court was installed temporarily in the 
13x13 room in the southwest corner of the sec- 
ond floor of the court house, and the Secretary 
of State in the similar room immediately below 
it. The Auditor and Treasurer went into rented 
rooms until the state provided a building for 
them, and rents were not exorbitant at that 
time, for they were each allowed $20 a year 
for office rent— the Agent of State had only 
$16. The Governor was the only official who 
was allowed house rent, and the appropriation 
for that purpose was $200 annually. ^Ir. Mer- 
rill's family moved into James Ijlake's pala- 
tial tenement with Calvin Fletcher, evidently 
displacing Mr. Blake, who had been boarding 
there. Mrs. Ketcham recalls the residence thus : 
"It was on Washington street, south side, half 
way between Tennessee and Illinois streets, — 
a small one-story, red frame ; two rooms, two 
doors in front and two windows ; occupied by 
two families. Calvin Fletcher had the west 
side. I cannot remember how thev managed, 
except in each room was a big bedstead and a 
trundle one that wheeled out at night and under 
in the daytime. A door opened into Mrs. 
Fletcher's apartment from our room, and from 
hers out on to a rough porch or covered space 
that led to a large log kitchen. I suppose tjoth 
cooked by the same large fireplace and prob- 
ably ate on this porch, and I remember the 
wind taking our dining-table over clear to the 
fence — a half square." Even these restricted 
quarters were diminished later, for the log kitch- 
en burned down during the joint tenancy. 
But people in those days had not acquired the 
delusion that thev needed residences so large 
that all their time and strength would be ex- 
pended in caring for them — a condition to 
which, in our higher civilization, the flat-dwell- 
ers are rapidly returning. 

Bad roads were not a matter of concern to 
Samuel IMerrill alone. They weighed on every- 
body. The necessity of roads to the capital 


(M'. ;/. «.!»» rhol'i Compan:/.) 


iiis'|-()i;v OK (;i;"i;i; indiaxaj' 

had boeii ivalizi'd Irimi tlif lir>t and tht- legis- 
lature of 1821 hail ordcTt'd t^tate road^ to lii- 
iliaiuipolis, and made appropriations for thcni. 
as follows : 

From the Hi-h Bank- of White 

RivLT '. $7,U2-2.UU 

From the Horse Shoe Bend, via Pa- 

oli, Palestine and Bloomington. . S,4"?().00 
From Mauk's Ferrv, via Salem and 

Brownstown . . .' 8/J8S.0()' 

From Bethlehem, Clark County, via 

Xew Washington and Lexington o.O.'kxOO 
From Madison, via Vernon and Co- 
lumbus (i.:{.-):.(H) 

From liawrenceburgh (i, :!:>;). 00 

From Ohio line, via Brookville. . . . 4,:i()"2.4-t 

From Ohio line, via Connersville. . 4,-.'4!).Oi) 

From Ohio line, via Sali^l)urv. . . 4.1S-^.00 

From Ohio line, via Winchester... ■.',tM'2..J(l 

Total $.5r),(;-M.!14 

It also ordered a state road from Indian- 
apolis to Terre Haute, hut made no api>ro)iria- 
tion for it. The road from Indianapolis to Fort 
Wayne was ordered by act of February 10. 
1825 ; the road to Crawfordsville by act of 
January 23, 1828 ; the ^lichigan Road by act 
of January 24, 1828; and the road to Lafayette 
by act of January !), 1829. For the improve- 
ment of all these roads additional a])pri)pria- 
tions were made from time to time. The Mich- 
igan Road was a special undertaking, and was 
cut 100 feet wide. All the others were 48 feet 
wide. The "cutting"' of a road meant the re- 
moval of the timber, the law requiring that 
the smaller trees should bo cut even with the 
ground, while "such as are eighteen inches 
and upwards shall be cut at the usual height 
of twelve inches,"' Supervisors were appointed 
for each five miles of state road to be cut, in 
the several counties, and after they were cut 
they were cared for as county roads, with the 
addition of an occasional state appropriation 
for improvement. .\t the same time that these 
state roads were under construction, the county 
authorities were jnisliing the work on local 
roads. At their first session, as mentioned, the 
county commissioners ordered roads to Con- 
ner's Station ; to the western county line on 
about the line of the National Road ; to ifc- 
Oormick's mill, just above the Country Club: 

an<l soutlnvest to the county line. At the Au- 
gust session it ordered a road "commencing at 
or near the Indian Camp, where the county 
road prayed for by I'^liakim Harding and others 
crosses Eagle Creek"", northwest ]«ist Tiiomas 
^Iartin"s farm to the county line, i. e., the gen- 
eral line of the present Eagle Creek and White 
Ijick Road: also on petition of Joel Wright, a 
continuation of the road to ^IcCorniick"s mill 
to the north : al.~o on petition of Jeremiah Cor- 
baley, a road from the west end of Ohio street 
to Isaac Wilson "s mill, on Fall Creek, thence 
imrth and "across AVhite River at the Big Rif- 
He"", thence northwest to the county line. Ad- 
ditional roads and extensions were ordered at 
nearly every future session for several years. 
The tii'st step in the construction of either 
a state or a county road was the ai)]iointment 
of "viewers"' to select and mark tlu' line of 
the i-oad, and on their reports the roads were 
established, subject to future changes if the 
lines selected were not found the most desir- 
able. In the imsettled state of the country 
these reports weie not always in terms that 
are readily intelligiiile now, as may be judged 
from the following official record of the report 
of the viewers of the road to Conner"s Sta- 
tion, before mentioned : "John Smock and Za- 
dock Smith, two of the viewers of the Fall 
Creek Road now report that they have laid out 
and marked by two eho]is with a tomahawk 
on the trees aiijacent to the said road, and 
recommend the route and ground running thus: 
Beginning at the north end of Pennsylvania 
street (i. e.. the corner of Pennsylvania and 
Xorth streets) thence to the half mile stake 
dividing Section 3(), Township Ki. Range 3 east 
(i, e,, up Fort Wayne avenue to the corner of 
Central avenue), and north with the dividing 
line until it intersects with the road leading 
to Reagan's brick yard (i, e. about Twenty-tiftii 
street), in Section 2.") in said Townsliip and 
Range, thence, north three degrees and fifteen 
minutes east, with said road until it strikes 
Fall Creek, thence with said Creek to Wm. 
Rooker's, thence with the Indian trace crossing 
said Creek at the Rocky Ford in Section 9, 
Township Ui, Range 4 east (i. e., Millersville). 
thence with said trace on the west side of said 
Creek to MoClearin's improvement. Section 3, 
said last mentioned Townsliip and Range, 
thence leaving the trace on the west in a north- 
east direction until it strikes Fall Creek at 



tliu Indian Camp in Section 2 said Eange and 
Township, thonte north oU degrees east until 
it intersects the Indian trace at the hill, tlicncu 
with said traic to the county line tlividiug 
Sections 16 and '.K Township K. itauge .5 east, 
determining at a hackberry marked with the 
letters M C J.."" Or, as we would ])ut it 
now, the general lines of the Millersville Road 
and the Fall Creek and .Mud Creek Free Gravel 

Tlie next step was cutting the road, and mak- 
ing the worst jilaces passable. The means lor 
this were supplied by a road tax payable in 
work, or its ecpiivalent in money at the rate 
of dO cents a day. Each male, between 'i\ 
and 50 years of age, whether living in town 
or country, and owning real estate or not, was 
required to do three days of road work an- 
nually, excepting only "preachers of the gospel" 
and |)ersons excused for cause by the county 
board. The owiu>r of from 40 to 80 acres of 
land was required to do one day's work addi- 
tional; the owner of 80 to KiO acres two days' 
additional; and one day additional for each 
IGO acres above that, up to ten days, whieh 
was the maximum tax. Owners of town lots 
were required to do one day's work additional 
for each lot owned, up to a maximum of six 
days. The ''owner of a wagon and team of two 
or more horses or oxen used as a road wagon" 
was required to do two days" work additional. 
.\ licensed tavern keeper, store keeper or gro- 
cery keeper was reipiired to do a total of six 
days' work, if not an owner of real estate. If 
the work and money thus siijiplied were not 
sutlicient to ]uit the roads in re]iair, it was 
the duty of the supervisor to call out the 
hands assigned to liini and ])ut them in repair. 
In all this work the supervisors were author- 
ized to go upon any adjoining land, cut any 
ditches that might be necessary to drain a rojul, 
take any sand, gravel or stone needed, and eu( 
timber adjacent or near to the road. In addi- 
tion to all this there was a s])ecial ])rovision that 
road supervisors in the New I'urchase "shall 
ha\e a right to call out the hands, allottt'i! to 
them severally, six days in each year, in order 
to put and keep the roads assigned to them 
respectively in re|)air." .Vnv unexpended bal- 
ance of the road tax could be used for bridges, 
for which the county commissioners were also 
auliiorized to acce|it donations or order a tax, 
or, if a tax were considered linrdensotne, they 
might authorize loll bridges. 

This was the road law of 1824. By the law 
of 1831 the universal tax was reduced to two 
days' work, the tax on nonresidents was made 
one-half of the state tax on their lauds, and 
the tax on owners of town lots was made one- 
half of the county tax on their lots; this to 
he applied to work on the streets, and with the 
privilege of paying the tax in work at 50 cents 
a day. A person furnishing a plough or wagon 
with team and driver, at the request of the 
supervisor, received credit for three days' work 
for each day of the team's use. There was 
also a provision for "'cart ways'' from "a plan- 
tation or dwelling-house to a public highway''. 
These were made on special petition, and were 
made 18 feet wide. If one that was ordered 
crossed the unimproved land of anyone who 
objected to it, the land was vahied by ap|)rais- 
ers and paid for, after which the road was pn.i- 
ceeded with. 

Koads made as these were necessarily went 
out of repair cjuickly. Every stum[) at the 
surface, and every root, made a jolt which 
sank the opposite wheel into the ground and 
started a chuck-hole which was helped on by 
standing water, more jolts, and occasional wal- 
lowing hogs. The more the road was traveled 
the worse it hei-ame. The roads in the central 
part of the state were usually worse, so far 
as mud was concerned, than those in the south 
part, for the surface soil here was conuuonly 
a .soft loam with a coating of mold and dead 
leaves. Almost the only improvement at- 
tem[)ted to the natural surface was coriluroy- 
ing, or as it was more commonly called "cross- 
laying'' or ''cross-waying" in s|)ecially swampy 
places. 'I'liis was done by laying small logs, 
close togethei', ci'osswis(> the road, and cover- 
ing them with dirt. II' badly laid, or out of 
repair, this const I'Uction was sometimes worse 
than nothing, for a horse was liable lo break 
his leg in it. Mven where there were t'ewfr 
chuck-holes the roads were very bail. ('apt. 
Basil Hall, who crossed the southern part of 
the state in 182T-8, savs: "The country is hilly 
nearly all the way, the roads execrable, and the 
carriages maile as rigid as if they had been cast 
in one piece of metal. This is (piite necessary, 
1 admit, considering the duty thev have to go 
through. Oni' other refiueniciii in these ve- 
hicles 1 must mention. In ex'cry othei- part of 
tlie Union we found at least one door, tliougb 
there were I'arely tun. in any stage coach. But 
upon this occasion, wlieie so large an o|)ening 



was a weakness that could not be afforded, the 
passengers had nothing left for it — females as 
well as males — but literally to mount the coach- 
man's seat by aid of -the wheel, and then scram- 
ble in at the front as well as they might." * 

As soon as the capital was moved, the south- 
ern part of the state began to experience the 
disadvantages of the bad roads leading to it 
and the poor mail service ; and their woes found 
expression.. On Friday, January 14, 18'<25, the 
Lawrenceburgh Palladium said: "On Monday 
last the legislature met at Indianapolis, but 
owing to the present arrangement of the mail 
to that place, it will be impossible to have any 
information from the legislature before the 
middle of next week, nine days from the com- 
mencement of the session! (We can have in- 
formation from the City of Washington in 11 
days, which is more than five times the dis- 
tance to Indianapolis.) But this isn't all — 
it will be (after the mail arrives next Wednes- 
day) the 2nd of February before we have an- 
other return of the mail, nearly the close of 
the session, should it not continue longer than 
4 or 5 weeks, as is expected. It is an old 
adage, and may be a true one, that 'every evil 
has its good', but we can't see this connexion 
here, unless the legislature was wanting to 
have a place unconnected with the stir and 
bustle of the world, where they might digest 
and make laws and regulations for the 'good 
of their constituents, in peace and quietness; 
where they might vote as they pleased, and no 
person know anything about it — just abridge 
the Journals a little. They have found just 
such a place we guess as Cowper was wishing 
for, when he said — 

'Oh, for a lodge in some vast wilderness ! 
Some boundless contiguity of shade.'" 

And yet Lawrenceburgh was an early bird 
as compared with Vincennes, for the account of 
the opening of the session did not get into 
print there until January 29. But the condi- 
tions gradually improved, and communication 
with the outside world became comparatively 
rapid. On September 8, 1833, the Journal 
published the advertisements of four lines of 
stages then in operation from the capital: that 
of A. L. & W. L. Ross to Brookville, leaving 
and returning twice a week ; Johnson's two lines 
of "mail stages" to Lawrenceburgh and Madi- 

^Travds in North America, Vol. 3, p. 38(). 

son, each three times a week; and the line of 
P. Beers to Dayton, also three times a week. 
In those days of rapid transit one could go 
from the capital to the Ohio River, or return, 
in two days, and there was little improvement 
on that until the railroad came. Judge C. P. 
Ferguson, as a small boy, made the trip up 
from Madison in 1836. His father had been 
elected to the legislature, and arranged for the 
boy to go with Judge Dewey from Cliarles- 
town, by way of JIadison, while he rode through 
horseback. Says Judge Ferguson: "The pro- 
gramme was carried out, and the judge and 
myself took passage on the steamboat Roches- 
ter, at the Charlestown landing. * * * q^ 
the boat the judge met several friends, among 
whom was Randall Crawford, a great lawyer 
and father of the now distinguished Harr}', 
who was also on his way to Indianapolis. At 
]\radison we three took lodgings at Pugh's 
Hotel and occupied the same room. Next morn- 
ing, before it was light, the stage drove up 
to the door agd we got in, after which the 
driver picked up a few passengers at private 
residences, one of whom, upon entering was 
addressed as judge, and I got to learn that he 
was Stephen C. Stevens, who had been a sii- 
jireme judge, and, having resigned. Judge 
Dewey had been appointed to fill his place. 

"From Madison to Columbus made one day's 
journey, and there we expected to meet an 
Indianapolis stage, that would take us on. We 
passed the night at the Jones hotel, and the 
Indianapolis stage failing to meet us, a pri- 
vate conveyance was provided— a common farm 
wagon — and in that way we were sent on to 
Franklin. At Franklin, late in the next morn- 
ing, the stage was on hand ready to take us 
im. It was not a coach, but a large, covered 
spring wagon, drawn by four horses. Getting 
so late a start, we trudged the balance of the 
day and into the night through mud and 
chuck-holes and over corduroy roads. * * * 
A little after dark on this last day's journey, 
while perched upon my seat, drowsy and worn- 
out, Mr. Crawford aroused me and said, in his 
]ieculiar tone of voice, which those who knew 
liirn will recollect, "Now you can see the lights 
of Injprtnapolis'', and shortly afterward?; we 
were in the town. What a contrast with the 
present! There were no brilliant lights, no 
jingling of bells and shrieking of whistles; 
no yelling of the names of different hotels, 
but in darkness and quiet the stage drew up in 



front of tlie ilansion lloust', kopt by Bai^il 
]5ro\vn, and there emerged therefrom and en- 
tered the hotel, eohl and tired — a supreme 
judge, an ex-supreme judge, a great lawyer, 
anil a little countrv boy.'" " 

'J'he coniiiifT of the capital did not have any 
immediate and marked effect on the fortunes 
of the town. There was no boom in town lots, 
and no rapid increase of population, though 
there was a general stiffening of prices and a 
feeling of stal)ility that had formerly been 
wanting. The condition was cjuite similar 
to that of a college town. The sessions, which 
were then annual, brought a nundjer of people 
to town, and business of all kinds livened up. 
Considerable money was put in circulation, 
and very soon the session marked the common 
fiscal year. People made bills payable when 
the legislature was in session, and there was 
a general settlement of accounts at that time. 
But the most notable effect was social. There 
were usually a number of persons of more or 
less prominence here besides the legislators, 
and a great many families took one or more 
boarders in their liomes. In anticipation of 
the coming, a number of young men of the 
place met at the Land Office one evening in 
the Tall of 1824 and organized the Indianapolis 
Legislature, with jurisdiction over all known 
subjects, and especially over such as came be- 
fore the real legislature. Among the early 
members were William Quarles, Dr. K. A. 
Scudder, Austin W. Morris, John Frazee, Is- 
rael Griffith, Alexander W. Russell, William 
Xew, Joseph K. Fvooney, Douglass ^laguire, 
John Cain, Jose|)h M. Moore, Thomas H. 
Sharpe, Thomas A. ^[orris, William 1'. Br\ant, 
Xewton S. Ileylin, Andrew W. Ingram. Hugh 
CXeal, George W. Kindierly, r.enjamin S. 
Xoble, Fahiu.s ^1. Finch, Simon ^'an(les. and 
Xathaniel P. Bolton. Benjamin I. Blythe, who 
had been a mend)er of the legislature from 
Dearborn County, was chosen the first speaker, 
and the organization was launched. 

It was popular from the lirst. and soon 
many other young men joined, and also a num- 
ber of the older citizens, including Judge Wick, 
Tliram Brown, Morris ^Forris, Calvin Fletcher, 
and later Governor Xoble and General Hanna. 
It held its sessions in the senate chamber of 
the old court house, on Salurdav ni"lits. ami 

during the sessions was very generally attended 
l)y the members of the state legislature. Much 
interest was taken in the discussions, and it is 
said that many of the ]n-oblenis of the real leg- 
islature were settled by its debates. The ladies 
of the town were quite regular attendants, 
and were always welcomed. This organization 
met weekly, winter and summer, for over ten 
years, and was a source of both amusement and 
education to the community. It elected a 
governor at intervals, and his "message" was 
always an elaborate, and often humorous docu- 
ment, which was generally printed by the local 

But according to ^Ir. Bolton the legislative 
inffuence was still more extensive, for he says: 
"After the removal of the seat of government 
to Indianapolis, the social intercourse of the 
))eople seemed to partake more or less of a 
legislative character, particularly amongst the 
young of both sexes. At a wedding party a 
society was instituted, consisting of young la- 
dies and gentlemen, on the legislative prin- 
ciple ; yet not quite so democratic, in one of 
its departments, as that of our state government. 
The aristocratic branch consisted of four young 
ladies, who constituted a council, or board of 
directors, having a strong veto power on all 
matters brought before the society. The 
other branch was purely democratic, and 
consisted of ladies and gentlemen. The 
subjects brought before the society were 
generally such as tended to matrimony. 
There was a marshal or sergeant-at-arms ap- 
i)ointed, whose special business it was to carry 
out the decrees of the council or board of di- 
rectors. James Blake, the Indianapidis mar- 
shal of thirty years standing, was first elected. 
Moonlight excursions on a large ferry boat on 
the river were projected; and the society, on 
fine evenings, would proceed to the boat, where, 
l)y the light of the soft silver moon, as nur 
bark floated over the waters, to the sound nf 
sweet music, many a tale of love was told. .V 
grave charge was made against several of the 
lirst directory of ladies, who instead of atteml- 
ing to the interests of the society at large, were 
file first to form matrimonial alliances for 
themselves. When their wedding jiarties cauK! 
on, these charges were a source nl' much amusc- 

"hid. lllsl. Snr. I'lihs.. \n\. 
Vol. 1—6 


"•/■«(/. Hist. Sor. Pi(h.<.. Vdl. 1, |i. 1 



In its beginnings Indianiipolis had most of 
the characteristics of an American frontier 
settlement, varied by the fact that it was not 
on any line of travel. They were not so 
marked as usual in the matter of lawlessness, 
as has been noted, and they were more 
marked than usual in the physical conditions 
and the social relations because the place was 
isolated — set down in the primeval forest, with 
almost no roads, and very limited waterways. 
The settlers were thrown on their own resources 
for almost everything, and there was a very 
slow advance towards those social distinctions 
that are found in older communities. There 
was practically no help to hire — the only way 
to get it was to get into troul:)le and trust to 
sympathy. People did their own work when 
jjossible, and helped each other when necessary 
or mutually desirable. The following entries 
from the diary of Mrs. Calvin Fletcher in 
1821, will illustrate the condition: "November 
5, 1821. Mr. Fletcher has been helping ]\Ir. 
Blake husk corn." (Mr. Blake — James — (jwned 
the house in which the Fletchers lived, and 
boarded with them.) '•December T. We killed 
a l)eef. Mr. Paxton and Mr. Blake hei])ed to 
butcher it." "November 22, 1821, 1 spun 
some candle wicking." "November 24, 1821, 
Mrs. Nowland was making a bonnet. She 
came to me to know whether I could make it. 
I did not understand it, but gave her all tlie 
instruction I possibly could.'" There are nu- 
merous references in this journal to visits, 
small dinner parties, teas, quiltings, etc., and 
evidence that general fellowship and good feel- 
ing pervaded the community. And the first 
settlers evidently nuide the most of their lim- 
ited opportunities for amusement. On Decem- 
ber 2?, 1821, Mrs. Fletcher notes the return 
of Mr. P)lakc fi'iim ('(irvdoii, and sa\s. "Mr. 

F. has gone to see him, and when 1 write a 
few more lines I will go also, although 1 feel 
very much fatigued, for it is a long time since 
I have heard the fiddle played. (Mr. Blake 
was a performer.) I thiidv it will seem very 
melodious, and I am just about to start to hear 
it"". A few days later she writes: "I visited 
ilrs. Nowland, and Mr. Russell played a few 
tunes on the fiddle, and we also danced a few 
reels'". The crowning dissipation of the sec- 
ond year was the New Years ball at Wyant's 
tavern, which may be regarded as the opening 
of "society" in Indianapolis. They had writ- 
ten invitations, the following one being pre- 
served : 

"The company of Mr. and Mrs. Fletcher is 
requested to a party at J. Wyant's, Tuesday 
the 1st of January, 1822, at 3 o'clock p. m. 
Indianapolis, December 28th, 1821. 

A. W. Russell, 
K. A. 8cudder.'" 

Calvin Fletcher records in his diarv for New 
Years 1822, "About 3 of the clock, "Mr. Hog- 
den called with a carriage and carried Mrs. F. 
and myself to Mr. Wyant's, on the river, where 
we met about twenty couple. We enjoyed our- 
selves very much and returned about twelve, 
and not fatigued"".' ilrs. Martin — daughter nf 
(ieorge Smith, the first iniblisher — then thirteen 
vears of age, also went to this iiall in Ilogdcn's 
"carriage"", which she describes as "a great 
lumbering thing" similar to the "mud wagons"' 
that were used iii stage-coach days \\hen an or- 
dinary stage could not navigate the flooded 
roads. The refreshments were elaborate. Rev. 
J. C. Fletcher records Mrs. Martin's account 

Wars. April 12. is:!l. 




































































of them tliiiii: "Aofording to Mrs. Martin 
there was in the great open fire place an im- 
mense kettle or cauldron, which contained no 
less than sixteen gallons of coffee; and there 
were pans, skillets and other cooking and bak- 
ing vessels, in which were biscuits, sweet bread, 
ginger bread, and that best of all cakes which 
is a lost art among the modems. I refer to 
the real, old-fashioned pound cake, which has 
given way to a lot of insipid and indigestible 
sweetnesses under the names of marble, cocoa- 
nut, chocolate, mountain and icing cakes, to 
say nothing of ribbon, fig and I do not loiow 
how many other combinations of cakes. That 
Xew Year's party was composed of every grade 
in society, so that the candidates had an ex- 
cellent opportunity to see the people, for mv 
father told me that invitations were extended 
to everybodv. froni the Helvey neighborhood 
on the school section down to the humblest in- 
habitant of the meanest log cabin nn the dona- 
tion."" - 

There was dancing as well as eating. The 
music was furnished by Col. Alexander 
W. Russell, who enjoyed the distinction of 
coming to Indianapolis on the first keel boat 
that came up this far, in May. 1821. He was 
also a brother of John W. Russell, the steam- 
boat ca]itain. celebrated in Western annals 
for an achievement at Xatchez. One of his 
passengers had been robbed in one of the gam- 
bling dens that lined the river. Russell de- 
manded the return of the money: and when re- 
fused had a gang of hands fasten a hawser 
around the house, and started the boat. The 
ganil)lers tossed the poeket-book out of tl^o win- 
dow, and cried "enough". Alexander W. was 
a TCentuckian. notable later as county sheriff, 
militia officer, merchant and postmaster. He 
was a "fiddler"" of note, and was in demand 
at all of the early entertainments. On this oc- 
casion, under his inspiring strains 'Mattbias R. 
Xowland invited ^frs. Wyant to open the dance 
with him. Others followed, and all was goins 
merry as a wedding bell when Mr. Wyant en- 
tered and ordered the music to stop. Accord- 
ing to J. H. B. Rowland: "Mr. Wyant said 
that 'as far as himself and his wife were con- 
cerned, they were capable of and able to do 
their own dancing, and that he thought it 
would look better for every man to dance with 

his own wife; those that had no wife could 
dance with the gals'". This order, as far as Mr. 
and ilrs. Wyant were concerned, was strictly 
adhered to and faithfully carried out the bal- 
ance of the night. ■■ •' Tliis numifestation of re- 
ligious or moral scruples on the ]>art of the tav- 
ern keeper was characteristic of the time. ^Ir. 
Fletcher records: "On December ;?!, 1823, visit- 
ed, or rather attended, a theatrical performance 
at Thomas Carter"s tavern. The jierformers were 
Jfr. and ilrs. Smith purporting to be directly 
from the Xew York theaters. They both were 
not less than 50 years of age, representing the 
■Jealous Lovers' and 'Lord What a Snow Storm 
in May and June". Admittance 2.5 cents. No 
music at first; fiddle strings broke. Russell 
and Bolton were requested by our host. Thomas 
Carter, to play nothing but 'note tunes or 
]>salms" as he called them." Carter, who was a 
strict Baptist, always insisted on this form of 
])ropriety in his house, and Xowland records 
a similar instance in the winter of 1825-(3. in 
which a ilr. Crampton was the trou]je and Bill 
Bagwell was the orchestra.* 

Just who "Mr. and Mrs. Smith"", the first 
players, were, is not known. Their entertain- 
ment was exactly like those given by "Old Sol 
Smith"" — uncle of Sol Smith Russell, and a 
theatrical pioneer of the Ohio valley — and liis 
wife, when "touring the provinces", and they 
were at a Cincinnati theater that winter, but 
they were much under fifty years of age then, 
and Smith makes no mention of any visit to 
Indianapolis in his reminiscences. Crampton 
was a well-known player in the west, and 
Smith mentions playing with him elsewhere.' 
Whoever they were, they seem to have done 
well, for they came back the following sum- 
mer, when they made the awful mistake of ad- 
vertising in the Gazette, and not in the Censor, 
and on June 22, the Censor observed: "Mr. 
and Mrs. Smith whose performances were 
treated with so much contempt and ridicule 
last winter, arrived in town a few days ago, 
and c(mimenced their performance last night, 
with what cjicouragement we have not yet been 
informed. We have not the same objection 
which exists in the minds of many people 

-Neirs. A]iril 2n. 1S?0. 

^liniiiitiscenci'x. p. 12S. 
'nrmiilisci'iicrs. p. Gfi. 
''7'lii'iilrirnl 'Mannfjcmnit in 
Soiilli fur Thirl 1/ Yrar^. N". Y., 

////' Wi'sl iind.i 

1 SiiS. ', 



ngaiii?t the ])frlormaiiLe, by regular and re- 
speetaljle companies, ol' tragedies and eoniedies; 
but the eneouragenuMit of thin conipanij, whose 
exhibitions we understand (for we have never 
witnesseil them ) alt'ord neither instruction nor 
rational entertainment, would be a reproach 
upon our understandings, and would evince a 
want of taste and discrimination in our citizens, 
which we are proud to believe does not exist." 
This seems to have reached the public con- 
science, for, on June 29, the Censor said: 
'"Mr. Smith and his cotnitamj, we understand, 
have absconded, without taking from us any 
of our cash." Bolton also attended the first 
Smith entertainment, and says "a musical so- 
ciety had just been established, of which I 
was a member, whicli was invited to be pres- 
ent", lie puts Smith's age at 55, and Mrs. 
Smith's at (iO, and states that the latter, in 
addition to the plays, sang the Star Spangled 
Banner, and danced "a Imrnpipe, Ijlindfolded, 
amongst eggs"." 

Indianapolis was unquestionably more moral 
and religious than the average frontier town, 
and presumably so because it was out of the 
line of travel, and because there was nothing 
here for some years to attract the vicious or 
even the speculative element. There was quite 
an influx of si)eculators at the sale of lots in 
October, 1821, but that was of short duration, 
and as the town gave no evidence of becoming 
a "boom town", and had nothing to make it 
such, the speculative element sought other 
fielils. and the town was left to those who had 
come to make homes. These were naturally 
sober-minded, and mostly religious people: and 
there were religious meetings held in the 
cabins of the settlers by representatives of all 
the leading sects long before any of them could 
afford a meeting-house. There is some ques- 
tion as to who ])reached the fir.«t sermon here, 
.some claiming the record for Rev. Resin Ham- 
mond, of Charlestown, a ^lethodist. who 
preached at Isaac Wilson's cabin in the spring 
of 1K21. and some for Rev. John ^IcClung, a 
"New Light"' who addresseil an open-air mecl- 

■/»-'/. Il'isl. Soc. Fub.i., Vol. 1. p. 107. 

' '•N'l'W light" is a rather indefinite term. At 
ill'' time of the founding of Indianapolis it was 
nifpsl commonly applied in the West to the fol- 
lowers of Barton W. Stone, of Kentuckv. Their 
tcMcIs wei-e almost the same as those of llu' fol- 

ing about the same time, with the probabilities 
favoring JlcClung. He was at least the first 
preacher who settled liere, locating on Fall 
Creek, not far from the present State Fair 
Grounds, where he died on August 18, 1823. He 
was originally a Presbyterian, but joined the re- 
form movement, and for seventeen years was one 
of their most active preachers in the Ohio Val- 
ley. His obituary sketch says: "About two years 
ago he moved to this, then commencing .settle- 
ment, and continued to preach to verv general 
acceptance until about the 1st of April last, 
when he called together the church he had 
formed, and informed them that having, after 
careful and prayerful examination, become sat- 
isfied that the distinguishing doctrines of the 
society were not scriptural, it became liis duty 
as an honest man to withdraw his member- 
ship from the church. * * * por his 
labors in our infancy as a settlement, and be- 
fore any other regular preaching was estab- 
lished in this place, we are under much obli- 
gation." » Some doubts as to points of doctrine 
prevented his joining any other church until 
a short time before his death, when he returned 
to the Presbyterian fold. 

Rev. Resin Hammond was only a visitor, but 
in the summer of 1821 the :\Iet'hodists formed 
a class which met at Isaac Wilson's, and which 
was the nucleus of the first church. In the fall 
of 1821 Rev. Wm. (.'ravens was sent here by 
the i\Iissouri Conference, in which Indiana was 
then located, to organize a circuit, and In- 
dianapolis was made a station in his circuit for 
the year following. Ci'avens was a forcible 
speaker, with special antiiiathy to slavery and 
to the sale or use of intoxicating liquors, and 
he preached at them straiglit and hard." \Wv. 
James Scott, a Methodist minister, located here 
on November 28, 1822, being in charge of a cir- 
cuit that included the northern part of ^Marion, 
with Hamilton and Madison counties; though 
he was in charge of tlie camp-meeting held here 
in September, 1822, and performed various 

lowers of Alexander Campbell, but udl (piite sd 
damp — they did not consider innuersion es.sen- 
tial. ]\[ost of the two sects united in IS.IS, and 
"New Light" and "Campbellife" came In he 
nearly synonymous. 

'Wexterii Censor. .Vugust 2.'), 1823. 

'•'nollidui/s Indiana ^fefhodlsm. p. 58; 
Smith's Indiana Miscelianif. p. 1(10. 



iiiinistfi-ial fuiittious; at a latiT date."' The 
Jlctliodists did not iindei'tako to maintain a 
meeting-house until ISS."), when they located 
in a log building on the south side of ilarvland 
street, west of Meridian, which they occupied 
for four years. 

The McCormicks, the first permanent set- 
tlers, were Baptists, and others soon followed. 
There were some religious meetings at private 
houses and in 18"22 the Baptists formed the 
first church organization at this point. The 
original minutes of the church, which are pre- 
served, show that a preliminary meeting was 
held at the school house, at the point between 
Kentucky avenue and Illinois street in August, 
and it was decided to organize on September 
22. Samuel McC'ormick was directed to write 
to Lick Creek and Franklin churches, and John 
W. Reding to Little Flat Rock and Little 
Cedar Grove churches for "helj)s"" in organiza- 
tion. On the appointed day Elder Tyner from 
Little Cedar Grove appeared as a help, and, 
letters having been presented by Benjamin 
Barnes, Jeremiah Johnson, Thomas Carter, 
Otis Hobart, John Hobart, Theodore Y. Denny, 
John McCormick. Samuel McCormick, John 
Thompson, William Dodd, Jane Johnson, 
Xancy Carter, Nancy Thompson, Elizabeth 
McCormick and Polly Carter, it was decided 
to adjourn to October 10. On that day the 
parties assembled, with John W. Reding and 
Hannah Skinner added, and Benjamin Barnes 
was selected to speak for the members. 
"Brother Tyner went into an examination, and 
finding the members sound in the faith, pro- 
nounced them a regular Baptist church, and 
directed them to go into business"'. In Janu- 
ary, 1823, arrangements were made to secure 
the school house for meetings, and in June an 
agreement was made with Benjamin Barnes 
to preach once a month for the remainder of 
the year. In the spring of 1825 ^lajor Chinn 
invited the church to \ise his house, on the 
north side of Maryland, between Meridian and 
Illinois, for regular meetings, which was ac- 
cepted. In June. 1825, the church purchased 
of William Wilmuth lot 2 in square 60. where 
the Hebrew Synagogue on East Market street 
now stands, and meetings were held in a log 
house that stood on it, whicli was rented for a 

school house on week days. In 1829 the church 
purchased a lot on the southwest corner of 
^[eridian and Maryland streets, and erected its 
first regular meeting-house there. 

The first Presbyterian who preached here 
was Rev. Ludwell G. Gaines, of Ohio, a mis- 
sionary of the General Assembly who held an 
open air meeting in August, 1821. Rev. David 
C. Proctor, under the direction of the Connec- 
ticut Missionary Society, visited Indianapolis 
for about a week in May, 1822. In February, 
1822, Dr. Isaac Coe organized a bible class, 
and in the fall of that year arrangements were 
made with ]\[r. Proctor to preach three-fourths 
of his time at Indianapolis for the year begin- 

"See Gazette. June 15, 1824; Western Cen- 
sor. March 15. :\ray 24. September 14. 1824. 


(From an olc! cut.) 

ning October 1, 1822. the other one-fourth be- 
ing given to the church at Bloomington. In 
the spring of 182:5 a subscription was made 
for a meeting-house, the first in Indianapolis, 
which was begim in May and completed in 
Julv. A formal church ortranization was made 
on July 5. 1823. at Caleb Scudder"s caiiinet 
shop. Rev. Isaac Reed, who preached at Xew 
Albany, and made occasional missionary tours 
into the back settlements, writes: "My first 
visit to Indianapolis was through many perils 
of waters by the way, in company with ilr. 
Proctor, the 3rd of .July. On the afternoon 
of the 4th. 1 ]ireached to the Presbyterian 
friends at ;i cal)in('t maker's sliop : and at the 

lllsroK'Y OF CliKATKi;, I M )1.\ \ Al'Ol.lS. 

same place, on iliu morning of thu .Jtli, I 
preached as moderator in the formation of the 
cliun-li of Indianapolis. The same day two 
other ministers arrived. The next day was the 
Sabbath, and there were four ministers with 
this new formed cluireh. The chureh was or- 
ganized with fifteen members. Dr. Isaac Coe 
and t'aleb Seudder were elected elders. A 
church edifice had been begun in ^lay before 
the organization of the church, and was so far 
completed that it was occupied at the sacra- 
ment of the I.i()rd"s Supper on the Sal)bath, the 
next day after the organization of the church." 
The early religious meetings, especially 
where there was preaching, were generally at- 
tended, without regard to denomination. 
Among the notes in Mrs. Fletclier's diary for 
her first year here are the following: "Sun- 
day, November 18, 1821. 1 attended prayer 
meeting at Mr. Ste])hens"." "Sunday. Novem- 
ber 2'}, 1821, 1 attended in'caching at Mr. Haw- 
kins' when! 1 heard a very good sermon by a 
Newlight minister."' "Sunday, December 30, 

1821, 1 heard a sermon delivered by a Newlight 
minister which I did not think commendable, 
but w^e must allow for it as it has not been but 
about three months since he began to speak in 
public." ■^'Sunday, jWay 12, 1822, I attended 
jireaching at tiie (Jovernor's circle, it was the 
first sermon ever delivered at that |dace. Kev. 
^^r. Proctor took his text from the :iOth chap- 
ter of Proverbs and 17tli verse. * * * '['],g 
preacher is a Presbyterian and a very good 
orator. He will speak again on Tuesday p. 
ni." "Tuesday, 14th. In the morning it rained, 
and in the afternoon was clear b\it muddy. 
Mr. F. attended preaching at the school house." 
"Sunday, !lth .luiie. Mrs. Wick and I attended 
Jfethodist preaching.'" "Sunday, l()th June, 

1822. Mr. lUake went to Sabbath School." 
•'Sunday, 12th duly. This day attended Bap- 
tist preaching at the school house." In Se\> 
lemlier, 1822, is the note: "Camp meeting com- 
menced the l.'itb of Septendier and lield four 

The Sabbath school to which Mi-. Pilake went 
nn dune lO, 1822, was presumably Dr. Coe's 
bible class, for there is no record of any Sab- 
bath sdiool here until the union school was 
organized the next spring at Caleb Scudder's 
cabinet shop. Mrs. Fletcher w-rites of it: 
"April (i. 182.'i. Our school commenced, which 
I hope will be (d" .i;n'Mt benefit to the children 

of our town." This school organization was 
named the Indianapolis Sabbath School Union, 
and included all denominations as well as non- 
church members. James .\1. Kay, the first su- 
perintendent, and James Blake, orre of the 
active workers, were not then church members. 
Among the ,teachers were Caleb Seudder, Doug- 
lass JIaguire, Henry Bradley, B. F. Morris, Dr. 
Dunlap, the Mis.«es Coe, Mrs. Morris, Miss 
.McDougall, Mrs. Seudder, and ^Irs. Paxton. 
It followed the general plan of the American 
Sabbath School I'nion, and served a valuable 
educational purpose aside from the religious 
instruction. The school was divided into four 
"classes", or as they would now be called 
"grades", and each class was divided into 
"sections"' corresponding to modern "classes"'. 
Those of the first class studied the scriptures 
direct; the second memorized hymns, cate- 
chisms, etc.; the third included "those who 
spell in two or more syllables, and the fourth 
those who are learning tlie aljihabct anil mono- 
syllables"'. In August, 1826, the Indiana Sab- 
bath School Union was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and at its first annual meeting, August 
3-6, 1827, elaborate directions for Sabbath 
School organization were issued, based on the 
work of the Indianapolis school, of which the 
following extract will give a comprehensive 
idea: "The first class should memorize Mat- 
thew, begiiining at the 2d chapter, John, Acts 
and Eomans. A selection, as given in the ap- 
pendix, from Genesis, Ivxodus and Deuteron- 
omy, with such other parts of scripture or cate- 
chisms as may be thought advisable. The sec- 
ond class should memorize catechisms and 
liymns — those published by the .\merican Sun- 
day School Fnion are prepari'd by a committee 
consisting of the principal religious denomina- 
tions in the I'nited States, and contain no 
doctrines in which all do not unite. In the 
Indianapolis school, Watts' First Catechism, 
Milk for Babes, Watts' Divine and Moral 
Songs. Doddi'idges P(x>tical Lessons, and Tav- 
lor's Original Hynms are learned in course, 
before commencing the Testament. The third 
class should use some spelling book. And the 
fourth class some spelling book or primer con- 
taining the alphabet and words of one syllable; 
and both classes should memorize their spelling 
lessons, 'i'hc Sunday School Spelling Rook 
and I'liion Primer were designed for these 
classes, but inii,dit, the (■iiMiniitt<'e believe, be 



still better titled for the object they are in- 
tended to accomplish, particularly the last, — 
the vocabulary of monosyllables in Webster's 
spelling book appears better calculated, they 
believe, to advance the young beginner." 

The memorizing was the chief feature of the 
worlc, and to encourage it the distribution of 
liooks from the Sunday School library was 
made dependent on it. The library was com- 
l)osed chiefly of publications of the national 
Union, and of these three depositories were 
established in the state, at Madison, New 
Albany and Indianapolis. Any school joining 
the Union, and paying one dollar, could obtain 
these books at cost ; to others an advance of 
fifteen per cent, was charged. The books were 
classified by price, and the pupil could "draw a 
book from the library of the value of four 
times as many cents as the average lesson as- 
signed by the religious instructor to the class 
consists of verses, or their equivalents, which 
book may be kept one week and no longer". 
For "every dirt or grease spot, turned down or 
torn leaf, or week over-kept" there was a fine 
of from one to seven cents, according to the 
value of the book, which was to be paid in 
money or memorizing. The class record was 
devoted to this matter of memorizing, as ap- 
pears from the following model prepared and 
circulated bv the Union: 

Male. — Peter Punctual, Teacher. 

1st Class. 1st Section. Ma.v B. 13. 

C V M C V M 

Israel Industry 23 SO .iO 24 41 50 

Solomon Steady 20 1 50 21 17 40 

Simon Sober 19 1 50 20 21 50 

Abraham Active 10 23 40 11 21 45 

Charles Careless 4 1 20 4 21 15 

O stands for chapter. V, verse, where lesson begins. M 
number of versos memorized." 

The Sunday School was a success from the 
start, there being 70 in attendance on the third 
Sunday. On April 23, the Censor said: "It 
is highly flattering to witness the success that 
has attended the formation of the Sunday 
School in this town. The exertions of the 
Directory and Superintendent have produced 
the most flattering prospects. The school on 
the two last Sabbaths was numerously at- 
tended, and the order and harmony that pre- 
vailed, considering the inexperience of those 
engaged in teaching, furnish the strongest 
proof of the practicability of rendering such 
establishments emiiK'ntly useful in improving 

tile condition of the rising generation."' The 
chief promoter of the union Sunday School 
was Dr. Isaac Coe, who became its "clerk"; 
but he was warmly seconded by the press" and 
all public-spirited citizens. The school was dis- 
continued in the winter months of 1823-4, but 
was renewed on April 24, 182-1:, and was con- 
tinuous thereafter, meeting in the Presbyterian 
church when it was completed. It was the only 
Sunday School until the spring of 1828, when 
the ^Methodists organized a separate school, and 
the Baptists did likewise in 1832. 

An interesting feature of the early Sunday 
schools was their participation in the celebra- 
tion of the Fourth of July, which began in 
1828. The glorious Fourth had not been over- 
looked before that time. Even in 1821 the 
young people of the place had celebrated by 
obtaining a keel-boat that had recently come 
up the river, aud going up to Anderson's spring 
for a picnic. Anderson's spring is still the 
finest spring in this vicinity, though it is little 
known because of its out-of-the-way location. 
It is at the foot of the bluft' south of Emmer- 
icli's grove, on the west side of the river, about 
half way between the Cold Spring and the 
Emmerichsville bridge. At present it is partly 
harnessed to a hydraulic ram. and pumps water 
to a tank in the garden farm of Mrs. Denke 
just above. It took its name from Thomas 
Anderson, one of the earliest settlers, who lo- 
cated at that point. In 1822 the citizens met 
at Hawkins' tavern on June 17, and made 
arrangements for a public celebration on the 
Military Reserve, which then extended south 
to Washington street as well as including the 
present Military Park. The celebration opened 
with a sermon from Rev. John McClung. from 
the text, '"Righteousness exalteth a nation but 
sin is a reproach to any people" ; which was 
followed by a brief speech and the reading of 
the Declaration of Independence by Judge 
Wick, Washington's Inaugural Address by 
Squire Obed Foote. Washington's Farewell Ad- 
dress, by John Hawkins, and a prayer and 
benediction by Rev. Robert Brenton. Then 
followed a dinner, the central feature of which 
was a barbecued buck that had been killed the 
day before by Robert Harding, with patriotic 
toasts, and an ample supply of the spirit of the 
maize. The toasts, fourteen in number, were 

^Censor, ^lanh l!l and 26. 



written by Calvin Fletcher, the last one being, 
"Indianapolis, ilay it not prove itself un- 
worthy the honor the state has conferred upon 
it by making- it her .-cat of wovcrnnK'nf.'-' .\t 
night there was a ball at C'nuiibaugbV immtii 
and justice Aw\>. at the corner of Market and 
.Mis.-ouri streets.''- In 18-.?3, tbe Cmisur says: 
"The day was ushered in by the firing of mus- 
kets and rifles. About ten o'clock, agreeably 
to a previous notice, the citizens of the town 
and vicinity assembled in a handsome shade 
on the town plat, where, after an appropriate 
prayer by the I?ev. Mr. Proctor, and the read- 
ing of the Declaration of Independence by D. 
B. Wick. Esq., an oration was delivered by 
Jlorris ilorris, Esq., and the services of the 
occasion -were closed by prayer from the Rev. 
Jlr. Reid." The dinner was at Wilkes Rca- 
gans with the customary toasts, and the festivi- 
ties closed with a ball at the same place. 

These celebrations increased in splendor as 
the militarv and civic organizations developed. 
In 1827 the Journal says: "The day was an- 
nounced by the discharge of 2-1 rounds of can- 
non, amid tbe cheers of the citizens. At an 
early hour, the artillery, commanded by Captain 
Morris, and the rifle company, commanded by 
« 'aptain Reding, paraded and placed in front of 
ilie procession formed by Captain ^IcFarland, 
who acted as marshal of the day. Then fol- 
lowed the committee of arrangements, the 
President and Vice-president, Chaplain and 
leader of vocal music. Orator and Reader of the 
Declaration of Independence, Revolutionary 
-oldiers and citizens." This imposing body 
moved to the court house where a large con- 
lourse, with many ladies, was waiting. The 
dinner, at the tavern of Mr. Hays was made 
memorable by 2-i regular toasts and 18 volun- 
teers. But in 1828 the procession was more 
impressive, for "the scholars of our two Sab- 
bath schools, attended by their superintendents 
and instructors, together with a large number 
of ladies from town and country took a con- 
spicuous part". The services were at the court 
hou.'^e, and tliere was "music from a select choir 
of singers, aecompanied by instrumental music 
from the members of the Indianapolis Han- 
dolian Society"''. After the services two pro- 
cessions were formed ; one of the niale patriots 
to repair to the dinner at the Sugar Grove, 

'"■Ncirs, June 7, 1879. 

'■"'See alsi) X(Jirlitiiirs }?cmiiilsrniirs, p. 131. 

cast of the town, and the otlier of the Sabbath 
.-cnoot scholars, and ladies "to return to the 
schools". This innovation gave such general 
satisfaction that the Sunday schools thence- 
forward became star attractions, as may be 
seen from the order of formation in 1829, 
w-hich the Gazelle gives as follows: 

1. Artillery. 

2. Ladies and I'emale Teaciiers. 

o. Four Female Teachers and Bannei' 
■1, Female scholars, smallest in front 
5. Music. 
U, Eour Male Teachers and Banner. 

7. Male scholars, smallest in front. 

8. Two Clergymen, Reader and Orator, 

9. Superintendents, Teachers, Etc. 

10. Citizens, four abreast. 

On this occasion the adtlress was liy J udge 
James Morrison, who gave a history of the 
Sabbath school movement. At that time he 
saitl there were 190 on the rolls of the Lnion 
school, with an average attendance of 110 
scholars and 30 teachers; while the Methodist 
sciiool had 98 scholars and 19 teachers. The 
work had been prosecuted outside of town till 
18 schools had been formed, and the attendance 
at all the schools in the county was between 
1,100 and 1,200. As illustrating their bene- 
lit he mentioned one locality where there were 
only 30 children in the day schools, but 90 
attended the Sunday school. 

The jjarticipation of the Sunday schools in 
the Fourth of July celebrations continued un- 
til 1857, and as they were shut out of the 
dinners it became the custom to stay the juve- 
nile stomachs by a distribution of rusk and 
water, until home and something more sub- 
stantial could be reached. And as tiie various 
denominations formed independent Sunday 
schools it became the custom for each school 
to join the procession as a separate organiza- 
tion. All of the schools joined, with two ex- 
ceptions. The Episcopalians did not join in 
this diversion, but just why is not recorded. 
The Universalists, after a brief and unsuccess- 
ful ell'ort at organization in the 'iOs, reorgan- 
ized in 18.53, and maintained a Sunday school, 
but it always llocked by itself on tlu' Fourth, 
usually holding a picnic in the woods north of 
the University, on College avenue, wliich Ovid 
Butler furnished for tlie occasion. The picnic 
was the microbe that destroyed the old-time 
celebration. In early days the tendency of the 
seeker for recreation was to get out of the 



woods and into town, but as physical conditions 
clianged this tendency was reversed. Occasion- 
ally even a Sunday school cut the parade and 
went to the woods for a picnic. And so it 
came to pass that the celebration in 1857 was 
a fizzle. The National Guards had gone to 
Lexington, Ky., to the laying of the cornerstone 
of the Henry Clay monument, and had taken 
the city band with them. The firemen had 
gone to a picnic near Franklin. Several of 
the Sunday schools had taken to the woods. 
The Journal lugubriously observed: "The Sun- 
day school children made the only display that 
was made, and even they fell short of their 

dropped entirely, and the timc-lionored jiaradc, 
with "Uncle Jmnny" Blakc as marshal, ha.- be- 
come only a fond memory of the older citizens. 
Although the Sunday school was organized 
in large part to supjjly the deficiency of day 
schools, the early settlers were not unmindful 
of the latter. In 1821 they got together and 
])ut up a log school house on the edge of a 
large pond that was located at the corner of 
Kentucky avenue and Washington street, and 
here Joseph C. Reed was installed as the first 
riacher.'° Its construction was voluntary, and 
the school was a "pay school", for there was no 
otficial school organization as vet. A descHp- 

(From a pencil sketch by James B. Dunlap.) 

usual numbers and spirit. There was no 
music in the city, no firemen's parade, no mili- 
tary displa}", no movement of any kind after an 
early hour in the morning. The tlnnidering of 
the cannon, rapidly fired by the Artillery boys, 
opened the day well, but the promise of a 'good 
time' was illy fulfilled. The remark was uni- 
versal that 'so dull a Fourth was never seen'. 
At night tliere was some compensation for the 
sleepiness of the day in a profusion of fire- 
works and bonfires, but that was all."''' In 
lS.-)8, tlie Fourth came on Sunday, and |)art of 
the communitv celebrated on Saturday. ]iir1 on 
Mondav. Thereafter tlie ancient cnstini was 

*-l()nni(il. .)iil\ 


tion of this school lio\ise is given in tlie notes 
left by :Mrs. ^Martin, who, as Miss Betty Smith, 
(hiughter of George Smith, the pioneer pub- 
lisher, went to school there at the ago of thir- 
teen. She says: "The first school house was a 
cabin with rough-bewinl floor and benches, and 
a slab of the same kind was fastened to the wall 
to write on; and back of tliat a log was sawed 
out, and sticks put in to paste paper on, and 
the paper was greased to make it light, so we 
were pretty well fi.xed. We nsed to have sing- 
ing school of evenings, and prayer meetings, 
and on Saturday and Sunday the sheep used 
to occupy our school room in our absence. .\nd 


I iiiliii 

nil ji 


lllsrolJV t>K (illKA'lEi; IXDI.WAI'OI.IS. 


how do vou su]ipos(' tlicy got iu? W'ull, Hr'V 
got in by tliu cliiniiiov. 1 ^^iippor^e you think 
the fliiiniu'v \va^ not very higli — it was about 
four feet high, and six feet wide, so you see 
we could have a good tire." The occupancy 
by the slieep was not regular, liowever, for the 
school house was often used for preaching and 
otlicr meetings. The state law, which was very 
rudimentary, provided for putting the "school 
sections" under tlic care of superintendents, 
leasing them, and applying the returns to the 
use of schools; but no appointments could be 
made until after the county commissioners 
were elected in the following spring; and even 
then the j)rofits from the school lands were 
only nominal for several years. Tlie law also 
provided for the election of school tiustees l)y 
the ))eople, and gave these trustees power to do 
almost anything "not inconsistent uiih tlic 
constitution and the law"" for the "encourage- 
ment of schools."' Mr. Keed's service was evi- 
dently acceptable, for he was elected County 
Recorder the next spring, but that left the 
school witliout a teacher. A meeting was hehl 
on June '^0, 1822, and trustees were elected, 
but the scliool was very irreguhir, on account 
of the difliculty of getting a teacher. Several 
are said to have been tried but with -o little 
satisfaction that not even their names aiv pre- 

But relief was coming from another source. 
8avs Kev. J. C. Fletcher: ''Jt is a noted fact 
that from 1822 to 1S3!> the .Methodists had the 
liest preaeiiers in Indianapolis and the Presby- 
terians the best schools.""'" It certainly was a 
blessing to the community that the first Presby- 
terian Board of Trustees included those two 
energetic educational cranks Dr. Isaac Coe as 
chairman and James Blake as secretary. The 
new churcli for which subscriptions were taken 
ill May. lS2.'i, was eom])leted that snniiiier, and 
it included a school room arranged for use on 
week days as well as Sundays. On March 1). 
1S24, the trustees announced that school woiilil 
be opened on the first Monday in Ajn-il liy .\li-. 
and ifrs. Lawrence, who were certified to be 
f[ualified instructors in "Eeading, Writing, 
.Vritlimelic. I'jiglish Grammar and Geography"', 
in addition to which Mrs. T>awrence taught 
nc'cdlc-work. The tuition was $2 per quarter. 
and realizing that even this seeming small 

"'•Xcw.i. .lune 2S, IKTi). 
charge would be a burden, the trustees sav 

"It has been a matter of serious solicitude with 
the Trustees that the school should be of the 
greatest advantage to tin- public; and believ- 
ing that many from the largeness of their 
families, and the difficulties attending a re- 
moval to a new settlement, are but ill prepared 
to pay for that schooling they would wish their 
children to have, and which it is of high im- 
portance they should enjoy, the board have re- 
served the privilege of sending six children 
gratis, and provision will be made by a num- 
ber of young men and others to pay for the 
instruction of several more." They also pro- 
posed to "give one scholar his tuition for giv- 
ing the signal for school, and making the fire 
each morning one hour before its opening"'. 

The Lawrences — Kiee B. and Ann — were 
very competent teachers, from Xew York origi- 
nally, but direct from Troy, Ohio. Mr. 
Brown says they tauglit for a time in the log 
school house, but if so it was a short time, for 
they came here in the last of October, 1823. 
They were Presbyterians, and active workers 
in the Sunday school as well as the day school. 
The second cpiarter of this school was an- 
nounced to open on July 2(5, but Mr. Law- 
rence fell ill, and died on July 31; and the 
school, which was continued by Mrs. Lawrence,, 
ojicned on August 9. The third term opened 
Xovember 15, and this was the last one adver- 
tised, but Mrs. Lawrence evidently continued 
to teach in 182.'j, for a time, for Mrs. Ketcbam 
describes her attendance there in summer, and 
her family did not come to Indianapolis until 
-Xovember, 182-1. There was an interim, how- 
I'vcr, between her school and that of Ebenc/.i'r 
Sharpe, her successor, in which Samuel Merrill,. 
Rev. George Bush, and Mrs. Bush made rec- 
ords as volunteer teaehei's. On November 7, 
1S2G, the trustees announced that Ebenezer 
Sharpe had begun school, or rather had 
"opened the Indianapolis .\cademy"', for it was 
low on a more pretentious basis. There were 
two assistants. Miss Isabella Sharpe and 
Thomas H. Sharpe, the latter "then a blonde- 
haired young gentleman of eighteen", and 
s(unething of an athlete, for he soon established 
a reputation as the fastest sprinter in this lo- 
cality. P^benezer Sharpe was a Marylander, of 
classical education, who was one of the earlv 
professors at Transylvania University, at Lex- 
iiij;ton, Kentucky. He remained tiiere until 
Ih-. Holly, of Boston, was elected president, 
when, on account of Dr. Hollv being a I'ni- 



tarian, several proiessors, including Mr. Sharpe, 
resigned. iMr. Sliarpe then established an 
academy at Paris, Kentucky, from wliich place 
lie came here. He raised the standard of the 
school and giaded the rates — 

•"For spelling and reading per qr., $i.UO. 
Writing and arithmetic, $2.50. 
Geography, English grammar, mathematics, 
the languages and philosophy, $3.00."'" 

This school gave the first public exhibition 
at the court house, on October 6, 1827, and so 
successfully that tlie Journal was moved to re- 
mark: "The original pieces that were spoken 
on the occasion were of a charcter well deserv- 
ing commendation."' And so were those not 
original, for tradition records that T^om Morris 
(later General) enacted the part of a miser so 
well, in his recitation, that old farmer Mc- 
Dowell, who had the reputation of being "a 
little near", took offense, and left the room 
with audible denunciations of the whole per- 
formance. In fact this may almost be called 
the beginning of amateur theatricals, for 
Thomas appeared in costume, with knee- 
breeches and a wig which he had himself con- 
structed from cows tails. About 1830 Mr. 
.Sharpe removed his school to a frame building 
at the corner of Ohio and Meridian streets, and 
continued it there until a short time before 
his death in 1835. The opening of the "old 
seminary"" in 1834 marked a new epoch in In- 
dianapolis schools, to be considered later. There 
were several other private schools in the early 
period, but little is recorded concerning them. 
Among the teachers were Messrs. Lambert, 
Fleming, Bryan, Tufts, Austin W. Morris, 
Wm. Daily (later president of the state uni- 
versity), MePherson (who was drowned by 
Vanblarieum), and •'Seotch'"'" Mayne. The last- 
named was an eccentric Scotchman, with an un- 
tiring devotion to snuff and the ferule, both of 
which went chiefly to the head. 

As illustrative of the homogeneous character 
of the settlement prior to the actual coming 
of the capital, may be mentioned one other 
dance that occurred towards the close of that 
period, and which was as celebrated in tradi- 
tion as the opening ball at Wyant's. In the 
summer and fall of 1823 James Blake and 
Samuel Henderson erected a new frame tavern 
on Washington street where the New York 
store now stands, and started out as tavern- 

keepers — just imagine "Uncle Jimmy" Blake 
taking out a retail liquor license. The new 
house was christened Washington Hall, and 
was opened with a ball on Christmas eve, con- 
cerning which Calvin Fletcher recorded: "De- 
cember 24. "We this day have had a ball at 
Keepers Henderson & Blake's. Mr. Foote, Mr. 
liaiston, Mr. Culbertson, Douglass Maguire 
and myself were the managers. The day was 
clear and cold. Our fiarty was attended by 
about 30 couple. Supper splendid — and every- 
thing surpassingly agreeable." This ball was 
fruitful of reminiscences in the old settlers' 
meetings, and Douglass Jilaguire is authority 
for the statement that "Mr. Blake did some 
very good dancing and Mr. Fletcher was the 
best manager in a ball room that he ever saw.""^ 
Of course it will be remembered that at this 
time these gentlemen had not become church 
members, and it must not be understood that 
there was no objection to dancing in the com- 
munity. The Methodists prohibited it at that 
time, and so did some of the other sects. On 
January 2(5, 1827, the Presbyterian minutes 
say : "It having been ascertained that the chil- 
dren of one of the members of this church have 
in two cases recently attended a dancing party 
in this place, resolved thereupon that Jlr. Bush 
lie requested to visit and converse with, and if 
necessary admonish that member in the name 
of the session on the impropriety of her con- 
duct." On the whole Indianapolis at the time 
was quite deserving of the following editorial 
puff which appeared in the Weittcrn Censor of 
October 10, 1821: "Our town is well supplied 
with schools and they are beginning to be estab- 
lished in different parts of the country; we 
have jDreaching in town every Sabbath, and our 
society is excellent. The moral and correct de- 
portment of our citizens is a subject of remark 
to every observing and intelligent traveler. And 
here we cannot avoid mentioning as one among 
the most important of the moral engines in 
operation for the restraint of vice and the pro- 
motion of virtue and religion, and as being an 
ornament to the town, the existence of the In- 
dianapolis Sabbath School, an institution in 
the encouragement and support of which all 
denominations tmite, which is attended by chil- 
dren of both sexes and all conditions of life, 
and on the rolls of which there are nearly one 
liundred scholars." 

^'Locomotive, June 14, 1856. 



There wns never any approach to general pri- 
vation and hardship in Indianapolis after the 
iirst two vears, though there was some incon- 
venience for a time on account of the isolation 
of the jilace. The difficulty and expense of 
transporting goods from the outside operated 
somewliat like a tariil" tax to stimulate domestic 
manufacture, but even that condition was im- 
proved by the gradual improvement of wagon 
roads. As early as ]\Iay 15, 1839, the editor 
of the Democrat (Xathaniel Bolton) was in- 
dulging in reminiscent articles on "Indian- 
apolis — the past and the present" ; and on that 
date he said : "We have been assured by several 
old settlers that our ]iei-sonal friend, the ven- 
erable Mr. .John ITager. now clerk of the court 
in Hancock County, frequently brought the 
latest intelligence from Cincinnati by his ox 
cart. Mr. Hager is well known here to our 
old citizens as among the most enterprising, 
active and industrious of the old pioneers. 
When an immense and almost trackless forest 
stretclied over the now Ijcautiful and improved 
country, Isir. Ilager was busy in the wilderness. 
It is even now a joli of some diffioilty to haul 
from Cincinnati with o.xen. even if the road is 
fine; anyone acquainted with a western wilder- 
ness can form some faint idea of the task of 
driving through a roadless, trackless, unin- 
habited forest, and run the risks necessarily 
incident to such an undertaking. Old Johnny 
Hager, who first by his team brought the neees- 
.sarics of life to the first settlers, is still alive, 
and long may he live to see the improvements 
of the country in which he spent the vigor of 
his life. Yes; seventeen years ago, the inhabi- 
tants of this part of the country anxiously 
flocked around the ox-cart of ;Mr. Hager to 
hear the latest eastern news !" 

As has been mentioned, the speculative class 

of the earliest comers did not remain here, 
there being so little prospect of any speedy ad- 
vance in real estate that they let their first 
]iayments go.* On December 6, 182G, Benjamin 
I. Blythe, the State Agent, reported that under 
the relief act of January "^(i of that year, there 
had been transfers of payments on 25 lots, 
amounting to $1,857.52, but there had been 
relinquishments of 99 lots on which $2,619.00 
had been paid. But meanwhile the country 
was steadily settling and improving. On Feb- 
ruary 20, 1827, comparing the situation with 
that at the sale of lots in October, 1821, the 
Journal said : "At that time the whole popu- 
lation in what was called the Xcw Purchase, 
embracing all the territory williin 50 miles of 
this place, was returned Ijy the Marshal at 
about 1,300. The population within the same 
bounds must now amount to upwards of 55,- 
000 and that of this town to abotit 1,000 souls. 
There are now 25 brick, GO frame, and about 
80 hewn log houses and cabins in town. The 
ptiljlie liuildings are a Court House GO feet 
by 45, a .lail, and Meeting Houses, belonging 
to the Presbyterian. Baptist and ^lethodist so- 
cieties. The former have a settled preacher 
and upwards of 30 members in their church. 
The Baptist church has 3G and the Methodist 
93 menii)crs. .\ Sunday school, which all de- 
nominations join in supporting, has existed 
without interruption foi- more than five years. 
The present number of teachers is about 20 
and the scholars from HH) to 200. There are 
weekly schools in which some of the teachers 
would not disoedit their calling in any part of 
the Union, and the same niav be said of some 
of the members of each of the U-arned ]irofes- 

These estimates were conservative. The re- 
[xut of the Sunday School, on .\pril 10, showed 




4 superintendents, 8 religious instructors, 31 
teachers and 188 scholars on the books, with 
an average attendance of 150. The census 
taken by the Sunday School visitors on Xovem- 
ber 27 and .28, showed a total population of 
1,0(56, composed of white males, 529; white 
females, 479; colored males, 34; colored fe- 
males, 24.' The Sunday School work gave espe- 
cial cause for satisfaction. The Indiana Sab- 
bath School I'nion had established one of its de- 
positories of books at this point, and the local 
school had put in circulation a library of 152 
volumes. The children seem to have been quite 
as well behaved as their elders. One of the 
teachers testified to the Journal : "I have had 
under my care for the last six months an aver- 
age number of between 70 and 80 scholars; in 
atl that time there has been but one complaint 
(and that was in the case of a new comer) 
against any of those children for profanity or 
([uarreling. Not even a pane of glass has been 
Ijroken in the school room, though frequently 
a large part of the scholars spend their inter- 
mission time there.""- The women had organ- 
ized a Female Bilde Society on April 18, 1825, 
and in its second year they distributed gratui- 
Kmsly 50 testaments and 7 bibles, besides sell- 
ing 69 testaments and li bibles. The men fol- 
lowed by organizing the Clarion County Bil)ic 
Society on November 13, 1825. They did not 
a])]iarentlv secure so great results, but they were 
xcrv strong on reports and resolutions.'' Tiie 
Imiianapolis Tract Society was also organized 
in the spring of 1825, and maintained a useful 
existence for many years. 

But while moral conditions were excellent, 
the Journal, which already leaned to ''the 
.Vmerican system" of tariff, lamented the large 
importation of merchandise. On October 2, 
1827, it stated that it had been making inves- 
tigations of the imports for consumption for 
the past year, and that, ''witliin the time men- 
tioned, twelve of our merchants and inn-kec])- 
ers have purchased f(U' home consumption from 
manufacturers without the coimty, 76 kegs of 
tobacco, 213 barrels of whisky. 200 barrels of 
flour, 100 kegs of powder, and 4,500 lbs. of 
spun cotton. The first cost of tliese articles 
must somewhat exceed $5,000, and wlien we 

^Journal. Dccemlier 11, 1827. 

-Jotirnal. April 10. 1827. 

■'See Jiiiiriiiil. Novcnilier 21. 1820. 

add what has been purchased from other 
sources by individuals for their private use, 
and what has been paid for cigars, cordage, 
linseed oil and hats, it is believed that the first 
cost of the whole will fall but little short of 
$10,000. Another year will no doubt lessen 
the importation of some of the articles men- 
tioned. The wheat crop was good, and it is 
thought to be nearly sufficient for home con- 
sumption. At any rate we have been supplied 
witli flour, with but slight exception, of our 
own manitfacture, in plenty and of good qual- 
ity since harvest. The hatting business it is 
expected will be carried on in future as ex- 
tensively as our wants require. In this article 
and that of flour there will be a saving of at, 
least $3,000. We do not learn that the manu- 
facture of whisky is increasing. It does not 
appear that more than 71 barrels of whisky, 
distilled in this county, have been purchased 
by our merchants within the year. No attempts 
have yet been made to manufacture tobacco, 
powder, linseed oil, cordage or cotton yarn."' 

Unquestionably this })ublieation was in aid 
of the steam mill project, the stock for which 
was being sold at this time, for on November 
20 the Journal recapitulated its facts and 
added: "Some of the articles mentioned, it is 
believed, will hereafter be furnished by our 
own workmen, but we can hardly expect in the 
present age of improvement to be able to com- 
pete with others without the aid of steam. If 
no individual has the capital necessary for the 
purpose, let the united efforts of our citizens 
provide for the erection of machinery, which 
would not only relieve us from excessive drains 
of money, bvit afford employment to the indus- 
trious of almost every age and capacity." As 
mentioned elsewhere, the steam mill was duly 
built, and duly demonstrated that there is no 
advantage in doing things yourself if you can 
get someone else to do them cheaper for you — 
also that cheapness of manufacture depends 
largely on the anKumt produced and sold, and 
that involves a market for your surplus, which 
Indianapolis did not then have. 

In reality manufactures had been coming 
about as rapidly as they were profitable. As 
has been seen, saw and grist mills were early 
in demand, and were started as soon as possi- 
ble. Yandes and \\'ilkins o]x'ned their tan- 
nery in 1823. Israel Phillins and Isaac Lynch 
Were rival shoemakers in the earlv settlement. 



but LviK-li iiiovfd til ( 'rawl'onlsville in Aiii;u>t, 
l.s-^i, iiiul lul'I the field to J'liillips for the tune 
being. Aiidi-e\v Byrne, tlie pioneer tailor, 
found a eonipetitor in John K. Looney in No- 
vember, 1853. Caleb Scudder, the first eabinet 
maker, seems to liave been rivalled only by 
Fleming T. till April, 1824, when Amos 
Griffith opened a shop ; and in June, 1824, 
Andrew W. Eeed started another just north of 
Vandi's and W'ilkins" tannery. John Sliunk 
the first hatter eanie in 1821, and the ne.xt was 
Henry Knutt, who opened a shop on West 
Washington street in the summer of 1824. His 
coming and advertisement brought Sluink into 
the ](apers with a statement that he was en- 
larging his business, and desired those who had 
owed him "for 1, 2 or 3 years" to pay np. 
Cliarles J. Hand established his "hat manu- 
factory" on .Market street in Xovember, 182."). 
George Jlyers, potter, came in 1821. and 
opened a pottery, which apparently descended, 
for in 1824 Abraham Myers advertised that he 
"continues to carry on the potting business in 
all its variety on the Kentucky avenue, corner 
of ^[aryland and Tennessee streets". J. K. 
Crumbaugh also started a pottery at the ])oint 
between Kentucky avenue and Hlinois -treet 
at a very early date, but dropped out of the 
business, perhaps when he was appointed jus- 
tice of the peace. On June 1, 1821, Margaret 
Gibson, who seems to have been the first bii>i- 
ness wo7nan, outside of the hotel antl boarding- 
house business, advertised a new pottery at the 
corner of Ohio and Tennessee streets, stating 
that she has in her em|)loy J. R. Crumbaugli 
"who is perfectly master of the business". Mr. 
Crumbaugli resumed the pottery business nii 
his own account at the corner of Washington 
and Kentucky avenue, in .lime, 182(1. William 
Holmes, who came in tlu' >pring of 1822, is 
accounteil the first tinner, bill on July 20. 1821, 
"Abraham Beasly, Tinker", advertised that be 
had "returne(l from Cincinnati with Ihe neces- 
sary molds for casting ]iewt('r |ilates jind spoons 
according to the latest fashions", and that he 
Would ••attend trt mending old vessels in its 
varioii- branches" at hi.- .-hop on Wnshingtoii 
street ■"iicarlv opposite the state biiuse sciiun'e". 
Gi-orge Pogue. the first blacksmith, had 
hardly disappeared when John Vanblariciiin 
took his place, and was the local ^'ulcan for a 
year or two. when t'apt. Klani S. I'^recman 
opened a shop. In the fall of 1824 Tetir Har- 

miinson announced that he woubl serve as 
t)lacksmitli in Freeman's old shop, •"on Wash- 
ington street opposite the mouth of Kentucky 
avenue". There appears to have been no per- 
manent gunsmith here until Samuel Beck came 
in 1833. He was emphatically llie gunsmith 
of the place, for the next half century, though 
his brother Christian divided the business with 
him part of the time, and there were occasional 
lesser rivals. On March 22, 1825, John Van- 
blarieum advertised that he had "employed a 
first rate gunsmith for a few days"' and advised 
those who wanted guns mended to hasten in. 
The Davis brothers were very early chair- 
makers, and Samuel S. Hooker, the first house 
and sign jjainter also manufactured "Windsor 
chairs". On September 27, 1825, J. W. Davis 
announced the opening of his saddle shop ; 
and on the same date John Foster, blacksmith, 
announced that he would "make first rate Cas- 
teel Axes for $2.50" and edged tools of every 
description, ploughs, hoes, etc., to order, at his 
shop on Pennsylvania street, south of Wash- 
ington. It is sometimes said that Humphrey 
(Jriffith was the first clockmaker, but his first 
advertisement appeared on January 20. 1836, 
reading, "having opened a shop in the al)ove 
line on Washington street, opposite the Wash- 
ington Hall''. This was preceded nearly a 
year by the advertisement of John Ambrozene, 
on February 15, 1825, announcing his location 
at the northeast corner of Washington and 
.Meridian, in the business of watch and clock 
repairing. Mr. Brown says that i[rs. Matilda 
Sharpe, who came in October, 1827, and opened 
a millinery establishment at "^[r. E. Sharpe's, 
Meridian street, north of the Governor's Cir- 
rh'". was the ])ioneer in that line.'' but four 
iniinlhs earlier Miss Marietta Cobb (late of N'ew 
York) milliner and inantiia maker. aniKiuiucd 
her loiation '•at the I'i'sidciu-e of .Samiii'l (InhK- 
hiTi-\ (in I'ennsyh aiiia street nearly uppn-iir 
the Presbyterian church", where she pm- 
po.^ed to '•make and n pair I'onnel- and 
Dresses", and attend in ■■mn-t other drsciip- 
tions of neeiUe work".' 

Licpiid inanul'actui'es uii-c not overlooked. 
A distillery was erected on tlu' bayou west of 
the river soon after Yaiides and Wilson's «aw 
mill, and it furnisheil the communitv with a 

■•//('.v/. (if I iiJdnii /lulls, p. III. 
'■(luzcllr. .luiir r.i. 1S2:. 



whisky commonly known as "Bayou Blue", 
of whose strength no complaint is handed down. 
This institution furnished the "71 barrels" 
mentioned by the Journal. There was no 
brewery here until 1834, when John L. Young 
and William Wernwag, contractor for the Xa- 
tional Road Iiridge opened a small one on 
the south side of Maryland street between Mis- 
souri and West. Strange as it may seem, it 
was preceded by the first soda fountain, which 
was opened on July 2, 1831, at Dunlap & Mc- 
Dougal's drug store, and was largely patron- 
ized. In fact Indianapolis was getting into 
the dissipation belt. ^lacomber's animal show 
reached the place in July, 1830, and another in 
August, the latter having a "real Bactrian or 
two-humped camel" and a "rompo, an an- 
imal similar to the hj^ena". The second show 
was a dangerous approach to a circus, for it 
announced that "Captain Dick and his Shetland 
pony will perform many pleasing feats 
of horsemanship." A cow and calf elephant 
were with us at Henderson's tavern on August 
12, 1831. But the genuine circus did not come 
until August, 1833, and then it stayed three 
days. It was Brown & Bailey's and in addi- 
tion to the circus it had an extensive menagerie, 
including the first kangaroo that ever invaded 
the Xew Purchase. 

From the earliest settlement there was an 
effort to put agriculture not only on a paving 
basis but on a pleasing basis, so far as prod- 
ucts were concerned, by improving qualitv and 
seeking variety. Dr. Coe was one of the prac- 
tical leaders. He had a garden-patch in Fall 
Creek bottom near Patterson's mill, and in 
1821 he raised there, on one acre of ground, 
12.") bushels of sweet potatoes.'' He also gave 
attention to the cultivation of Irish potatoes, 
and on ^^larch 22, 1824, he advertised "several 
choice kinds of Irish potatoes for sale, consist- 
ing of Earlv AMiites, Large Red, Long Pole 
Red, and the Large Early Blue, a verv superior 
kind. Also a quantity of sweet ])otatoes". Fruit 
was introduced early. On September 22, 1823. 
it was announced that "there are upwards of 
1,000 thrifty young apple trees at the nurserv 
on the donation" which could be bousrht at ("ii/. 
cents each. On February 28, 182(5, .\aron All- 
dredge, who had a nursery two miles southeast 
of town, on thi^ Lawrenceburgh road, adver- 

tised "cultivated"' apple trees at 10 cents ; ■"iial- 
ural" apple trees at 4 cents, and "cultivated" 
pears at 121/4 cents, together with quinces, etc. 
On February 27, 1827, James Givan adver- 
tised "peach trees for sale at three cents, for 
Cash, Country Produce, or Labour". Xearlv 
everybody had a garden, and care was given to 
the planting, as may be judged from Isaac X. 
Phipps's advertisement, on March 22, 1825, 
of "garden seed of various kinds from the 

On September 3, 1825, the Marion County 
Agricultural Society was organized for the 
special purpose of encouraging the cultivation 
of tobacco.^ The members ))ledged themselves 
each to raise 1,000 potmds of tobacco, cultivate 
one acre of it, or pay one dollar to the society. 
The money paid or subscribed was to be divided 
in premiums, one-half to the person who raised 
the most merchantable tobacco, one-fourth to 
the person who raised the most on one acre, and 
one-fourth to the person who raised the best 
hogshead. A number of leading citizens took 
part in the organization, the object being to 
turn attention to a crop that always had a 
money value, but the enterprise did not take 
with the farmers, and practically nothing re- 
sulted from it. The problem of finding some 
product besides furs to export was one that at- 
tracted no little thought, and one of the most in- 
teresting developments of it was the trade in 
ginseng. In August, 1825, Henderson and Blake 
advertised that they would pav (> cents a pound 
for all the fresh ginseng brought to them. James 
Blake was the inspirer of the enterjiriso, for be 
had come here with a suggestion from Philadel- 
phia friends to look after ginseng for the Clii- 
nesft trade. It was very common in the woods, 
and the business developed into one of consid- 
erable extent, Xicholas ^IcCartv aL^o taking an 
interest in it. They had a little estaljlishment 
for cleaning and drying the roots on Delaware 
street south (if Pogue's Run. A little hoe, com- 
monly called a "'sang-hoe'', was specially made 
for digging it and many a farmer's family 
helped out the familv income by digging gin- 
seng. The product plaved an important part in 
the winter of 1828-9. ^Ir. :McCartv had n larsc 
purchase of goods which he shipped from Phila- 
delphia to Pittsburg by wagon, expecting to 

"New ft. ^,\■Au■]\ 29. 1879. 

'■■Toiirnril. Septcriiber fi. 1825: Gnzette, Sep- 
tember 13. 1825. 





























































Vol. 1—7 



take tlu'iii In- boat from there to Jladisou. 
Arrived at I'ittsburg they found the Ohio frozen 
aud navigation closed. It was important that 
the goods should be in Indianapolis promptly, 
and Mr. ilcCarty took the alternative of send- 
ing sixteen loaded Oonestoga wagons through 
from Pittsburg to Indianapolis, the first and 
only time such a thing was ever done. The 
expense would have caused a heavy loss but for 
one thing, — there was a return load of gin- 
seng for the wagons, and that made their trip 
a jirofitable one. 

The original tobacco agricultural association 
did not last long, and was criticised while it 
did last for its restriction to one kind of prod- 
uct. Xothing further was done until after the 
state created the State Board of Agriculture by 
act of February 7, 1835. The first members of 
the Board were James Blake, John Owens, 
Larkin Sims and Moses M. Henkle, and on 
May 22 tliey issued a circular urging the forma- 
tion of county agricultural societies and the 
holding of county fairs. Under this law an 
organization was effected on June 27, with Xa- 
than B. Palmer as president, Seton W. Norris, 
vice-president, Douglass ilagiiire, secretary, and 
Calvin Fletcher, treasurer. There were also 
two "curators"' appointed for each townshi]). 
The first fair was held on October 30 and 31, 
and curiously enough there was not a premium 
given for any direct agricultural product, 
though a total of $184 in premiums was paid, 
of wliicii ^'lO was contributed by the county 
board. Domestic animals took $13!) of the 
money, and the rest went to the best pieces of 
jeans, domestic fiannel. domestic carpeting, and 
domestic linen, the best ]iair of woolen socks, 
best home made cheese, best 10 pounds of but- 
ter, and best gallon of domestic wine. In addi- 
tion to money premiums a volume of Indiana 
Aurora was given for the best essay on grasses, 
and the best essay on the culture of the mul- 
berry and the production of silk. In 1S3(), 
agriculture was given more recognition, but 
on the basis of "tjie best five acres" of corn, 
wheat, oats and rye, while John Johnson car- 
ried off prizes for "tlie best cultivated farm"' 
and as victor in a "i)longhing match". The 
judges also gave prizes from "the discretionary 
fund" to ''M. il. Ilcnkle, for beets and car- 
rots: A. W. ^^orris for vegetable eggs; Rich- 
ard Williams for mammoth pumpkin, and Hol)- 
ert ^ritchell for l)eets"". Tlie mulberrv and 

silkworm seem to have made some progress 
for three ladies were awarded prizes for "do 
mestie sewing silk''. These fairs were held for 
a number of years, and very successfully, but 
finally succumbed to the competition of the 
state fair. 

After the first few years the Indianaiiolis 
people lived better, so far as eating went, than 
most of their successors now; or at least had 
the opportunity to, for choice edibles had no 
foreign market, and hence were cheap — in fact 
were home products of most families. Says 
ilrs. Ketcham : "ililk was plenty : every lady 
had her own cow or cows, and they were even 
milked in Washington street. Butter G cts. 
a pound; eggs 2 cts a dozen. So we had grid- 
dle cakes taken from the great round griddle 
before the great fire. There was no soda ; eggs 
made them light and the baking speedy. Bis- 
cuit was kneaded a great deal and baked in a 
hot skillet C|uickly. Waffles ! I can see the 
long-handled irons thrown into the blazing fire 
and whirled over so quickly, and out in the 
same way. Maple syrup was plenty and wild 
honey. We had good light bread made of hop 
yeast. Chickens were almost always broiled. 
It was considered a great thing to have chick- 
ens and new potatoes on the Fourth of July. 
Currants and cherries grew speedily till then. 
We had wild strawberries, raspberries and black- 
berries. In the fall wild grapes for preserves 
and jelly, and also wild plums. WTien out in 
the woods looking for these things, I have been 
led on by the fragrance of the plum, till walk- 
ing on the trunk of a huge fallen tree, I put 
aside with my hands the thicket, and the 
ground was covered with plums of large size 
and that peculiar beauty of color they have. 
White sugar w-as only in the loaf and was 25 
cts. a pottnd, so our preserving was done with 
Xew Orleans sugar. We took extra care and 
they were real good. ^laple sugar w'as also 
plenty. * * * Wild turkey and game of 
all kinds abounded. Fish from White River 
and Fall Creek. I have never tasted such fried 
potatoes as my mother's. * * * These good 
housekeepers talked of the better ways of do- 
ing things and encouraged one another, and 
thus learned and taught. I remember how good 
tlip last roasting ear? tasted just before the 
frost, and as soon as the corn was at all hard 
it was grated and made rare mush. The great 
kettle of Ive hominv looked so good on the trreat 



kitclifii ciane and siiielluil t-o api)elizing as we 
caiiiL' lioine from .-t-hool. It took tlie best of 
white Hint corn ; then boiling water was poured 
over the nicest ashes, and when this was set- 
tled clear, it was poured on the corn and stood 
in the isomer of the great fire place till the 
skin was loosened ; then it was taken to the well, 
in a tub. was washed with buckets of water till 
it was white, and then boiled slowly all day; 
then eaten in milk or fried, as one 
wished. * * * 

''Our smoke-house. P^verybody had one. 
They were full of ham, pickled pork, bacon, 
dried beef, corned beef, backbones, spareribs, 
that were always boiled, unless in pot-pie. 
Bones, sausage, head-cheese. How handsome 
the baked pork looked. We had never heard of 
its not being healthy nor looked out for a head- 
ache after eating it. Our cellars were full of 
polatoes, turnips, ca))bage, cucumber pickles, 
and great jars of preserved fruit. Soon dried 
fruit grew to be plenty. * * * Deer were 
plenty. Their steaks were broiled and relieved 
of dryness by Ix'ing well buttered. .\lso wild 
turkeys were so aljiindant that William Ander- 
son l)rought down tiiree at one time with his 
shot-gun. The breasts of these were fried." 
Of course it will be remembered that Mrs. 
Ketcham's father, Samuel Merrill, was fairly 
well to do, and. what is more important, that 
her mother was a good housekeeper. She tells 
of <topping oni' night at the house of a farmer 
who lioasted that lie kept three hundred head 
of hogs, and yet there was nothing on his table 
but eorn l)read and ])ork. Some people would 
live poorly, no matter what the abundance (jf 

Rut while there was a basis for comfort, In- 
dianapolis could hardly be considered attractive. 
Hugh McCulloch made his first visit here in 
18.'{:i, and he describes it thus: ".Vmple provi- 
sion had been made for ])arks to enclose the 
public buildings, and the ])lan of the city 
upon paper was attractive and artistic, but up- 
on ])a])er oidy. Little resendibmee, indeed, did 
the |ilace itsejf bear to the plat. The jjarks 
in wliich were the State House, just then com- 
pleted, and the court-bouse, had been enclosed 
witlt jiost and rail fences, but nothing bad 
been done to the streets except to remove the 
stum]is from two or three of tho.-ie most used. 
.Ml of the noble old trees — wahnits, oaks, po])- 
birs. tbr like of which will never be seen again 

— had been cut down, and around the parks 
young locust and other inferior but rapidly 
growing trees had been set out. There wera 
no sidewalks, and the streets most in use, after 
every rain, and for a good part of the yeai", 
were knee-deep with mud. As a director of the 
State Bank, I was under the necessity for many 
years of making quarterly trips on horseback 
from Fort Wayne to Indianapolis through a 
country almost impassable by carriages of any 
kind, and yet I never encountered mud deeper 
or more tenacious than in the streets of the 
capital of the state. I have seen many of the 
incipient towns of the West, but none so ut- 
terly forlorn as Indianapolis appeared to me 
in the spring of 1833. It had no local ad- 
vantages e.\cej)t the fact that it was surrounded 
by a very fertile country ; nothing to recommend 
it but its being the metropolis of the state. 
There were then only two bridges in Indiana, 
and these had been built by the United States 
in anticipation of the extension from Richmond 
to Terre Haute of the Xational road, which 
extension was prevented by the veto of I'resi- 
dent Jackson. * * * I'pon none of the 
roads were wagons in use, even for carrying the 
mails, except those from iladison ami Terre 
II.Mitc to the capital. l'"rom all other points 
it could only be readied by those who traveled 
on foot or on horseback. Xo one who saw 
Indianapolis when 1 saw it for the first lime 
coidd have anticiiiated its rapid growth and 
present condition. Xo one could have dreamed 
that in half a century this almost inaccessible 
village would become a great railroad center, 
with large ami varied manufactures, a popu- 
lation of a liundred thousand souls, one of the 
best built and most populous cities in the Union 
not situated upon navigable waters.'"' Mr. 
McCulloch has mixed the imi)ressions of lli^ 
numerous visits a trifle, but his general iin- 
jiression of Indianapolis ])rior to lS-l(t is no 
doubt very exact, at least for wet weathei-. 

The growth of the town up to 1S3.5 was very 
slow. As mentioned, in 1827 the population 
was 1,066. In 1835 a complete census was 
made by George Lockerbie, the town assessor, 
which showed a total population of l,(i83, com- 
posed of S.')!) white males, 743 white females, 
and SI colored of lioth sexes. The settlement 

".Vc;/ find Mi'iisiirrs nf llulf a I'i'iil iinj. pp. 



iu this period was chiefly witliin a square or 
two of Washington street. There were still 
forest trees standing within that belt, though 
most of the timber had been cut from the mile 
square. The outlots were still forest. Says 
Brown: "All the territory south of Maryland 
and east of Meridian streets was unimproved 
except as farms till ]845, and most of it till 
1855. A fine walnut grove existed in the first 
and second wards north of North street and 
Drake's addition was a good hunting ground 
till 1848. Squirrels, rabbits, and turkeys were 
killed in sections now (1868) thickly peopled. 
No grading whatever had been done, and few 
sidewalks existed even on Washington street. 
Ponds along the bayous afforded skating in 
winter, and in summer were covered by green 
scum and tenanted by countless frogs. The 
streets were semi-fluid in thawing weather, but 
the drainage in many places was better than 
since the engineers changed it. The town was 
a dull country village, with no excitement be- 
yond the annual sessions, when a little anima- 
tion was given to society and to trade. It 
seemed to have attained its growth. Few ex- 
pected a brighter future, nor was there any 
prospect of it till the internal improvement 
scheme was originated."' The change in the 
drainage to which Jlr. Brown refers was a 
survey and fixing of grades by James Woods, 
civil engineer, in 1841, which was adopted by 
the council as permanently fixing the street 
grades, and all improvements were required to 
conform to his street profiles." It was after- 

wards found that he had uuileitaken to nuike 
an uniform drainage from northeast to south- 
west, which had to be abandoned in the in- 
terest of economy. 

For several years from 183.") prospects seemed 
very cheerful for Indianapolis. The work on 
the National Road and the canal brought many 
laborers here, and trade of all kinds was much 
stimulated. Prices of real estate began to 
jump, especially near the water-power of the 
canal. Even when the panic of 1837 came it 
did not have its full effect for some months, 
and people retained something of their good 
spirits. On May 30. 1838, the Democrat said: 
"The population of Indianapolis is now estim- 
ated at 4,000. In five years it will be 8.000.'" 
But when the internal improvement work had 
to be stopped permanently, and the National 
Road work was abandoned in 1839, the town 
went back very rapidly. When the census of 
1840 was taken, the total population was only 
•.'.662, of whom 1,329 were white males, 1,211 
white females, and 123 were colored — evenly 
divided between males and females. From 1840 
to the coming of the railroad in 1847 the 
life of the town was quiet, but with a gradual 
growth of population. There records of 
local censuses for the intervening period, but 
at the municipal election of 1839 there were 
324 votes cast, and at that of 1846 there were 
520. In proportion this would indicate a 
population of about 4,000 in 1846, but this 
is more a guess than an estimate. 

^Ordinances, 1SJ,6, p. 31. 



Judge Howe aptly tfrms early ludianapolis 
"the capital in the wilderness'", and it could 
very properly have held that title for a long 
time after the seat of government was trans- 
ferred to this point. It was for years the 
capital, and nothing more. It was located, laid 
out, and started into existence on that basis 
as completely as St. Petersburg was by Peter 
the Great. But it did not have the advantages 
given to the Kussiaii capital by the unlimited 
power and large ix'sources of the czar. It 
was dependent for its public buildings on the 
sale of town lots, and the accumulation of 
funds from this source was not rapid enough to 
admit of immediate and e.xtensive building. 
Moreover a part of this fund was diverted to 
public buildings elsewhere, especially to the 
state prison at Jetfersonville. The state offi- 
cials were not unmindful of the obligation to 
Indianapolis. In his message to the first leg- 
islature at this place, on January 10, 1825, 
Governor Hendricks said: "The sales of public 
property at this place have been looked to for 
the completion of the public buildings. * * * 
Public faith stands pledged to the purchasers 
of property in various parts of the town, that 
the ])ublic buildings contemplated on the circle 
and tile state house square sliould be comitieted 
as soon as ])ra(tieable. In this policy will be 
consulted alike the interest of purchasers 
and of the state; for th(,> commencement of 
the jiublic buildings will afford a very strong 
inducement to the eom|)letion of payments, 
the jirevention of forfeitures, ami the increase 
of the means to finish the work." The legis- 
latcn's, bv meeting here. ac(|uired a personal 
knowledge of the situation that could not have 
been gained fniin an\ number of reports, and 
prom]itly manifested a disposition to ])roniote 
till' interests of the i-iipital, in a rational way. 


Their first step was to increase the funds l>y 
ordering the Agent of State to sell all the re- 
served lots on Washington street between Merid- 
ian and New Jersey streets, and a number 
of others, together with two additional tiers of 
outlots, one north and one south of the town. 
He was also instructed to lease the ferry at 
Washington street for five years, with two acres 
of land on the east side of the river and one 
(Ui the west, the lessee to be bound to keep a 
ferry boat sufficient to carry "a loaded wagon 
and four horses", and also "a good canoe or 

By way of appropriati(Mis, the Agent was 
directed "to cause to bo cleared out the timber 
and obstructions in Pogue's IJun, so far as the 
same is included in the original plat of Indian- 
apolis,"' at an expense of not over $50. All of 
our local historians have made this an order 
to cut the timber in the valley of the run, but 
it was very i)lainly only a ])lan to promote the 
How of the stream. The legislature also appro- 
priated $1,000 "to build on lot number one in 
square number sixty-eight in Indianapolis, a 
substantial brick house for the residence of 
the ti'easurer of state, to contain the offices of the 
treasurer and auditor, and a (ire-proof vault 
for the better security of llic funds and rec- 
ords of the state." This house, the first state 
building erected in Indianapolis, stood on the 
southwest comer of Washington street and 
(Japitol avenue, with the offices on the west 
side, and the residence on the east and at the 
rear. ]\Irs. Ketcham says of it : "The house 
was a two-story brick, two rooms below and 
two al)ove, with the dining room hack of the 
office, and kitchen south of it. The front was 
set square on Washington street, as the houses 
were then. On Tennessee street (Ca|iit<il ave- 
nue) was a rather narrow long yard, then the 



poix-h, oil whit^'li opened the back parlor ilooi-, 
the dining room door and the kitchen. (The 
dinincr room and kitchen were one-storv, and 
over the parlor was a chamber to which a stair 
led from the sitting room.) The otlu'r upstairs 
room was the auditor's office, with outside 
stairs on the west side. When this was removed 
it was cJiieHy our play room. * * * '|'ho 
narlor had one door and one window on the 
street (Washington) and another on the porch, 
and a window on the vard that in summer was 

covered with vines 

The pleasant 

porch was our time table when Pa had his 
watch away — we could tell the time by the 
shadow reaching the rows of nails on the porch. 
In 1820 Mr. Xowland brought here the first 
watch. The people all borrowed it and put 
lilaik marks on their south doors by which they 
could guess at the time. I think it must have 
been like the town Roljert Louis Stevenson tells 
of, — that but one woman in it had the time, 
and it was never right. * * * The porch 
was covered with the loveliest morning-glories, 
and we often ate there. Four o'clocks made 
the air fragrant with their perfume, that still 
lingers with their beauty and the variety of 
the balsam. The sitting-room, dining-room and 
bed-room were one and the same. * * * 
Under my father's pillow was always a ]iistol. 
A door just by opened into the office. * * * 
The office was paved with brick. Full one- 
third of it was covered with a vault, as we 
called it. It was of lirick. built u]) four 
feet, plastered, and witli an iron door on 
top. Up and down through this double-locked 
door went lio.xes and liags of silver." 

The sale of lots ordered by the legislature 
was held on ^lay 2. Of the reserved lots 
seventeen were sold for a total of $3,328, the 
highest price paid being $3(50. and the lowest 
$134. The twenty additional outlots brought 
$l,4fir. or a little more than $18 an acre. 
This legislature also petitioned Congress for 
the removal of tiie land office from Brookville 
to lndiana)iolis, and for better postal service 
at this jjoint, both of which were granted. The 
land office was removed to this point in Sep- 
tember, 182.T. The militia authorities, also sent 
a cannon here that summer, and an artillery 
eom]>any was formed, which shot as many 
arms ami legs off the members of the company 
and innocent tiystanders as any company in 
the countrv. \MK'n the icijislature convened for 

the session of 1820, local conditions had not 
improved much, and the purchasers of lots 
were in sore straits. Many had purchased more 
than they were able to pay for, expecting an 
advance in values that would make the profits 
on j)art pay for the remainder. Others iiad 
bougiit at high prices near the State House 
Square, expecting the new capitol to make 
their property advance in value, and it had not 
been built, and was not in immediate prospect. 
At the time of the sale in 1821 payments could 
be made in depreciated treasury paper, Ijut now 
they must be made in specie or its equivalent. 
In view of the whole situation the legislature 
adopted the law for the relief of ]nircliasers 
allowing them to forfeit one lot and apply what 
had been paid on it to the payment for an- 
other, provided the other was paid for in full. 
This proved beneficial both to purchasers and 
to the state. The only improvement ordered 
by the legislature of 182() was a contract for 
a ferry-house with the ferry lessee, Asahel 
Dunning. It was to Ite a brick building. 18 
x3t), and two stories high, the cost not to ex- 
ceed the rents under the existing lease. It 
was built that summer, and though partially 
destroyed l)y fire on November 27, 18-5.5. was 
repaired, and occupied for some twenty years 

In 182T the financial conditions were some- 
what improved, and the legislature was more 
liberal. It appropriated $,500 for building an 
office for the Clerk of the Supreme Court on 
the Court House Square, which was duly 
erected as heretofore mentioned. It also ap- 
]iropriated $4,000 for a mansion for the gov- 
ernor, on Governor's ('ircle, which was ordered 
to be enclosed by a rail fence. The contract 
for this building was let on March IT. to Wm. 
Smith, Robert Culbertson, Austin Bishop and 
Wm. Speaks, and it was completed at a cost of 
$6, .500. It was a large, square, brick building, 
about 50 feet each way, with two full stories, 
a basement and an attic The main flixn- was 
alxiut six feet above the ground, with steps com- 
ing up to a hall door in the center of each side. 
From these doors two halls, ten feet wide 
crossed the floor at right angles, dividing it 
into four large rooms. The rooms on the sec- 
ond floor were smaller. It had a pavilion, 
terrace roof, with a dormer window in the 
center of each side, and a deck or look-out al)out 
twel\c feet square. >urr(iuniled l>y a bahistrade. 


1 o:? 

The barieiucnt iwims lunc a traditional n'|)ma- 
tion of bcinj; dark and damp, but tiiat couu's 
from the memory of boys wlio pliiviMl there 
after the rooms were iui(H(U|>ied. 'i'luy were 
apparently eoml'ortaljle enou^li in ordinary 
use. and were occupied I'or pur]ioses not con- 
sonant witli dai-i\iu's.s and dampness, such as 
the Union Literary Society, and Miss 8ar- 
geantV infant scIukiI. The jiartitions on tlie 
main fioor were made with slidin"- panels, so 
that the whole Hoor could he tiirown into one 
room if desired, and tiiis was doni' for l)alls 
on a few occasions. It was early seen that the 
situation was too exjiosed for ordinary resi- 
dence pur])oses. and the li'.aislaturc of 1828 

(From an oltl cu\.) 

undertook to rectify this iiy resei-\inj;' lols ', and 
8 of scpiare 4G — now covered hy the Hotid Enjr- 
lisli — for "a garden and stable-lot for the gov- 
ernor". But none of the governors had any 
desire to occupy this overgrown structure, anil 
indeed it was never finished for a i-esidence. 
iait only for oiricc pur|)oses. 

.\t the session of IS'.^!) a |)i'o]iiisal \\as nuid' 
to add wings to tliis building and make it the 
state house, but this met no favor. This pro- 
posal is referred to, in a vision of the future. 
in the "carrier's address" of the diizrllc for 
•Tanuarv 1, IS'.'i). in these words: 

"Tlieii I turned nie around, to see what else 
i could ; 
.\t the Governor's mansion a crowd met niy 
< )n ihe lop was ei'ected a .-leepli' of wood. 
And two wings at the sides, that the 
(xov'nor might Hy. 

■"Hut a wag at my side said Ibis bouse was 


For the wisdom of state to asscndile to rule; 

That for flying the (iov'nor was nevci- iiicliiie(l ; 

'Twas the State-House, ami I but a pour 

silly fool." 

The ■■mansion" wa> uirne(l o\cr t<i the state 
ottict'rs, who occnjiied the main Ibmi- fm- a num- 
ber of years. The slate library was kept llici^e 
until the state house was built. The state bank 
was there until its building was finished. The 
state engineers were (piartered there during the 
internal imi)rovenient ])criod. The Clerk of 
the Supreme Courl had his ollii-e Ibere for a 
time. The Supreme .ludges bad cliand)ers on 
the \ipper floor, and many of I be anecdotes 
preserved about Judge Blackford cluster about 
liis room there, where he lived his hermit life 
and edited his oelebratt'd law reports. .lohn 
Strange, the famous preacher of early limes, 
died in one of those up|ier rooms. The build- 
ing was singularly open to the ])ublic, even 
when ofticially oci-upi<'d. Thirty years ago .Mrs. 
I'riscilla Drake, widow of Col. James P. Drake, 
the old time proprietor of the Capitol House, 
excited my wonder hy telling me how, in her 
time, the fashionable young folk of the I own 
used to play at battledore and shuttlecock in 
the broad halls — which shows that Indianapolis 
Icl no fad escape, even in those early ilays. 
Tile Court of Common Pleas of Clarion County 
held its first sessions in this building. Hut 
gi'adnally it fell out of repair, and became a 
resort for disreputables, and the legislature of 
18.5fi-7 ordered it sold. It was auctioned off 
on .\pril Hi, 1857, to David Macv, for .$(;(;.5, 
and pait (d' Ibe material was used m building 
the Macy House, at the southeast corner of 
Illinois and Market streets, now in use as a 
store and ollice building. 

The legislature of 18^.^7 also pnivided for 
ibe sale of .-jeven acres for a steam mill — a 
pi'ivale undertaking that was (piite as ghastly 
a failure as Ihe Co\ I'l'noi-'s Mansion. The 



Steam Mill Compaiiv was chartered by the leg- 
islature on Jauuarv 28, with a capital of 
$20,000 in $50 shares, bnt the stock went off 
slowly, and the materials were not collected 
and the work of erection begim until 1831. 
It was a tremendous undertaking for the time 
and place. It stood on the east side of the 
river just above the National Koad bridge, and 
included a saw mill, a gi'ist mill, and a card- 
ing mill. The saw mill was on the west side, 
on the slope of the bluff, and the main build- 
ing on the high ground liack of it. It was 
a large frame building with three full stories 
and a high gambrel roof which provided two 
additional floors. It was put up by James 
Griswold, a gigantic carpenter, famed for hon- 
est work, and was as solid as a rock. It took 
one hundred men two days to raise the frame, 
and they did it without any whisky, which was 
a long approach towards a niiracle. The lioil- 
ers and engines, the first ever used here, were 
to have been brought from Cincinnati on a 
steamboat, but the conditions were unfavorable, 
and so they were brought through on wagons 
at great expense. In fact the only cheap 
thing about it was the land, which was sold on 
]\Iarch 8, 1827. to George Smith and John 
Johnson, for $100, and the certificate was as- 
signed by them to Nicholas McCarty, one of 
the chief promoters. On account of the diffi- 
culties met, the legislature on January G, 1831, 
granted an extension of a year in the time for 
completing the mill, and jjaying for the land, 
and the deed was issued on JIarch 8, 1832, to 
James Blake & Co.. the company being Nicho- 
las McCarty and James M. Ray. The saw 
mill had been completed in the fall of 1830, 
and put in operation. The main building was 
completed in December, 1831, and the grist 
mill began operations in Jantuiry, 1832. It 
first gave the community honu^-made bolted 
flour. Prior to this time all the meal and 
flour made here was sifted ; and there was not 
much flour made because there was little wheat 
raised, the soil being too rich for it. 

But the new institution was too large for the 
place. After supplying all local demands there 
was no possibility of sliipping its surplus prod- 
uct. Moreover there was difficidty in getting 
good wood for fuel at seventy-five cents a 
cord, and the company could not profitably 
pay more for it. Within a year it was seeii 
that the enterprise was not going to be a fi- 

iiaiKial bonanza, but the company hung on 
until 183.5, when the mill was shut down, and 
the machinery offered for sale. But little of 
it was sold, and the plant lay idle, the build- 
ing becoming a haunt of the vicious and de- 
praved, until 1847. The coming of the rail- 
road improved business prospects, and the 
Geisendorffs took the old mill and operated it 
as a woolen mill until 1852, when they vacated 
it. On the night of November 16, 1853, some- 
one set it afire, and it was totally destroyed, 
as was also the toll-house on the National Road 
adjoining. The bridge over White river wa- 
saved by the greatest exertions of the fire- 

By 1830 there were symptoms of enough 
money to build a state house, and a commit- 
tee was appointed to investigate. It reported at 
the next session that a satisfactory building 
would cost $56,000, and the sale of the re- 
maining lots in the donation would bring the 
available funds to $58,000. It was therefore 
decided to proceed, and on February 10, 1831, 
a bill for that purpose was passed. It made 
James Blake a commissioner to collect ma- 
terials for the foundation — 210 perches of 
rough stone and 150 perches of cut stone — 
by the second Monday in ^lay, 1833; and also 
to advertise for plans for which he was to 
offer a premium of $150. For this work an 
appropriation of $3,000 was made. The plans 
tailed for were to include a Representative liall 
for 100 members, a Senate chamber for 50 
members, quarters for the Supreme Court, 
Secretary of State, Auditor of State, State 
Library, Law Library, six committee rooms and 
six clerks' rooms ; and the building was to cost 
not more than $48,000. The plans were sub- 
mitted to the next legislature, and by act of 
.lanuary 26, 1832, the plan submitted by Ithiel 
Town and Andrew J. Davis was adopted. They 
were partners, at New York, and were prob- 
ably the most notable American architects of 
the time. They had designed the executive and 
postoffice buildings at Washington, the city 
liall at New Haven, the custom house at New 
York, the University of Michigan, and other 
]iublic buildings. They completed the caiiitol 
at Springfield, 111., the same year as ours, and 
that at Columbus, Ohio two years later. Mr. 
Town was known here, having furnished the 
plans for the first bridge over Fall Creek at 
the Lafayette Road ctossing, now Indiana ave- 



nui\' By ill! (if Ft'bniary 2, 1832, CJovcriior 
Xoali Nol)le, -Morris ^lorris, and Samuel Mer- 
rill were appointed commissioners to superin- 
tend the construction of the building; $18,000 
additional was ap[)ropriated to carry on the 
work ; and tlu' lot fund was pledged for the 
entire cost, which was limited to $60,000. 
Town and Davis, the architects, got the con- 
tract for the building and completed it in 
December, 1835, in time for that -winter's 
session of the legislature. 

The new capitol was considered a very fine 
building at the time, and it was. It was about 
200 feet long and 100 feet wide, and followed 
the style of tlie I'arthenon in its e.xterior, ex- 
cept that a dome was added. This always 
raised the wrath of Berry Sulgrove and other 
critics, because it was a departure from the 
Greek, but it would be a sad fate if we could 
not improve on the '"dagoes"' of two thousand 
years ago, and an American cai)itol without a 
dome is inconceivable. In fact the dome and 
rotunda are tlie most important jiarts of a 
ia]>itol. The others are all occupied by the 
])ublic servants, and the rotunda is the one 
place where the citizen can feel at home, and 
glory in the fact that he is one of the masters 
of all hirelings, and of the building. 
M such a time a free-born .\.merican must have 
room to swell, and a dome becomes no less than 
a necessity. But the building was not so fine 
as it looked. The foundation was of soft, blue, 
Bhiff limestone, and the superstructure was 
partly of brick and partly of lath covered wood- 
work, all of which was coated with a bastard 
stucco plaster, and neither plaster nor stone 
would stand the weather in tiiis climate, or the 
friendly hammering of admiring visitors. In 
consequence it did not age well, and before 
it was replaced it acquired the appearance of 
a genuine Grecian ruin. In fact it was a 
judilic di.sgrace for fifteen or twenty years. 
In 18GT the ceiling of the Heprcsentative hall 
fell in and made a niagnilicent wreck. The 
writer, as a juvenile explorer, climbed over the 
debris and rescued the hands of the clock, 
which bad l)een smashed in the catastroi)he. 
They made ideal arrow-heads, in a])[)earance, 
but they were slioddy, too, and bent uji when 
they struck anything hard. 

But with all its dilapidation there was a charm 

about the old state house that can never be 
found about its more business-like successor. 
Indeed there was no suggestion of business 
about the old state house unless the legislature 
was in session or a crowd was assembled by 
some other special event. The State lloitsc 
Square was originally (piite low. and when the 
building was erected it was filled to the e.xtent 
of nine feet, making the central part three or 
four feet above the street. The newly graded 
grounds were planted with forest trees wdiieh 
in due time developed into a pleasant grove, 
lialf secluded in which was the capitol, quiet 
and restful. It was a genuine pleasure to stroll 
in on a warm summer day, up the woi'n steps, 
past the battered columns of the porticos, into 
the cool, musty corridor, and then nose around 
in the State Library and Museum, which was 
tbe chief attraction of tlie building, and ri- 
valed the asylums as the chief show place of the 
city. The first suggestion of a state library 
was made by the Constitutional Convention of 
f81(). which recommended the General .Vssem- 
bly "to appropriate the money voluntarily given 
by the citizens of Harrison County to the State 
to the jjurchase of books for a library for the 
use of the legislature and other officers of the 
government".- But unfortunately the citizens of 
Harrison County did not give any money. What 
they gave was a bond for $1,000 to be paid 
to the stale when the constitution was adopted 
— the constitution providing that Corydon, the 
county seat of Harrison County, should be the 
seat of government until 1825, and until re- 
moved by law. But the legislature of 1817 
found it necessary to pass a joint resolution 
that whereas this bond had been "lost or mis- 
laid", demand should be made on the makers, 
and uidess thev ])aid suit should be brought.' 
The report of the Treasurer for 1817 stated 
that suit had l)een brought and that "when the 
money was ])aid it would be $1,000".'' and the 
same in. ISIS,"* but the money lU'ver np]K'arcd 
in the state's receipts. 

In his message of 1817 Governor Jennings 
said: "The commencement of a state library 
forms a subject of too much interest not to 
meet your attention", and then h(> dropped the 

'Coiiiili/ ('miirs. Uiinnl. .lanuai'V .">. 1S:!2. 

-Journal ('(iiisl. Coiir., p. (>8. 
'■Ads of 1S17, p. 252. 
*nousr Jnitniril. 1817. ]). 28. 
■'Ifiinsc ■loiiniiil . p. 7 1. 



uii[)k'as:iiit subjft-t. 'I'lif next iiiontioii was in 
the message of Uoveriior Hendric-ks, of Janu- 
ary 10, 1825 : "Among the improvements be- 
fore alluded to, there is none more deserving 
of attention than a state library. Many valu- 
able books already belong to the state, and if 
some regulations for their use and preservation 
should be made with only a moderate annual 
allowance for their increase, they would soon 
eonstitute a respectable eolleetion." 'J'lie leg- 
islature was of like mind, and by aet of Felj- 
ruary 11, 1825, made the Secretary of State 
the State Librarian and appropriated $50 for 
the purchase of books, with a continuing ap- 
propriation dH $30 a year thereafter. 'I'he first 
librarian's rejiort, made by Secretary \Vm. 
\\"]ik the year following, stated that he had e.\- 
))eii(k'd the $50 for Hume's England, witli 
Smollet's continuation, Johnson's Lives of tin' 
rods, and Mavor's Universal Histori/. but 
some days later he filed a supplemental report 
saying that he had forgotten to mention that he 
also purchased The Federalist.'^ The Secivtary 
of State continued to be ex-officio Librarian 
until 1841, the library being kept in his of- 
fice in the Governor's Circle. In that year 
Sulgrove says: "John Cook, a bustling, log- 
rolling, pushing little fellow, recently from 
Ohio, got himself made librarian, and the 
library was put in the south rooms, west side, 
of the State House."' 

There is reason to suspect that Mr. Sulgrove 
did 7iot admire Librarian Cook. He alluded 
to him elsewhere as "a recent comer here, a 
little, conceited, mud-headed, arrogant English- 
man, who made himself conspicuous as a leader 
of the Whig singing clubs, and thus commended 
himself to an office that he was about as well 
([ualified for as he was for Mayor of the Xew 
.lerusaleiu"." Mr. Cook may have got the ap- 
pointment tlirougli his political vocalization, but 
he was not responsible for the library legisla- 
tion of 1841. The man that effected that was 
Dr. Philip Mason of Fayette County." the most 
enthusiastic reformer of his day, and lie wa- imi 
so much interested in the library as he was in 
the regulation of ]nil)lie busiiu'ss. At that time 

Tfouse JonriKil. Is2i;. pj). 22, 25.'?. 
'Hist. Indianujiolis. p. 5!). 
"Sentinel. January K!. 1SS7. 
"Mason's Anlohinfiriijihii. y. Uil : llnnsc .lour 
val. 1840-1. p. 2;u! 

the Secretary of State was not oidy keeper of the 
state library and the legislative jjapers, l)Ut also 
(d' the furniture not in other state otlic-es, and 
he was requiri'd to keep "a liranding iron, on 
which shall be engraved the lioman capital 
letters P. S. I. (meaning the property of the 
State of Indiana)'' and with it to lu-and "'all 
movable wooden furniture". The >tate house 
was in the custody of the Treasurer of State. 
Dr. Mason's law provided for a State Librarian, 
elected by the legislature for three years, at a 
salary of $300 a year, who should be keeper of 
the state library, the state house, thf State 
House Square, and all the furniture of said 
house which is not in the care or keejiing of 
any of the public officers of the state ; he was 
to keep up the fence around the State 
S(piare, and by way of recompense was ■•per- 
mitted to mow the grass plat and apply the 
grass to his own tise"; and he was i-eipiired to 
take over all the business of the .\gent of 
State for the sale of lots at Indianapolis, and 
attend to that. In 1843 the care of "the 
Governors Circle and public buildings thereon" 
was added to his sinecure.'" Dr. ilason's law 
made one great advance by making the annual 
appropriation for books and l)inding $4n(i, but 
unfortunately that was what it remaineil foi- 
nearly fifty years. It also .<ei)arated the liw 
library and provided a room for it adjoining 
the Supreme Court. 

From that time forward the office was ]jartly 
on a political and partly an t'leemosynary basis 
for many years, though some very creditable 
people held it at times. Cook was succeeded by 
Samuel P. Daniels, a tailor and a Democrat, 
1844-5; John B. Dillon, the historian. 1845-51 ; 
Xathaniel Bolton, 1851-4 ; Gordon Tainier, 
1854-G ; S. D. Lvons, 1856-9 : James E. Bryant, 
1859-61; Robert D. Brown, 1861-3; David 
Stephenson, 1863-5: B. F. Foster, 1865-0; ^I. 
G. McClain, 1869-71: James DeSarro, 1871-3; 
Sarah A. Oren, 18T3-5. Librarian Bryant at- 
tained fame by "firing the Ephesian dome" 
with a catalogue that attracted the following 
comment in the Xntinn of February 16. 1882:" 

"To the Editor of the Xation : 
"If there is to be a bibliograjihy of bibliog- 
raphies, vour note of last week contributes cer- 

"7iV'r. Sldls. ISJi-l. ji. i:4. 
"V.d. :!4. |). 142. 



] OS 


tainlj' a curious instance toward the material 
for such a work. But 1 beg that the future 
compiler of that work may not overlook the 
'Catalogue of the Indiana State Library for 
18o9', which has long been my wonder and 
admiration. So far is it from attempting the 
complexity of the catalogue raisonnc that its 
rigorous alphabeticism sets down 'A Manchester 
Strike' between 'Agriculture' and 'American'. 
It invites us to such tours de force as 'Auto- 
biography of Sir Simonds D'Ewes by Halli- 
well', and the "^Autobiography of Sir Walter 
Scott, by Bart.' 'Bank's (Ranke's) History of 
the Popes' appears under the letter B. Strong 
in the historical department, it offers a choice 
between the "Life of John Tyler, by Harper 
& Brothers', 'Memoirs of Moses Henderson, 
by the Jewish Philosophers', 'Memoirs and Cor- 
respondence of Viscount Castlereach, by the 
ilarquis of Londonderry', and 'Memoirs of 
Benvenuto, by Gellini'. In fiction you may 
find 'Tales of mv Landlord, bv Cleishbotham', 
and 'The Pilot/ by the Auditor of The Pio- 
neers', while if your passion for plural author- 
ship is otherwise unappeasable — if Beaumont 
and Fletcher or Erckmann-Chatrian seem to 
you too feeble a combination of talents — you 
may well be captivated by the title 'Small 
Arms, by the United States Army'. 

"The State of Indiana has undoubtedly 
learned a good many things since 1859 ; but 
whoever its present librarian may be, it is 
hardly probable that his highest flight in bib- 
liography has surpassed the catalogue from 
which I have quoted. T. B. 

"Rochester. February G, 1882." 

r>ut there were one or two even worse ones 
issued in the succeeding decade, and then they 
stopped. It was more than a relief when Mrs. 
Oren came into office; it w-as a revolution. 
She was probably elected because she was a 
soldier's widow, but she had other qualifica- 
tions. She had been a successful teacher in 
the high school, and in addition to educa- 
tion she had common sense and a good business 
head that fitted her peculiarly for the some- 
what complex position. There is no exaggera- 
tion in the following tribute paid to lier in 
the Democratic organ fifteen years latn-: 

"There are many persons living in Indian- 
apolis who remember the n^forins instituted by 
Mrs. Oren, the first woman who served as 

Librarian, not only in the library proper but 
in the entire state building, of which the Li- 
brarian has been for many years the legal cus- 
todian. The whole building was cleaned and 
disinfected ; chimneys, ventilators and flues 
which had become stopped up were opened and 
cleaned; the grimy walls were papered: the 
steps and pavements of the porches were re- 
paired to an extent which would permit one 
to walk over them without becoming seasick; 
the dilapidated soft-coal stoves were replaced 
by base-burners ; water pipes were put in : the 
regimental colors were carefully dusted and 
bound up; the legislative papers that had not 
yet been eaten by mice were taken from the 
musty cupboards and packed in tin boxes. In 
the library the books were examined volume by 
volume, and it was ascertained that several 
hundred listed in the catalogue of 1872 were 
not in the library. The old records were 
searched, and a number of these jiiissing vol- 
umes were recovered from people who had bor- 
rowed them under the old law and never re- 
turned them. The duplicates, which had been 
scattered haphazard through the shelves, were 
sorted out and placed in a separate room ; ex- 
changes were made wdtli other libraries by 
which the collection was increased and many 
broken sets were filled. The librar)- was re- 
arranged on the plan of the Boston Public 
Library, in departments by subjects, and al- 
phabetically by authors' names. Labels were 
pasted on the books designating their places in 
the shelves and ranges. In the purchase of 
books, which has been the best test of any 
Librarian's merit, Mrs. Oren displaj'ed the 
soundest judgment. An examination of her 
list of purchases will show this, and will show 
the truth of her statement that 'in the pur- 
chase of books a careful eye has been had to 
the needs of the laboring people, who cannot 
afford to jnirchase costly reference books'. '"- 
As before mentioned, the "Governor's Man- 
sion" was never occupied as a residence by any 
Governor. James Brown Ray, who succeeded 
when Gov. William Hendricks was elected to 
the Senate in 1825, and was twice thereafter 
elected Governor, serving till 1831, lived in his 
own house. He was at first allowed house 
rent, but as some criticism was made of it, the 
salary was increased and declared to cover 

'-SnilliirJ. .liuiuarv (5. 1887. 

iiis'i'dK'v ()|- (;i;i:.\rKi; ixdiaxapoijs. 


house rt'ut. (iovcnior Xolilo. wlio served I'roui 
1831 to IS'M had a farm east of Xoble 
street and north of Market, with a luie resi- 
dence on a knoll near the present corner of 
Market and Pine streets, where he resided. 
Followiug him came Governor Wallace, a non- 
resident, who found a tenement near the corner 
of Washington and ilissouri streets until the 
legislature was convinced that it should pro- 
vide a gubernatorial residence, ami on Feb- 
ruary IJJ, 1839, ordered the purchase of the 
residence of Dr. John H. Sanders, at the north- 
west corner of Illinois and Market streets. It 
was then considered the finest residence in 
the city, but for some reason, probaJjly a low 
site made worse by street grading, it was al- 
ways unhealthy. Governor Bigger was suj)- 
posed to have contracted there the fatal ill- 
ness from which he died soon after leaving 
office. The young wife of Governor \Miit-i 
comb died there, and so did Governor Wright's 
first wife. Governor Willard's wife was ill 
nearly all the time they occupied the house. 
Governor ilorton abandoned it in the fall of 
1863 on account of the ill health of iiimsclf 
and family, and after boarding for a time pur- 
chased the house at the southeast corner of 
Pennsylvania and Jsew York streets, where he 
died in 1877. The residence of the governors 
for nearly a quarter of a century was sold in 
1865, and some years later was torn down to 
give place to the Cyclorama Building, which 
in turn was succeeded by the present Union 
Terminal and Traction Station. 

By the time Indiana had completed its re((- 
uisite governmental buildings, the public con- 
science of the state was becoming aroused to 
the duty of care for the blind, deaf and dumb 
and insane, which. had been attracting atten- 
tion in the older states in the past decade. 
The proceeds of the donation tract had been 
exhausted, and the three per cent fund had 
been used up in internal improvements, but 
somebody was struck by a happy thought, and 
in January, 1839, the legislature memorialized 
Congress asking a further grant for these pur- 
poses. Having thus made a tentative jirovision 
of means, on February 13, 1839, it directed 
the assessors to ascertain and report tlie num- 
ber of deaf mutes in each county. But Con- 
gress had troubles of its own, and did not re- 
spond. Meanwhile members of the medical 
profession became interested in the treatment 

of the insane, which had the medical as well 
as the merely philanthropic side, and a special 
champion of state action arose in the person of 
Dr. John Evans of Fountain County, after- 
wards Governor of Colorado. On January 31, 
1842, the Governor was directed to corresjwnd 
with the governors of other states as to the 
cost, construction and management of insane 
hospitals — or as they were then called ''lunatic 
asylums" — and report to the ne.xt session. This 
was the result of a very forcible letter from Dr. 
Evans and Dr. Isaac Fisher of Fountain 
County, pointing out the evils of the exist- 
ing treatment of the insane and the progress 
of other states, on which a favorable report 
had been made on January 2().''' On Decem- 
ber 2."). 184'2, Dr. Evans delivered a lecture be- 
fore the legislature on the treatment of insani- 
ty, and on February 13, 1843, the Governor was 
directed to correspond with the superintendents 
of hospitals and procure plans, and submit them 
with his suggestions at the next session. On his 
report, the legislature, on January 1.5, 1844, 
levied a tax of one cent on the hundred dol- 
hirs for the hospital buildings and site. On 
January 13, ISl."), Dr. Evans, Dr. Livingston 
Dunlap and James Blake were appointed com- 
missioners to select a site of not over 200 
acres. In the spring they selected the site 
of the present Central Hospital for the In- 
sane, then known as Mount Jackson. It had 
beeii the pro])erty of George Smith, the founder 
id' the Gazette, and had been named by him in 
honor of "Old Hickory"'. For some years it 
liail been occupied by Nathaniel Bolton and 
his gifted wife Sarah T. Bolton, who main- 
tained a tavern there. At the n.ext session they 
reported the site and a plan for the building, 
and on January 19, 1846, they were directed to 
|)r()ceed with the building. An appropriation 
of $15,000 was made, and they were also in- 
structed to Sell "the Hospital Square"' (square 
.\o. 22) and appropriate the proceeds to the 
work. The main building was begun in the 
summer of 1846, and completed the year fol- 
lowing at a cost of about $75,000. The south 
wing was added in 1853-6, and the north wing 
in lS(i6-9. This completed the main building, 
and later additions will be mentioned here- 

Before the hospital for the insane got to 

'' JiiiiriKil. p. 591. 


iiis'roi.'v or (;i;k.\'1'i:i,' ixdianai' 

the appropriation stagi: the luKiicati's of the 
t'diR-ation of the deaf aiul diunh had secured 
the passage of an act on February 13, 1843, 
levying a tax of two mill? on one hundred 
dollars for an asylum for the deaf and'duudi. 
In the spring following tliry lirought \\rvr 
William Willard. a teacher in the Ohu) insti- 
tute for the deaf and dumb and he opened a 
private school, in which there were sixteen pu- 
pils the first year. On January 15, 1844, the 
legislature established the institute for the deaf 
and dumb, and made trustees for it the Ctov- 
ernor. Secretary and Treasurer of State, Henr\ 

and thirty acres of land uei'e jiurchased. The 
: ame year the school was removed to the Kin- 
der block, a three-story brick building on the 
south side of Washington near Delaware. Here 
it remained until the completion of the new 
state building in 1850, at a cost of $30,000, 
anrt it is still being occupied while a new 
iiwtitution is being constructed north of the 
eity. ^[r. Willard was superintendent until 
1S45, when James S. Brown succeeded him and 
M'rved until 1853. Thomas Mclntvre was then 
appointed and served until 1879. He was a 
trained instructor, and made the value of the 


(From a cut.) 

Ward Beecher, IMiiueas D. Gurley, Love 11. 
Jameson, Livingston Dunlap, and James Mor- 
rison, of Marion County, and ^[atthew Simp- 
son of Putnam County. The trustees prac- 
tically adopted the Willard school, under their 
directions to rent a room and em])loy teachers, 
first locating it in a large frame residence on 
the southeast corner of Mai-yland aiul Illinois 
streets. The act pi'ovided tliat nothing in it 
should be "construed to make any permanent 
location of the asylum for the deaf and dumb 
at Indianapolis", but in is HI a site was selected 
at the eorni"r of WashiiiLrtun and State streets 

institution ]ilain to everyone. His successor, 
l>r. Wm. Cilenn, served till 1885, when Eli P. 
Baker succeeded, and served till 1889. Mr. 
Richard (). Johnson, the jtresent efficient su- 
|ierintendent, has been in charge siiu-c 1889. 
Extensive additions were made to the build- 
ings at various dates, and the grounds were iu- 
creased to 105 acres. 

Kentucky served as an example and a spur 
to Indiana in the nmtter of benevolent institu- 
tions. Its deaf and duml) asylum was adver- 
tised here, ten years before we had one, as edu- 
(atiuii- the indigent deaf and dumb of Ken- 

ins'i'()i;v OF cuKATKi; indi.wai'ous. 

11 1 

tuckv free of charge, and outsiders at $80 per 
rear.'* In 18-i."i, during the session of tlie h'gi>- 
hituie. pupils from tlie Kentuekv Blind Asylum 
were hronght here and gave e.\Iiii)itions of tlieir 
attainnii'nts in the Seeond Presbyterian Cluiiili. 
of wliieh Henry Ward Beeeher was then pas- 
tor. Many legislators attended, and on one 
occasion Senator Dirk Rousseau, of (ireene 
County, convulsed the audience by writing out 
a jiroblem and holding it before the sightless 
pupils while lie tried to help them comprehend 
bv tracing the figures with his fingers. The 
legislature wa.s convinced and on January V-). 
184."), levied a tax of two mills on $l(Hi to 
build an asylum for the blind, which was in- 
creased to one cent on January 27, 184T. On 
January 19, ]84(), the Secietary, Auditor ami 
Treasurer of State, with James il. Kay and 
Dr. George W. Clears, were made commissioners 
to provide for temporary schooling of the blind 
of the stale. Win. II. riiurchman, who had l)een 
in charge of the e.xhiliition of the Kentucky 
pupils the year before, was appointed to ad- 
dress the ])eople of the state on the subject of 
educating the blind, and to ascertain the num- 
ber of the blind in the state. On Januarv 27. 
lS4r. Dr. George W. Mears. Calvin Fletcher 
:ind James M. Kay were appointed comniis- 
-ioners to provide the buildings for the school, 
and $.'),()()(l was approiiriated for the site. ^[r. 
Fletcher declined to serve, and Seton W. iforris 
was api)oiiited in his place. The present site 
tiien known as '"Pratt's Walnut Grove" — be- 
tween North and St. Clair, Pennsylvania and 
Aferidian streets — was selected, and the work- 
shop — the three story brick building at Walnut 
and Pennsylvania streets which was torn away 
in i;iOO to niake place (in- a new wing — was 
lirsl erected, ^reanwhile the school was opened 
in the liuilding formerly occupied by the deaf 
and dunili at ^faryland and Illinois streets, on 
October 1, 1847. In September, 1S4S, it was 
removed to the workshop, then conii)leted, and 
remained there till the main building was fiu- 
islied in February. 1S."):i. TIk/ buildings and 

'*.lniiriiiil. Si.pleinljer 1 1. ls:i."). 

grounds cost $11U,UI)U, and the asylum proper 
was the most imposing state building, e.\cept- 
ing possibly the state house, that had been 
erected up to that time. It still stands, sub- 
stantially as built, except that large additions 
have been made at the rear. This was the last 
of the state buildings erected at Indianapolis 
prior to the Civil War. 

The old building for the State Treasurer, at 
the southwest corner of Capitol avenue and 
Washington street, was abandoned by that of- 
ficial in ISoT. and was rented and used for 
various pur])oses until ISG.j, when it was torn 
down. By this time the capitol was so dilapi- 
dated and overcrowded that an additional build- 
ing was needed, and in IStiT one was erected 
on the site of the old Treasurer's house — a two- 
story brick building with a l)asement reaching 
some five feet above ground — into wdiich the 
Supreme Court, with its library, and all the 
state officers except the Governor and the State 
Libi-arian removed. This arrangement con- 
tinued until 1877. Everyiiody realized the need 
of a new capitol, but neither party .would take 
the responsibility for the expense of erecting 
one. In that year the control of the houses 
beinw divided, the act of ilarch 4 was passed, 
providing for the apjiointment of four com- 
missioners to build a capitol costing not over 
$";;.0()i.),0()(i. and levying a tax of one cent on 
$100 to meet the expense, (ien. Jolm Love, 
(Jen. Thos. .\. ^lorris. Col. I. 1). G. Xelson anil 
John M. Collett were ap])ointed. Collctt re- 
signed May 3. is;!), when he was appointed 
State Geologist, and (Jeneral Love was later 
succeeded by II. Mursinna. The first jilans 
submitted weic all rejected as too expensive: 
and from a second submission of 24 plans, one 
by P'dwin ^lay, of Indianapolis, was chosen. 
The general contract was taken by the lirm of 
Kanmacher & Denig, and the building was com- 
pleted in 18SS within the cost limit fixed by 
the law. While it was l)eing erected, the Stale 
TJbrarv was housed in the (iallu|) Idock. at the 
southeast conu'r of Cap'tnl avenue and Market 



Until the year 1832 there was no municipal 
organization at Indianapolis, the only local 
government being through the state laws, en- 
forced by the courts and the county and town- 
ship officers. But town organization was 
wholly dependent on the will of the people, 
and in the fall of 1832 a movement was inau- 
gurated for that purpose. An act had been 
adopted on February 2, 1832, which changed the 
system of town incorporation that had been in 
vogue since the admission of the state. Under 
the new law it was necessary for two-thirds 
of the legal voters of the town to sign a peti- 
tion to the county board asking for incorpora- 
tion, the signatures being proved "by the oath 
of any reputable person", and the board was 
thereupon to order an election to be held within 
one month from that time for the election of 
trustees for the incorporation, of which ten 
days notice was to be given by written notices 
posted in three public places. At the meeting 
for the election, the voters were first to elect 
as president and clerk who should ''without de- 
lay lay off said incorporation into five dis- 
tricts and forthwith present the same to said 
voters, who shall proceed to elect one trustee 
for each district". In other respects the old 
law was to be followed. The old law provided 
for a public meeting on the first Monday in 
March or September, at which a president and 
secretary were to be chosen, who were to di- 
vide the town into five districts and hold an 
election for trustees on the following ilonday, 
certifying the result to the trustees elected, who 
filed their certificates with the county clerk, 
and then organized by electing a president. 
Under the old law the county board had noth- 
ing to do with the incorporation, but under the 
new law. which has since been followed, it 
became the authority in control of the process. 

On September 1, a call was published for a 
meeting to consider incorporation, to be held 
at the court house on September 3. This meet- 
ing prepared a petition to the Board of County 
Commissioners for incorporation, which was 
])resented on the following day, and this record 
was made : "Glidden True and others presented 
a petition praying that the Town of Indian- 
apolis be incorporated, and it appearing to the 
satisfaction of the Board by said petition that 
two-thirds of the legal voters of said town are 
favorable to said incorporation, and have signed 
said petition, the signatures of whom are proved 
by the oath of Glidden True — 

"Ecsolved that said town be and the same 
is hereby incorporated according to law, and 
further ordered that an election be held at 
tlie Court House in Indianapolis on the twenty- 
ninth day of September, 1832, for the election 
of trustees of said incorporation, of which no- 
tice is ordered to be given according to law." 

On September 29, the voters assembled at 
the court house, and then elected Obed Foote. 
president and Josiah W. Davis, clerk, who were 
duly sworn in by Bethuel F. ^lorris, the Presi- 
dent Judge of the Fifth Circuit. The presi- 
dent and clerk forthwith divided the town into 
five districts as follows: 1st, from the eastern 
boundary of town to Alabama street ; 2nd, from 
Alabama to Pennsylvania ; 3rd. from Pennsyl- 
vania to ileridian ; 4th, from ileridian to 
Tennessee : .5th. from Tennessee to the western 
boundary. The election was then held, and 
"John Wilkins received fifty-four votes, Henry 
P. Coburn fifty-five votes, John G. Brown fifty- 
four votes, Samuel Henderson forty-one votes, 
Samuel Merrill fifty-one votes", and these five 
were elected for the five districts, in the order 
named. They organized by electing Samuel 
Henderson president, and their work was 


iiisi()i;i ()|- (;i;i;.\i'KU iNDlAXAroiJS. 

the passii<;e of a geiiL-nil ordinance whicli srrvcd 
in part the ])urposcs of a city eliarter. It 
provided for tlio appointment of a clerk, an 
assessor, a treasurer and a marshal, who also 
served as tax-collector. All of these officers 
were appointed for one year and j;ave bond. 
In addition to |)rescribin<j: the duties of these 
officials the ordinance defined otfeuses and fixed 
penalties as follows: firing a gun or ]iistol, 
riving a kite, or running a horse within the town 
limits a fine of not less than $1 nor more than 
!f .'5 ; suffering firewood to remain on Washing- 
ton street more than twelve hours •%') : failing to 
remove shavings from the shop w here made 
and burn them once in two (biys $1 : maintain- 
ing a stove-pipe within two inches of wood- 
work $1 ; leaving o])en a cellar docn' on a 
street in the night $1; driving a horse or ve- 
iiicle on a sidewalk $1 ; leaving team unhitched 
and without trace chain unhitched .%"i ; giving 
show without license $3 ; exhibiting stallion 
within fifty yards of Washington street or of a 
dwelling house $1; selling liquor, less than a 
quart without license $'i. Special taxes and 
licenses M-ere fixed as follows; each male dog, 
more than one $..50 ; each female dog $.5 : each 
hog, over six, bidonging to one owner and run- 
ning at large ^..^O ; show or exhibition, twenty 
times the price of admission for each day; re- 
tail liquor license, same as county tax and Sa 
cents for issuing license; a breeding sow, or 
.pigs under six months old, could b(> taken up 
by the marshal and sold to the highest bidder. 
At the same time the trustees adopted an 
ordinance for the control of the market, pro- 
viding for a market nuister at a salary of $;iO 
a year. The market was to be o]iened on Wed- 
nesday and Saturdays at daylight, and anyone 
who sold at or adjacent to it before daylight was 
subject to a fine of $1 ; the market was to 
remain open two hours and no goods brought 
to town for sale could be sold elsewhere during 
market hours. Fceiling horses, hogs or other 
animals in the juarket-bouso was finable, not 
over $3: hitching an animal to the market- 
house or putting a vehicle where it woidd ob- 
struct passage to the market-bouse was tinaiile 
$1 ; buying goods in market for re-sale $.'3 ; 
huckster occupying ])lace in llu> 
$3. The market master «as required to sei/.c 
and destroy any unwholesome food offered for 
sale: to inspect weights and measures: and to 
confiscate any l)uttcM' or other articles id" b'ss 
Vol. 1—8 

weight than represented. When meal was sold 
by measure, it was required to be ■iu'a])ed" 
to the satisfaction of the market master, on 
]ienalty of confiscation. The market-house had 
been provided during the ])reccding summer by 
the voluntary action of the citizens. There 
had Ijccn a general desire for one foi- some 
time, but a difference of opinion as to where 
it should !)(' located; but on :March 38, 1832, 
a |inblic meeting was held at the court bouse, 
and it was decided to ])ut it "on tbi' market 
scpuire, immediately north of the court house, 
and })ursuant to the original design". .\c- 
cordingly Thmnas AfcOuat, Josiah W. Davis 
and John Watton, as commissioners for the 
erection of the market-house, were directed to 
take sub.scriptions and build it there, all of 
which was certified by C. 1. Hand, chairman, 
and John Givan. secretary of the meeting. On 
.Vugust 11. 1832. the Journal announi'cd the 
market-house finished and ready for occupati(ui. 
.\s an inducement to sellers it stated the nding 
priees to be, flour $<;..")(» (« $3 per cwt. : corn 
meal $.75 per busliel; bacon 8 cents per lb.; 
i)utter 10 to 12 cents per lb. ; beef cattle $2.50 
]>er cwt. on the hoof. In 1848 the experiment 
was tried of opening the market at noon, in- 
stead of at daylight, Imt it was abandoned after 
a iirief trial. ^ 

It is very evident that politics got into the 
town government at the start, for the Journal 
recommended the winning ticket for trustees, 
and also the division into districts as adopted, 
though it also published a note from "many 
voters"' suggesting for trustees the names of 
William Ilaiinaman. .1. L. ^lothershead. Jacob 
l.andis and William Wernwag. in aildition to 
•lobn Wilkins who appears to have been on 
bofli slates. After the (U'gauization. the or- 
dinances adopted were published in the Jour- 
nal, but not in the Democrat, whereupon the 
latter on November 24, 1S32, in large type, ad- 
vised "the very liberal, impartial and honor- 
able Board of Trustees of the ('or|ioration of 
Indiaiia))olis"' that it would pulilisb "all laws, 
orders and ordinances which your honorable 
body may pass and tliink necessary to |iublish 
for the good government of the town, without 
charge and without pay"". The editor, A. F. 
Morrison, added the ])ostscript : "I have been 
requested to inquire of your honorable body 

' f.ocouiolirc. Xovcnilier I. IS I.' 



whether Jackson muii arc chargeable witli Cor- 
])oration taxes." But the trustees "just 
laughed"" and went ahead. The appointive otfi- 
ces were not in great demand. Samuel ilerrill 
acted as clerk till November 27, 1832, when 
Isaac N. Heylin took charge. He resigned 
March 22, 1833, and was followed by Israel 
P. Griffith, who resigned December 6, 1833. 
Then Hugh O'Neal took it and served out a 
year, coming back for two years more in 1836- 
38. John Wilkins served as Treasurer to No- 
vember 2T, 1832. when Obed Foote took the 
office till his death, and Harvey Bates followed 
him from 1833 to 1835. Josiah W. Davis 
served as Assessor to November 27, and re- 
signed. He was followed by Butler K. Smith 
for one year, and George Lockerbie for two. . 
Glidden True was marshal and collector till 
Februarv 8. 1833, when Edward ^IcGuire came 
in and lasted till :May 10, 1833. He was fol- 
lowed by Samuel Jennison, who resigned in 
1834, and was succeeded by Dennis I. Wliite, 
who stuck for a year. Then came John C. 
Busie, who resigned October 7, 1835 i John A. 
Boyer, who resigned December 19, 1835, and 
Richard D. Mattingly who served his year. 

In fact the marshal's life was not a hapj)y 
one, especially in the later years, owing to an 
increase of "undesirable citizens'". In the sum- 
mer of 1827 Commissioner Knight passed 
through the state locating the National Road, 
arriving in Indianapolis early in July, and re- 
turning in September from the western end.-' 
The next fall the c-nntracts were let and work 
was soon begun. The contract for the 
))ridt;e over the river was let July 2(!. IS.'M. 
to AYilliam Wernwag and Walter Blake for 
$18,000, and it was completed in 1834. This 
work brought a large number of hands from 
the outside, many of whom were of a somewhat 
reckless character, and the canal work, which 
soon followed, brought many more. Among 
these were many Irish immigrants, among 
whom there soon arose factional differences that 
occasioned resorts to "shillelah law"; for in 
addition to fighting the battles of the nations, 
"Kelly and Burke and Shea" are wont to take 
up private, just for practice. There 
were other nationalities to help on, and the 
native American did his share as usual. There 
grew up two distinctively "tough" neighbor- 

KJounwl. Julv :!. 10, Sejitenilier -I, 1S2:. 

hoods, one south of town near the river, known 
as "Waterloo"", and the other in the northwest 
part. The leading spirit in the latter section 
was David Burkhart, more commonly called 
"Old Buckhart'". He came here about 1824, 
and seemed to have developed in depravity 
under the influence of whisky. In the zenith 
of his greatness he kept a groggery grocery at 
the southwest corner of New York street and 
Tennessee, which was headquarters for a col- 
lection of rough characters known as "the 
chain gang"". Burkhart was a square-built, red- 
lieaded, muscular fellow, who prided himself 
on his fighting abilities, and when drinking 
was usually hunting trouble, his pet aversions 
being negroes and preachers. This brought 
about his downfall, for in 1836, he undertook 
to disturb a camp-meeting that was being con- 
ducted by Rev. James Havens on the military 
reservation, after having made threats to whip 
"old Sorrel Top"' as Father Havens was ir- 
reverently termed. There are various accounts 
of this affair, the most plausible by Rev. J. C. 
Smith, wlio says he saw it. According to him 
Mr. Havens was notified of Burkhart"s presence 
In a lady who complained of his profane and 
obscene talk near her tent. He at once went 
to the place. Smith, George Norwood and sev- 
eral others following. After a few words Ha- 
vens said: "Burkhart, I wish you to walk 
with me a short distance", his object being to 
get him to a justice's office. Burkhart as- 
sented, and Smith says: 

"Having proceeded about one hundred yards 
Burkhart suddenly halted and said, with a 
l)itter oath, 'I w-ill go no further", and quickly 
gave three loud, shrill whistles, and cried aloud, 
three times, 'David Leach I' the name of one of 
his most desperate followers; but David not 
responding. Burkhart said with another bitter 
oath, 'The coward has forsaken me'. He then 
made a sudden turn on his captor and tried to 
throw him on the ground. In this he failed. 
After much struggling we all at length reached 
the magistrate's office, which was the objective 
point. The office stood at the crossing of Dela- 
ware street on Washington. Squire Jennison 
(not Scudder) soon appeared and began to fix 
up the papers for the trial of the case. While 
this was doing, Burkhart, witli quick and nerv- 
ous steps, continued to pace round the room, 
and coming in front of the chair in which 
Elder Havens sat, he suddenly stopped and 


11. "> 

pulled from his pockot a large knife with a 
spring back, wliich, with a sudden jerk, he 
threw open with a snap. This Brother Havens 
mistook for a pistol and in a moment, with the 
furv of a chafed lion, he. sprang to his feet, and 
catching the hand that held the knife he 
planted a terrible blow with his clenched list 
on the proboscis of his dangerous enemy. The 
scene that followed this beggars description. 
They fought desperately several times around 
the room, planting terrible blows on each other, 
till they were parted by the assembled crowd, 
and order was restored. The result was that 
Burkhart was heavily fined for breach of the 
peace and for carrying concealed weapons, and 
failing to give bond, he was committed that 
night to the county jail. Jiist as he entered the 
jail door his courage gave way, and he said 
with trembling voice, 'Has it come to this, 
that David Burkhart has been whipped bv a 
^fetbodist preacher !"'^ A few days later. 
when doing some swaggering down town. Burk- 
hart met a challenge from Samuel ^Ferrill. who 
told him he believed he could throw him, al- 
though he was a smaller man ; and to Burk- 
hart'? astonishment and humiliation he did it. 
These events had a salutarv efPeet, but there 
were more potent agencies of reform at work. 
i The police powers of the trustees under the 
I general incor])oration law were not sunicicnt. 
and on February .■"), 1830, the people obtained 
a spct-ial charter from the legislature. The 
I general law gave authoritv to adopt such ordi- 
I nances "not inconsistent with the laws and con- 
stitution of this state, as they shall deem neces- 
sary for the good government of such corpora- 
tion : and to prevent and remove nuisances, to 
restrain and prohibit gambling or other dis- 
orderly conduct, to provide for licensing, regu- 
lating or restraining theatrical and other pub- 
lie shows and amusements within the corpora- 
tion, to regulate and establish markets, to sink 
and keep in repair public v>-ells. and shall have 
the sole and exclusive power and authority to 
keep in repair all necessarv streets, allevs and 
drains, ami to pass regulations necessarv foi- the 
same".'' The new charter empowered the trus- 
tees "'to adopt aTid jint in force such laws, or- 
dinances and. regulations as thev shall deem iirc- 
ossary for the police and good governnieni nl' 

^F.nrhi Mrllmdi^m In huluina . ]\. 10. 
'/?')■.' I.inrs, 1S:!1. p. .".-.'I. 

the town", not inconsistent with the constitu- 
tion and laws of the state, and such laws "as 
may be necessary to guard against damage by 
fire: to organize fire companies and to govern 
the same; to regulate the duty and conduct of 
the citizens of the town in relation thereto; to 
regulate and govern the markets; to prevent 
the erection of public nuisances, and remove 
the same ; to declare what shall be a public 
nuisance, and generally to enforce, by proper 
l)enalties, the observance of all laws and ordi- 
nances relative to the police and government of 
the said incorporated town"."' The charter also 
gave authority to make the retail liquor license 
Jii-'ifl and made the first provision for street im- 
])rovement':. On jietition of two-thirds of the 
owners of lots on any street or section thereof 
for "graduating, graveling or paving said 
streets or sidewalks thereof", the petition speci- 
fying "the improvement wanted or contem- 
])lated to be made"', it was the duty of the 
trustees to cause it to be done as economi- 
cally as possible, and asses,*- the cost ratably 
by the front foot, the assessment being a lien 
upon the lots. 

The maintenance of order, however, was the 
chief thing in mind, and that the people were 
determined on. Notice was given of a meeting 
at the court house on March 19 "for the pur- 
pose of consulting on measures connected with 
the peace and safety of the town", and it was 
well attended. George Lockerbie was made 
chairman and Charles I. Hand secretary. .\ 
committee was appointed to select ten persons 
"whose duty it shall be to assist the civil officers 
in bringing to justice all offenders against the 
law", and the ten selected were Butler Smith, 
William Oampbell, .\ndrew Smith, John Wil- 
kins, John ^fcMahan. John Woollen, Samuel 
^ferrill, James Kittleman. AVilliam H. Wern- 
wag and Daniel Yandcs. Spirited speeches 
were made by Herod Newland, a revolutionary 
soldier, and Calvin Fletcher: and. on motion 
of John Cain the following was adopted : "Re- 
solved, that this meeting will use their ende.iv- 
ors to have such men elected to the next board 
of trustees as will command the respect and 
confidence of the citizens of our town, and who 
sb:i1l appoint such town officers as will do their 
duty without favor or afTection. .\\\i\ this 
meeting ])ledges itself td aid and sii|ii)i>rt llieiii 

'•T.nral Liiirx. ]i>:M'<. 




ill all lawful ciulfaxors to ]jrL'.~ervc tlio [xjat-e 
and good order of the town, and the ]jri;scrva- 
tion of the persons and property of the citizens 
thereof.'" It was then decided to sign the re^o- 
lution as a jiledge, and 1'21 men came for\v-u'd 
and signed their names. The election was held 
on ilonday, April i, with a polling place in 
each ward, and George Loekerliie, John Foster, 
Samuel Merrill, Humphrey Griffith and John 
L. Young were chosen trustees, all law and or- 
der men. At the same time four constahles 
were chosen — J. B. Ferguson, J. P. Duvall, 
Daniel Baker, and K. D. ^lattingly — every one 
of whouT was a signer of the resolutions above.'' 

Another pacificatory event at this time was 
an opinion rendered by Judge Wick. Among 
the negroes who were annoyed by "the chain 
gang" was James Overall, a quiet but resolute 
man with a number of white friends. He had 
defended his house from an attack by several 
of these roughs by the free iise of a shot-gun, 
and on this account became involved in trouble 
with David Leach, one of the worst of the gang, 
and swore out a peace warrant. The Justice 
put Leach under bond, and he appealed on the 
ground that a negro was not a competent wit- 
ness. Judge Wick, in a long and elaborate 
opinion, held that while the statute prohibited 
a negro's being a witness against a white man, 
it did not prevent his taking legal steps for his 
own protection, and the altidavit for the war- 
rant was not evidence heard on trial, but only 
a step in bringing on the trial. He therefore 
held !>each, and both the negroes and their tor- 
mentors were made to know that there was some 
protection for the negro in the law.^ 

The new board of trustees ])roceeded in line 
with the will of the law and order ])eo])le. 
George Locke rljie was elected president, and 
William Camjjbell was made marshal for three 
successive years. On June 8 the trustees passed 
an ordinance imposing a fine of $3 on anvone 
who "shall be guilty of any assault, assault and 
battery, aiTray, rout, riot, or unlawful assem- 
blage within the town of Indiana])olis, or shall 
provoke or encourage any other person oi' per- 
sons to commit either of said otfen.'^es." Thev 
also provided a fine of $3 for anyone who "shall 
he guilty of using publicly any indecent oi- 
blas])hemous language, or who shall appear in 

'.lonniiil. March -.T,. April '.), ls;!(i. 
'Joiiniiil. Mav 7, 183(J. 

the streets intoxicated, or who shall sell or gi\e 
any siiiritiidiis liquors to any person intoxi- 
cated''. 'J'liey showed a spirit of progress that 
was really remarkable for the time and the con- 
ditions by declaring all'"horse racks'" on Wash- 
ington street to be nuisances, and ordering their 
removal.'' Tlie more stringent law and its more 
vigorous enforcement lessened the disorders, and 
Ijegot favor for a stronger local government in 
all respects; and more power was needed, e>pi- 
cially as to street improvements, for these wi ic 
almost at the will of the property owner aside 
from regular road work, and he got no credit 
on that for any special ctfort befori' his own 

After two years" experience under this char- 
ter the people wanted one granting more power, 
and on February 17, 1838, the town was reiu- 
eor])orated by the legislature. Under the new 
charter the council consisted of a i^resident 
elected by general vote, and six trustees, eacii 
elected by the voters of his ward, all of whom 
were required to be freeholders of the town. 
The charter fixed the wards as follows: 1st, all 
east of Alabama street ; 2nd, Alabama to Penn- 
sylvania ; 3rd, Pennsylvania to Meridian : -ith. 
Meridian to Illinois; .5th, Illinois to ilissis- 
sippi ; fith, all west of Mississippi. The act is 
indefinite in that it incorporates all the land 
"included in the bounds of the donation'", but 
general taxation was limited to the mile square, 
and the council was required to open and keep 
in repair "the border streets of said town, be- 
ing North, South, East, and West streets", or 
"forfeit all rights and privileges of Jurisdiction 
beyond the said streets which are conferj'ed on 
said counc-il by the 23d section of this act", 
which powers were licensing and regulating 
"taverns, groceries, tippling houses, shows, 
theaters and stores, within the limits of the 
donation". The council decided that the ])eoplc 
on the donation outside of the mile scpiare were 
entitled to vote in town elections. The presi- 
dent of the council was given the powers of a 
Justice of the peace witliin the donation, and 
the marshal the ])owers of a constable. The 
council could appoint a secretary, marshal, 
treasurer, asses.«or, collector, supervisor of high- 
ways, clerk of the market, and other subordi- 
nates deemed necessary, and impose a fine not 
exceeding $•") for refusal to aeeept an olliee. 

"Jotiniii! . .1 une 1 1 . 1S3(). 


TliL' tnistcvs wiMv allowed $1 each for each 
regular inoiithly iiu'ctiiig, not exceeding twelve. 
The limit ot the retail liciiior licent^e was 
raiseil to $100. The trustees were empowered 
to adopt "siieh laws and ordinances as to them 
shall seem necessary relative to the regulations 
of streets, alleys, sidewalks and highways; to 
cleaning, raising, draining, turnpiking. mac- 
adamizing or otherwise making and keeping the 
same in repair : to making, causing, and re- 
quiring owners of in-lots to pave or gravel tiie 
sidewalks in front of their respective in-lots". 

The realty ta.\ was limited to one-half of 
one per cent of the valuation, and the poll tax 
to $1. In addition each able-bodied man be- 
tween 21 and 50 years of age was required to 
do two days' work on the streets each year, or 
pay $1 in lieu thereof. The town was allowed 
to tax dogs, and all property subject to county 
taxation, and also to require licenses of '"shows, 
exhii)itions, auctions, peddlers and amuse- 
ments". This charter, with its anu'ndments, 
coutiinied in force until the adoption of city 
government in 18 IT. ISy act of February 1."), 
IS.'U). the council was directed to open and keep 
in rejiair all streets and alleys running through 
the donation, and could tax for this purpose, 
and this only, outside of the mile square. By 
act (if Fel)ruary 22, 1840, the councilmeu or 
trustees were divided into two classes, those of 
the 1st, .'ird and -jth wards, and those of the 
2nd, 4th and (Jth wards, to be elected in alter- 
nate years; and the qualification for member- 
ship was changed from freeholder to house- 
holder. The law as to licensing auctioneers 
was also changed hut the change is not very 
important, for all of the early laws on that suli- 
jecf were in violation of the United States con- 
stitution in that they imposed greater burdens 
on citizens of other states than on citizens of In- 
diana. Tlie act of February 13. 1841, repealed 
the incor]ioration law, so far as it applied to the 
donation hinds west of White River. By act 
of Kebruary 1:5, 1841, the marshal was made 
elective by the people; an(l the same change 
was made as to the assessor, collector, street 
supervisor, and secretary by the act of January 
1">, 1844, but this latter act was repealed on 
January 10. ISIO. By another act of Januan' 
1">. Is 11. the town was req\iired to keep the 
state ditch ill rc]iiiir and I'l'inoxc olist I'uctions 
from it. 

There was piactically no effort at street ini- 

])rovenu'nt until 1S;](), beyond cutting out tim- 
ber, and a little corduroying in very wet places, 
and making an occasional ditch. In that year 
the town began the good work by filling a pond 
in Meridian street in front of Wesley Chapel, 
just south of the Circle. The council also 
adopted an ordinance for a "town surveyor and 
engineer". His principal duty was to estab- 
lish corners and boundaries, which he was re- 
quired to do on re(iuest of a citizen; but be- 
sides this he was to "take the proper level and 
grade of any of the streets, sidewalks, drains 
and alleys of said town, as may from time to 
time be deemed necessary"; and also to "make 
estimates of any proposed improvements in said 
town, and perform such other professional 
services as may be required by the comnuin 
council". For compensation he received -$3 
a day for actual service ; and for part of a day 
$2 for not more than four hours, if called hy a 
jirivate individual, and $1..")0 for not more than 
half a day if working for the city. To this 
othce was called William Sullivan, a very com- 
petent man. He was a ilarylander, of Eng- 
lish descent, who came here in 1834. He was 
well educated, and had taught school in Ohio, 
and at Hanover. At Indianapolis he first 
o])ened a private school, and later taught at the 
Seminary, of which he was principal when ap- 
])ointed surveyor. One of his first steps was to 
prepare a map of the town which was published 
in October of that year. Luke Munsell had also 
copyrighted a city map on ^lay 30, 183C; Dr. 
ilunsell was a man of notable attainments, but 
ratlier impractical, who came here from Ken- 
tucky, where he had been State Engineer, and 
had jjublished a map of Kentucky. He estab- 
lished one of the first Daguerrean galleries at 
Indianapolis. There seemed no cause for the 
people not knowing "where they were at", but 
a careful resurvey by Mr. Sullivan in 1839 re- 
vealed tlio fact that, in the survey and sale of 
out-lots in 1831, eight acres had been laid off 
and sold that were not in the donation. This 
was set out in a memorial to Congress by the 
legislature in 1840. and Congress corrected the 
error by donating the eight acres. 

In 1837 the macadamizing of Washington 
street as a part of the Xational Eoad awoke 
aspirations for a higher life, and there was a 
demand for sidewalks. \n ordinance was 
adopted providing tliat when ])ro])erty owners 
on that street, for no( less than one s(iuaiT. 





•'shall be desirous of paving the gutters and 
grading and gravelling tlie street between the 
same and the ilcAdamizing as made by the 
United States, and shall petition for the same", 
it should be the duty of the council to have 
the work done, and assess the cost by the front 
foot. But for the amount assessed and paid, 
the lot-owner was to receive an e(iual amount 
of town scrip, which was receivable for any 
street improvement tax afterwards levied on 
that lot, so far as the owner could make change 
with it, for "the collector shall in no case be 
required to pay in money any overplus wheie 
a larger amount of scrip shall be offered than 
will meet the amount of street tax due". 
Originally the sidewalks on Washington street 
jiad been laid oif fifteen feet wide, and those 
on other streets ten, but they were now made 
twenty feet on Washington and twelve feet on 
other streets. There was vigorous protest 
against this by lot owners, but the trustees 
stood firm, and also prohibited extending cellar 
doors more than five feet from the property 
line, and railings more than four feet. Con- 
siderable improvement was done under this 
ordinance, and in the year ending .March 2T, 
1839, the town itself expended $1-15 for street 
improvements and gravel for crossings. This 
was not a bad start, especially in consideration 
of the fact that the town that year paid .t^.S.^d 
I'lir building a west market on Ohio street be- 
tween Tennessee and Mississippi — the present 
north end of the Capitol ground.* — and $143 
for clearing and fencing the old graveyard. 
while the total receipts were only $7,01'^. In 
1840 the town expenditure for streets and 
bridges was -Sl.-S.^O. and in l.S4'2 the street im- 
provements cost $1,138. 

Political lines were nui well deliiieil locally 
al the beginning of inuniei])al government in 
Indianapolis. The state was growing away 
from the old territorial alignments, and taking 
up luitional divisions, but there was no jiublie 
demonstration of this until the Whigs fornu-d 
a local organization on May 17, 1834. Although 
the Democrats were in the majority in the 
.-fate, the Whigs were a little more numi'rous in 
the town, for, in November, 1S32, Center Town- 
ship gave .")40 votes for Clay and 4(13 for Jack- 
son, and, as has been mentioned, the trustees 
elected that year showed their Whig leaning.- 
by giving all the town printing to the Journal. 
In 1836 Center Township gave the Whig na- 

tional ticket a majority of 920 to 634, and 
in 1840, one of 872 to 540. Xevertheless lU: 
Brown says that in 1840 '"the Whigs carried the 
municipal election for the first time"', and he 
ought to have known for his father was one of 
the active local organizers of the Whig party. 
But there were some local officials who were 
reputed anti-Jackson men before then, and 
at any rate the Whigs did not hold on from 
1840, for the Democrats carried the next mu- 
nicipal election. Possibly ^Ir. Brown refers to 
this as the first victory on a recognized party 
basis, for it was not the custom then to non.ii- 
nate municipal tickets by party convention, 
and the elections had at least the appearance 
of personal contests. 

Tlie presidents of the Board of Trustees, 
while elected by the Board, were Samuel Hen- 
derson, October 12, 1832, to September 30, 
1833; James Edgar, September 30 to DecTuber 
9, 1833; Benjamin 1. BIythe, March 7, 1834, 
to February 14, 1835 ; Alexander F. Morri- 
son, February 14 to October 2, 183."); Nathan 
B. Palmer, October 2, 1835, to April 13. 1836; 
(Jeorge Lockerbie, .\pril 13, 1836, to April 4, 
1837 ; Joshua Soule Jr., April 4, 1837, to April 
2, 1838. In the period wlien elected by the 
people they were James ^lorrison, 1838-9; 
.Vathan B. Palmer, 1839-40; Henry P. Coburn, 
1840-1; William Sullivan (resigned Xovember 
12), 1841; David V. Culley, 1841-1 and 1850- 
3; Lazarus B. Wilson, 1844-5; Jose))li A. fiCvy, 
1845-7; Saml. S. Rooker (resigned November 
1), 1847; Charles W. Cadv, 1847-8; George A. 
Chapman, 1848-9; Wm. Kckert, 1849-50; An- 
drew A. Loudon, 1850. The office of president 
of the council was continued under the city 
charter of 1847, independent of the mayor, but 
in March, 1853, the council adopted the gen- 
eral city incorporation law in place of the char- 
ter, and it nuide the mayor president of the 
council. The town treasurers were John Wil- 
kins (acting) and Obed Foote, in 1832; Har- 
vey Bates, 1833-5; Thos. H. Sharjie, 1S3.-,-<): 
Chas. B. Davis, 1839-40 and 1841-4; Hum- 
phrey Griffith, 1840-1; John L. Welshans, 
1814-6; George Norwood, 184G-7. The town 
marshals, following William Campbell, as be- 
fore mentioned, were James Vanblaricum, 
1839-42 and 1S44-5; Robert C. Allison. 1842- 
3; Benjamin Ream, 1843-4; Xewton N. Nor- 
wood, 1845-6; Jacob B. Fitler, 1846-7, The as- 
sessors were Josiah W. Davi.s (resigned), 1832; 



Butler K. Smith, 1833-4; George Lockerbie, 
lS3-L-(): John Ehler, 1836-7; Thos. :Me()vi;it, 
1837-8; Albert G. Willard, 1838-40; Henry 
Bradley. 18-10-1; Thos. Donelhiii. 1841-2 and 
1843-G; James H. Kennedy, 1842-3; John 
Coen, 1846-7. The office of town attorney was 
not formally created until September 5, 1846, 
when John L. Ketcham was elected for one 
vear; but James Morrison served as attorney 
for the town in 1837-8; Hngli O'Xeal, 1838- 
40; and Hiram Brown, 1840-6. William Sul- 
livan, town surveyor from September 27, 1833, 
to June 18, 1838, was succeeded bv Liike Mun- 
sell, 1838-9, 183!i-41, 1843-4; Robert B. Hanna 
(resigned August 17), 1839; and James Wood 
Sr., 1841-3, 1844-7. The position of town 
supervisor of streets was held bv Thomas Lup- 
tou, 1838-9; James Vanblari'cum. 1839-42; 
Robert C. Allison. 1842-3; Thos. M. Weaver, 
1843-4; William Wilkinson, 1845-6; Jacob B. 
Fitler, 1846-7. The clerks of the market were 
Thomas Chinn (resigned), November 27, 1832 
to February 21, 1835 ; Fleming T. Luse (re- 
signed July 29), 1835; Andrew Smith, 1835- 
6; Jacob Roop (died), 1836-7; James Gore 
(resiarned Februarv 6). 1837; Jeremiah Wor- 
mcgan. 1837-40. ' In 1841 'the office was 

cliaiigcd to market-mastei' and Wormegau was 
continued in it until 1845, and then as ni.irket- 
master of the east market until 1846. Jacob 
Miller was master of the west market from 
1845 to 1848. The town weighmasters were 
Jacob J. Wiseman, October 27 to December 
12, 1835; Edward Davis, 1835-6; John F. 
Ramsey, January 30 to April 18, 1836 ; James 
Edgar, 1836-7; James Gore, January 10 to 
Februarv 6. 1837 ; Jeremiah Wormegan, Feb- 
ruarv 6'to Mav 17. 1837; Isaac Harris, 1837- 
8; Adam Haugh. 1838-9, 1840-7; Charles Will- 
iams, 1839-40. Tlic town sextons were James 
Cox, 1842-3; John Musgrove. 1843-4 and 1845- 
7 ; Jolm O'Connor, 1844-5 ; Benjamin Lobaugh. 
1847. The town also maintained a messenger 
of the fire department, James Yanblaricum. 
1840-2, and David Cox. 1842-5. In 1845 
David Cox was made messenger for the Minion 
Company only, and Jacob Fitler for the Good 
Intents, and thc-y were continued in these po- 
sitions until 1848. In 1847 James H. Ken- 
nedy was added as messenger of the hook and 
ladder company. As the couneilmen were 
elected from the wards their service can be 
better shown by table, the years iised indicating 
the ones in which their terms beerau. 


1st Ward. 


(1 \\'ard. 

3rd Ward. 

4th Ward. 

5th Ward. 




John Wilkins 


P. foburn 

John G. Brown 

S. Henderson 

Saml. Merrill 


Benj. I. Blythe 



James Edgar 

J. Vanblaricum 

Nath. Cox 


Alex Morrison 



Jos. Lefevre 

J. Vanblaricum 

Nath. Cox 


Jas. M. Smith 

Jos. Lefevre 

Chas. Campbell 

H. Griffith 

N. B. Palmer 


Geo. Lockerbie 


hii Foster 

Saml. Merrill 

H. Griffith 

J. L. Young 


Geo. Lockerbie 


hn Foster 

Geo. W. Stipp 

Henry Porter 

Joshua Soule 




Geo. Lockerbie 


hn Elder 

John AV. Foudray 

John F. Ramsey 

Wm. J. Brown 





Geo. Lockerbie 


m. Sullivan 

John E. McCluer 

P. W Seibert 

Geo. Norwood 





Matthew Little 



Jacob Cox 

P. W. .Seibert 

(ien. Norwood 





Matthew Little 



Jacob Cox 

A. A Louden 

(Jul. Norwood 





Joshua Black 



Jas. R. Nowland 

P. W. Seibtrt 

T. Rickards 





Joshua Black 



Jas. R. Nowland 

A. A. L'tuden 

T Rickards 





V\'m. Montague 



Jas. R. Nowland 

A. A. Louden 

H. Griffith 





■\Vm. Montague 



Jas. R. Nowland 

A. .A.. Louden 

H. Griffith 



C. Vanblaricum 


■V^'m. Montague 



.\. W. Harrison 

A. A. Louden 

Chas. W. Cady 



C. Vanblaricum 


TiiK i:ai;ia' schools. 

One wlio rcadr^ the t'arly school legislation of 
Imliana is liable to get an exaggoratcd idea of 
the extent of tlie public schools. The provision 
for them was very full, on paper, but it did 
not amount to a great deal in money. The 
rents of the scliool lands were small. The fines 
were neither niunerous nor closely collected. 
The effort for public schools was largely cen- 
tered on tlie county seminary, to which was de- 
voted, by the constitutiou of ISIG. tlie fines for 
penal ofl'enses, and the money paid for ex- 
emption from militia duty by jieople con- 
scientiously opposed to war, wliicli was ]x)pu- 
larly known as "conscience nujney". By the 
law of 1824, reenacted in 1831, the seminary 
funds were kept by a trustee until they 
amounted to $400, and then the people were 
authorized to elect a board of trustees, one 
irom each county commissioner's district, who 
slionld erect a school building. This jjei-iiui did 
not arrive in Marion County until IS'S'i, and 
at the general election in .Viigust, of that year, 
Samuel Merrill, John S. Hall and William 
Gladden were elected trustees of the Marion 
County Seminary. On January 8, 183."], they 
reported to the county commissioners that they 
had settled with Dr. Tjivingston Dunlap, who 
liad been the trustee of the funds, and had re- 
ceived from liim $47.5.75; since which they had 
collected $4{i..")0 additional. By act of Janu- 
ary 26, 1832, the legislature authorized the 
agent of state to lease to the trustees of Marion 
('"unty Seminary the University Square — No. 
2.") — for a period of thirty years with iierniis- 
sion to erect a school building on either tlu,' 
southeast or southwest corner. At the expira- 
lion of the term the state could take the build- 
ing at its ajipraised value; and if it wished to 
use tlie sfpiare l)efore the cxi)iratiou of the term 
it (Miuld either sell one half acre to the countv. 

ineluiling the building, or permit the continued 
use of one half acre for the remainder of the 
term. On Xovember 4, 1833, the tru.stees re- 
ported that they had leased the square and 
asked tlie commissioners to approve their action 
which was done. On January 7, 1834, they re- 
ported the total receipts to date, $1,3.53.21, 
of which $632 was subscription, and that from 
this they had paid $783.44 on the building. 
The scliool was opened on September 1, 1834. 
It was obviously fortunate for the youth of 
Indianapolis that there were other provisions 
for education. Most of the schools of the 
earlier period have been mentioned, but there 
were others, of a more transient character, that 
gave opportunities for instruction to adults as 
well as the young. John E. Baker o])ened a 
school at his residence on December 2i), 1823, 
to teach "architectural draughting and draw- 
ing", and Major Sullinger followed close after, 
on January 1.3, 1,S2I, with a military school for 
the instruction of militia officers and men. On 
October 1, 1827, J. H. Ilalston ojicned a series 
of lectures on grammar, announcing that, "He 
])ledges himself to enable those who Ijeeonie his 
]ui])ils (however in commencing unac(|uaintod 
with the science) to advance so far in twenty- 
four days four hours each day as to be enabletl 
to parse common language", and this for oidy 
$3. The first school distinctively for young 
ladies was the "Indianapolis Female School" 
of Mrs. Tichenor. o])ened in ^Farch, 1830, and 
was not of long duration. She taught "s])elling, 
reading, writing, Hiiglish grammar, greogra])liy 
with the use of ma|)S, astroiuiniy and needle- 
work". On the same day that the seminary 
openecl "Miss Hooker's Female School"" also 
o])eiie(l. It olfered everything taught liy Mrs. 
Tithenor, and also composition, history, nat- 
ui'al ]ihilosoi)liy. di'auing and painting. This 


1 •.'•.' 


sfhool was '■limited to 30 scholars, and no in- 
cidi'utal expenses". At this time George H. 
Quigg was teaching a day school in Indian- 
apolis and also opened a night school for spe- 
cial instruction in "Penmanship, the Art of 
Penmaking, Arithmetic, and Bookkeeping, al- 
though b)' request any branch taught at the 
day school may be acquired". This may be con- 
sidered the pioneer business college. Jlr. Quigg 
was of a philanthropic turn of mind, and an- 
nounced, "Ap]M-entice Boys taught at half 
price, and Orphans gratis".' 

The Baptists had a school in their chiircli 
building most of the time from the start. In 
1834 they put up a little frame building back 
of the church, abutting the alley east of the 
Grand Hotel, for a school building. At this 
time Miss Clara EUick was teaching there, and 
had been for two years. She continued for a 
j-ear longer, when a Methodist preacher per- 
suaded her to change her name to Smith, which 
happened to be his, and the school passed into 
the charge of iliss Laura Kise. There was a 
frame work bell tower built against this school 
house, which presented great attractions to en- 
terprising boy:i. One night two youths, one 
said to be Lew Wallace, fastened a string to 
the clapper and carried it across to a room in a 
block on Washington street, from which they 
sounded the alarm, to the mystification of the 
neighbors. It was about this time also that 
Miss Sargeant opened her school for small 
children in the basement of the Governor's 
Mansion, in the Circle, which has a traditional 
reputation for being damp and disagi'eeablc 
that is unjust, or that she managed to counter- 
act. This was the first school in the nature of 
a kindergarten, and the first in which object 
lessons were iised. She had pictures of ani- 
mals of various kinds, and also an orrery to 
illustrate the motions of the earth and the 
heavenly bodies. She also used the "singing 
method" of imparting instruction, which was 
popularized here some ten years later by Mr. 
Tibbctts for teaching geography. They used 
to sing the capitals of the states in the Misses 
McFarland"s school as late as the sixties. 

The Marion County Seminary ojiened under 
charge of Ebenezer Dumont. later known as 
Colonel and General Dnmont. of tlic talented 

Vevay family. He remained but one term, be- 
ing succeeded in January, 1835, by W. J. 
Hill, who was in charge for a year. In ilay, 
1836, Thomas D. Gregg took charge of the 
school. He had previously been teaching school 
in a large frame building on Washington street, 
just east of the present Park Theater, known 
as "the Linton house", and in which Rev. Geo. 
Busli had lived, and where Mrs. Bush died. 
There are somewhat conflicting traditions as 
to Gregg, some holding him a severe, almost 
cruel, man. He was m charge of the semi- 
nary only one term, being succeeded in Decem- 
ber, 1836, by William Sullivan, the surveyor. 
Mr. Gregg is kept in memory by the bequest 
he left for the benefit of teachers in the public 
schools, known as the (iregg Fund. After Mr. 
Sullivan, Rev. Wm. A. Holliday took charge of 
the school in August, 1837, for one year, and 
he was followed in October, 1838, by James 
Sprigg Kemper, who was principal for seven 
years. In 1845. Rev. .1. I'. Satt'ord became 
principal for one year; and he was followed by 
B. L. Lang, who was principal until 1852.- 
This was the leading school in central Indiana 
at the time, and furnished education to a great 
many men who were later well known in In- 
dianapolis life. The organization of "Old 
Seminary Boys" continued for many years, and 
tliey used to hold their anniial meetings, talk, 
eat, and play shinny with vast enthusiasm. 
In fact shinny seemed to be the chief memory, 
and there was some cause for it as may be seen 
fi'oni this reminiscence of Berv}' Sulgi'(i\ i'"s : 

"Shinny was the great game, however, and 
it was no fool of a game either. It was neither 
easy nor harmless. At first we played with 
wooden balls, and we might almost as safely 
have played with musket balls. Then we took 
India-rubber balls. Sometimes we nmde bails, 
but they were used up nearly as fast as glass 
balls under Mr. Carvei-'s rifle. The wooden 
balls, shot out by such a blow as Mr. Kemper 
could give, were bad things to get in the way 
of. Marcus C. Smith was a terrible fellow 
with a club, and never would 'shinny on his 
own side'. Henry I. Coe was a dangerous 
player, too, for he was so short-sighted he 
could not see anybody else's club, and ran 
right in regardless of the chances of <; 

' Journal . 

October 26, 1833; August 20, 

- Journal, Julv 
tember 21. 1852.' 

18. 18,8: Locomotive, Sep- 

iiis-|(m;v of i;i!i:atki: iMMA.NAruiJ.s. 


his head broken, and once he did get ins nose 
broken. General John Cobiirn onee ran into 
Jlr. Kemjx-r and broke the hitter's wateli. 
Judge Charh';^ A. Ray had liis forehead hiid 
open with a eluli and Ijears the scar to this 
day. Garriek .MaUory, who never would use 
anything but a straight stick, had himself laid 
up for several days with a blow on the head. 
Osborn. the -\\w Orleans baby, had some of 
his teeth smashed in his mouth by a IjIow from 
Mark Smitli that slipped up the other's c-lub 
and laudetl un])leasantly. 'Stars' Coburn laid 
the speaker low with a liek on the knee that 
lamed him for three weeks. Austin Kallis 
was knocked as flat as a flounder by a wooden 
ball that hit him squarely in the forehead." 
And yet these bald-beaded old sports talked 
about football being a dangerous game, and not 
altogether without reason. 

It will be noted that the seiniiuiry was not 
a free school. The public furnished the buiUl- 
ing, and the patrons of the school kept it up 
by tuition, and in the earlier days by con- 
tributions. By a special act of February T. 
IS.'JS, the number of trustees of this seminary 
was increased to ten, of whom one-hall' wore to 
be appointed by the circuit court, and the 
others elected by donors to the institution, it 
being provided that the giver of $20 should 
have one vote; $.'>0, two votes; and $100, three 
votes. Previous donors were allowed one vote 
for each $40 given, and those who had given 
less than $40 were allowed a credit of one-half 
the amount on the purchase of a vote. Even 
this ingenious device did not result in any ma- 
terial endowment of the institution, and it was 
kept on a tuition basis during its existence. 
It is also to be observed that it was strictly a 
boy's school. On what principle the girls 
should be shut out from an institution, sup- 
ported even in part by public funds, does not 
at this day seem clear. But at that time co- 
education was not tolerated outside of the pri- 
mary schools. .'Vnd there was a generally prev- 
alent imjiression that girls had no need for 
higher education, which was miiib better 
founded then, when the field of occupation 
for women was so rmich more restricted, than 
it is at present. In consequence the instruc- 
tion in the higher schools for girls was almost 
wholly in the line of "accomplishments'", and 
was the occasion of more or less jest by in- 
dividuals who imajrined tluit tbev took a thor- 

oughly practical view ol life and its reiiuire- 

The distriit schools were iiitermitlenl. and 
held in rented rooms, at first, for short sessions. 
In 1842, Alexander Jameson, brother of Rev. 
Love Jameson, became teacher of the south 
district school. At that time the part of town 
south of Washington street was one district, 
and the part north was divided into two dis- 
tricts by Meridian street. Later the south. 
>\de was also divided in the same way. The 
trustees for the south district were James Sul- 
grove, Nathan B. Palmer and Isaac Roll; and 
.(ameson had an arrangement, as was common, 
to take what public funds were available, and 
get the balance of his pay from tuition pay- 
ments. His school prospered so well that he 
could not attend to all his pupils, and he sent 
i'or his brother Patrick II. to come and help 
him. This assistant, now our venerable citizen 
Di-. P. H. Jameson, recalls his experience thus: 
"1 was a boy of nineteen when 1 came to help 
my brother Alexander with his school. 1 was 
raised on a farm in .Jefferson County, north 
of Madison, and had begun reading medicine 
at the time. He offered me $10 a mouth and 
my board, and I accepted. The district had 
no schoolhouse, and the school was held in the 
old Campbellite eliurch on the south side of 
Kentucky avenue, just above Georgia street. 
It was a one-room, one-story building about 55 
feet long and 35 feet wide. There were no 
desks, but we had boards fastened temporarily 
to the backs of the seats to serve as desks. 
I taught there one year, and then decided to 
(irganize a school of my own in the northwest 
d strict, which had none. 

"In the spring of 1844 1 got tlie trusiees to- 
gether and submitted the matter. They were 
!'",zekiel Boyd, Carey Boatwright and Benja- 
min McClure. Boyd was the only one that 
I ad any education. We talked the matter over 
a id Boatwright proposed that they build a 
schoolhouse. To the question, 'how ? ', he an- 
swered 'Call a school meeting, and levy a tax". 
We looked into the law and found that this 
Kiuld be done by giving three weeks' notice. 
Boyd, who wrote a beautiful hand, made out 
the notices, and I ]nit them up in the most pub- 
le phiees. Very little attention was paid to 
ibeni, and on the appointed day only about 
twenty voters appeared. They organized and 
levied' a tax of $(;oo. n( which" $100 was {ov a 

12 + 


lot and $500 fur a lioiisu. It wa^ certified to 
the auditor and put on the tax-duplieato. Wlien 
tax-paying time came, there was an awful row. 
A number of people refused to pay and the 
treasurer refused to reeeive any of their taxes 
unless they paid the sehool tax. The matter 
drifted along until the legislature met, and 
some of the influential people of the district 
induced it to adopt a resolution for another 
election. Notice of this was given, and we 
had one of the warmest elections ever known in 
Indianapolis. People were almost fiuhting-mad. 
About 200 votes were cast, and the school tax 
won by just one vote. 

"The schoolhouse was then built, on the 
east side of West street, south of ;^[ichigan. 
I was teacher, and as there was not money 
enough to furnish desks I put them in myself. 
There was about $100 of public money for 
each district, and the balance was made up by 
subscription, for which I circulated a paper. 
It was on the basis of $3 a pupil for 13 weeks 
of .3 days each. Exact account of the attend- 
ance was kept on blanks furnished by the 
County Auditor, and the subscribers were cred- 
ited for actual attendance, but it need not be 
by the same pupil. At the end of the term the 
accounts were footed up and the balances due 
were collected. As the public funds were used, 
anybody who desired could come to school, no 
matter whether there had been any subscrip- 
tion for them or not. and I had a number of 
pupils that paid nothing. I furnished the fuel, 
cut the wood, swept the room, made the fires, 
and ran the school just as I pleased. 

"I had scholars all the way from a-b-cs up 
to nearly as far as T could teach, but my worst 
trouble was with the a-b-cs. 1 worked out a 
plan of putting the letters on the black board, 
and having my 'abecedalians', as I called them, 
stand in front of it for ten or fifteen minutes, 
four or five times a day, while I pointed out 
the letters and they repeated the names; and 
in that way made some progress. For school 
books I had Webster's Elementary S])elling- 
l)ook, ^[cGufl'cy's First, Second and Third read- 
ers, Ray's Practical aiul ^[ental arithmetics, 
and .\lonzo C. Smith's Granunar and Geog- 
raphy. The last two were arranged with ques- 
tions and answers, wiiicli made must less work 
for the teacher. Xol all the pupils had the 
same books, however, and they studied and re- 
cited from wbatcvci- thcv had. Therr was verv 

little grading or classification, and each pupil 
was advanced in his work according to his 
individual progress. I taught a few algebra 
and geometry, but there was very little call 
for anything above the common studies. Music 
was taught by rote. I used to have a pretty 
fair voice, and I would sing a song and they 
would join in as they learned it. I had a 
book of songs called The Odeon, published by 
ilason & Webb, that was a very good collec- 
tion. I taught them America, Hail Columbia, 
Star Spangled Banner, Bonnie Doon, Ship 
Ahoy, The Barcarole and, in all, probably 40 
or 50 airs. I gave them a few hymns, but there 
was a good deal, of prejudice about teaching 
religion in the schools, and I was pretty care- 
ful about that. 

'•We put in the day, then. I called school at 
8 o'clock in the morning, and before that I 
came around, swept out, and fired up. I gave 
them 15 minutes recess at 10 o'clock and an 
hour at noon, and kept them till sundown in 
winter, and pretty near it in stimmer. I used 
to send the younger children home earlier. The 
older pupils studied United States history. I 
used Grimshaw's history, which was a good 
text book. The boys did not care much for 
anything but the battles, and I had them write 
descriptions of all the battles of the Revolu- 
tionary war, from Lexington to Yorktown. 1 
could not begin to recall all who went to school 
to me, but among them were Samuel, James 
and George Douglass, Alonzo Atkinson — after- 
wards Captain Atkinson, Samuel Xorman — 
whose brother was a newspaper man at Xew 
Albany, the Pitts boys, and the Perhams, who 
afterwards went to Oregon. In addition to 
teaching school I read medicine at night, and 
on Saturdays was County Librarian. The 
county library was not used a great deal at that 
time. ' It had about 200 books. Dick Fletcher, 
a nephew of Calvin Fletcher, was the chief 
patron. Teachers complain now that they do 
not get enough pay to live on, but they get 
much better pay than I did. I paid my board 
and other expenses out of my wages, and at 
the end of four years of teaching I had $600 
saved up. It all depends on how you use your 
money. I do not recall now who taught in the 
other schools, excepting Levi Reynolds, the 
brother of Governor Whitcomb's .\djutant Gen- 
eral. He came here and tried to get my school, 
but when he found he nndd not he took the 














school in the northeast distriet. It was hehl 
in a rented room, as they had no sc-hoolhouse 
at that time."' 

The seminar}- had rivals from the start, in 
addition to Ebenezer Sharpe's school. On June 
22, 1835, Mr. Drapier opened his "Inductive 
School" in "the class room north of the ^leth- 
odist church'"'". This was undoubtedly an in- 
stitution of higher learning for Mr. Drapiei' 
said : "The design of this institution is to ac- 
commodate instruction, as well as may be, to 
the circumstances in which the people of this 
country are placed, with regard both to the ac- 
quisition and the application of knowledge. 
Arithmetic and algebra will be taught with 
clear views of their importance to the purposes 
of common life, and the ready comprehension 
of scientific theorems and formulEE. The gen- 
eral topics of geometry, trigonometry, conic 
sections, curves, mensuration, and the doctrines 
of mechanics, will be exhibited in a brief series, 
with perspicuous illustrations of their ))racti- 
eal utility"'. On Julv 21, IS:!.-), il. B\itter- 
fiehl announced his "Fundamental School"" to 
commence on the 27 th "a few doors west of 
the seminary where the subscriber will receive 
pupils, and bestow on them his undivided at- 
tention in imparting to them a critical knowl- 
edge of the fundamental branches of science". 
On September 25, 1835, E. M. Travis an- 
nounced that he would "commence teaching 'an 
English school, on reasonable terms, the 19th 
day of October next, in his new schoolhouse iu 
the eastern part of Indianapolis on Market 

One of the most celebrated teachers of this 
period was Josephus Cicero Worrall, who be- 
gan teaching here in 183(5, on Delaware street 
opposite the market hause. He had an ingen- 
ious system of putting a boy i?i chancerv bv 
laying him over his right leg and hodking his 
left leg over the otfender"s neck, while be ap- 
plied his ferule to the seat of educational dis- 
cipline. The only recorded escape from tliis 
hold was by Robert McOuat. wbi) fixed hi< 
teeth in the teacher's thigli ami (uusi'd an autd- 
matic opening of the human \ ise and thr re- 
lease of the young scajjcgrac e. But thi' chirr 
distinction of .Tiise])bus was in the higb-fiown 
circulars with which he used to startle the com- 
munity. In one of these, preserved in the 
Journal of March 11, 183;. he waiiis parents 

of the dangers of incompetent teachers by say- 
ing: "When the time comes that the infant in- 
stitutions which are springing up in our state, 
as nurseries of the future poets, philosophers 
and statesmen of Indiana, begin to decline, 
their downfall may probably be traced to an 
improper selection of individuals to conduct 
their concerns, who are not sufficiently im- 
pressed with the necessity of accommodating 
their usages to the increasing light of ages." 
At the same time he ingeniously appealed to 
the consciousness of the suffering pupils by the 
statement that, "They are driven into studies 
to which they have no attraction, but regard 
them as objects of mental agony, instead of in- 
tellectual recreations : decorated with the vari- 
egated hues of a glowing genius, sensible of 
the capacity of those unfledged eaglets, that, 
though they may- be destined to tower in sub- 
lime flight, are now restricted in taste and 
ability, by dispositions and powers peculiar to 
infantile weakness." It is not surprising that 
Berry Sulgrove, who was one of his pupils, 
and who had a tendency to air his classic ac- 
quirements, dubbed him '"Polyphlos-bois" (the 
far-resounding sea), with the approval of the 
generation that remembered him. 

The jesting at Josephus Cicero was not with- 
held till later days, but was indulged in by his 
contemporaries. Rev. J. C. Fletcher gives one 
of the circulars of W'orrall's "Select Academv" 
which his father had tiled away with the in- 
dorsement, "pragmatical bombast"'. The one 
above quoted was assailed in the Journal of 
March 18, 1837, by an unfeeling critic who 
hurled sarcasm at all of the educator's ideas. 
He disapproved the academy as a mixed school, 
saying, "By what rule or rules 'the intercourse 
of the sexes' in his Academy is to produce 'a 
thoughtful deportment" is a secret worth know- 
ing. In Dilworth"s days'we did not expect the 
))roduction of much thoughtfulness by turning 
a Wvy of wild boys and girls together in the 
school-room, or on the common". But espe- 
cially severe were his reflections on the Academy 
oi-thography, for Josephus had gone in for re- 
formed spelling, and according to this critic, 
wrote tongue, tung ; sovereign, suvcran ; stead, 
sted : porpoise. ])orpess ; picturesque, picturesk ; 
acre, aker; cloak, cloke. etc. There is reason 
to rejoice that this feature of "the increasing 
light of ages"' was not adopted by the coinmun- 

|s-|()i;v OF clJKA'I'Ki; I XDI.WAI'ol.IS. 


however, that W'oriall 
•rood teaclier of inathc- 

ity. 'I'raditioii says, 
wa* an exceptionally 

Worrall hail .suiue pu|iils. but a nuire .sub- 
stantial rival to the seminary appeared in the 
"Indiana]iolis High School" which was opened 
on October ■2.'). 18.')7. in ''school rooms on Wash- 
ington street opjiosite Browning's TTolel" by 
Oilman ^larston. This was a I'eally high gi-ade 
school, ilarston had graduated from Dart- 
mouth that spring, and in addition to all the 
usual English branches gave "a course of ex- 
perimental lectures in natural philosophy and 
chemistry", and taught Latin, Greek, and 
French. He refers in his advertisement ''to 
the Hon. David Wallace, Hon. Isaac Black- 
ford. Dr. L. Dunhi]). Eev. J. B. Britton, A. St. 
Clair. Esq." This school was contiiiued after- 
ward as the Franklin Institute, and Rev. J. C. 
Fletcher says of it : "About 1837 Messrs. Sweet- 
zer and Quarles, Lawyers, Col. A. W. Russell, 
Dr. G. W. Stipp. and' some others felt that all 
the liigher educational institutions were run by 
the Presbyterians, therefore Ihey formed a new 
school and duljbed it the 'Franklin Institute'. 
Their first teacher was a ^Ir. Chester, the sec- 
ond was Gilman Alarston, a graduate of Dart- 
mouth College. In 18.38 a frame sehoolhouse 
was erected on Circle street, occujiying a j)o- 
sition between ^fr. (^uarles's house and the 
porner of Circle and ^laikct streets (now the 
English Hotel). Tiiis building was removed a 
few years ago to the east side of Pennsylvania 
street. It is the third house on Pennsylvania 
street north of ^Massachusetts avenue. Mr. 
Marston was from Xew IIa!ii|)sbire, and re- 
turned in 18.'?9-40 to that state to jjraetiee law. 
He once told me at Exeter, New Hamp.shire, 
that he had an educational debt to pay, and a 
limited time to pay it in. therefore he catue 
to Indianapolis to teach. 1 lielieve that he had 
letters to Mr. Sweetser. lie afterwards be- 
eanie eminent as a lawye 
New Hampshire, district. 
and Portmouth. In the 
He reiiresenteil the southern district of 
Hampshire in Congress, and it max lie 

in the Rockingham, 
which includes Mxtcr 
war he lost an arm. 

that no one of the many 
iipolis ha> lieen more succes 
succeeded by ;Mr. \\'heelfr. 
the eldest daughter of t'lc 
1 do n'lt recall ubi'U tb( 

teachers in Indiaii- 
jful in life. He was 
who married Mary, 
late Dan'el Vandes. 
l-'ranklin liislil\ite 

became extinct."' (iilman ^larston went into 
the (^ivil War as colonel of the Second Xew 
iram])shire regiment, and was made a Briga- 
dier (ieneral in J8()"2. He was in Congress both 
before and after the wai-. and became gover- 
nor of Idaho in ISTO. 

Hev. Wm. Holliday taught sebnol up to 
18.")(). after his service in the seminary, first 
in a log building where Rol)erts Park church 
now stands, then in the ba.sement of the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Presbyterian Church, which 
stood on the north side of Ohio street midway 
between Pennsylvania and Delaware, and then 
at his residence on North Pennsylvania street, 
o|)posite tTniversity Square. Rev. J. C. 
Fletcher says that prior to his teaching at the 
seminary he taught at the northeast corner of 
Pennsylvania and New York.* Air. Holliday 
was a ripe scholar and his .schools were well 
patronized. Mr. Brown states that Eliza Rich- 
mond assisted Marston in his school,'' and this 
was no doubt in the primary work. She kept 
a school for many years afterwards on New- 
York street between .\labama and New Jer- 
sey, which was jiopularly known as ''Sister 
Richmond's school" — she being a prominent 
"sister" in Roberts Chapel, and her ])atrons 
chierty Methodists. T'here was not a little 
sectarian jealousy and rivalry in early times 
that was notably displayed in the field of edu- 
cation, and that lived long in the memory of 
its chief actors. Rev. F. ('. Hollidav, wi-it- 
ing in 1873, says: "The state funds for edu- 
cational pur])oses in Indiana as in most of the 
Western States, were for nuiny years under the 
almost exclusive control of Presbyterians, who 
assumed to be the especial guardians and pa- 
trons of education. It is impossible, at this 
ilay. to comprehend the self-complacency with 
which their leading men in the West assumed 
to be the only competent e(lucators of the |)eo- 
ple. and the quiet unscrupulousness with which 
they si'ized -upon the triisl-funds of the states 
for school purposes, and made those schools as 
strictly denominational as though the funds 
had been exclusively contribute(l by niend)ers 
of their own conununion. .V young man wlio, 
in either the Miami I'liiversitv at Oxford, Ohio, 
or Lexington. Kentu(k\', oi- Piliininini.'i"n, In- 

•'AVm-.v. .luly 19. 18Tfi. 
*Xi'in'. June '28, 18:9. 

■'Ilisl. flKlilllllllKllls, ]l. 10. 



iliana. wmikl have q\iestioned the correctness 
of any of the dogmas of Calvinism, woukl have 
been an object of unmitigated ridicule and 
persecution. * * * When, in 1834 and 
1S35, efforts were made iu Indiana so to change 
the management of the State University, by 
amending its charter, that the trustees should 
be elected by the State Legislature, instead of 
being a self-jjerpetuating corjioration, a storm 
of indignation was raised among those who con- 
trolled the State L'niversity; and it was made 
the occasion of heaping all sorts of opprobrium 
on the Methodist church. The movement was 
said to be an effort on the part of the Meth- 
odists to get a Methodist professor in the Uni- 
versity : and it was tauntingly said, in the 
halls of the legislature, tliat 'there was not 
a .Methodist in America with sufficient learn- 
ing to fill a professor's chair, if it were ten- 
dered to him". Such taunts proved a whole- 
some stimulus to ilethodist enterprise and in- 
dependent church action in the department of 

Of course this is the reminiscence of one who 
was in the fight, and the Presbyterians might 
have answered, and probably did, that the 
.Methodi-:ts needed ''a wholesome stimulus'" ; 
and also have pointed to the fact that they had 
established their separate collegiate institutions 
in order to avoid proselyting influences of other 
denominations. But the extract shows the 
feeling from which arose the fact that, when 
the constitutional convention of 1851 met, 
there were eight independent collegiate insti- 
tutions in the state, each controlled by a re- 
ligious sect. It explains the fact that the con- 
stitution of 1851 provides only for "a general 
and uniform system of public schools"", and 
does not mention a university. It ex]ilains 
the effort made in the convention for the ex- 
press prohibition of support by the state of a 
higher institution of learning.' It explains 
also the school conditions of Indianajwlis. The 
several churches had concentrated their efforts 
on collegiate institutions on a state basis, the 
Presbyterians on Hanover and Wabash, the 
Methodists on Asbury (now De Patiw), and 
the Ba]jtists on Franklin, none of them located 

here. It is probable that this division of en- 
ergy prevented, or retarded, the building up 
of a great central institntiou with the highest 
advantages for education, and caused numbers 
of Indiana boys to be sent to the larger institu- 
tions of the east; but it did what was probably 
better for the state by putting the opportunity 
for really good education within reach of hun- 
dreds who could not afford to go far from 
home. But none of these institutions were co- 
educational, and indeed at that time coeduca- 
tion inspired almost as much horror as woman's 
suffrage. The question arose "What siiall we 
do with our girls ?" 

The Presbyterians led olV 
In 183(j James Blake, Isaac 
Ray, and others obtained a 
Indianapolis Female 
opened in June, 1837 

ill the solution. 

Coe, James M. 

charter for the 
Institute, which was 
under the management 

^'Inilitiiin Mrtliodisiii. pp. 317-8. See also 
Ivlson's Enrhj Jndmna Prathi/tcrianisiii , p. 229. 

''Boone's Histori/ of Education in Indiana. 
pp. 135-6. 

of Misses Mary J. and Harriet Axtell, of 
Courtlandville, Xew York, who had been teach- 
ers at the Geneva Female Seminary. At this 
school were taught "tlie mathematical and nat- 
ural Sciences, with history, and every branch of 
a thorough English education, and also music, 
drawing and the languages as desired."" It was 
at tirst held in the second story of what was 
known as the Sanders" building, on Washing- 
ton street near Meridian, and later removed 
to a frame building adjoining the old Presby- 
terian chttrch on Pennsylvania street. There 
were arrangements for jirivate boarding in 
connection with the school. It attained quite 
a high reputation for excellence, and was con- 
tinued until 1849, when the liealth of the 
elder Miss Axtell failed and the school was 
discontinited. It is said that she became de- 
ranged on the subject of predestination, ac- 
qtiiring the delusion that sbe was doomed to 
be lost. She died a short time afterwards wliiic 
on a trip to the West Indies for her healtli, 
Tiie blisses .Vxtell were excellent teachers, and 
were held in high esteem by their ])upils. 

After this there was an interval with no 
Presbyterian school for young ladies, but in 
1852, Rev. C. G. McLean was induced to come 
here and open one. He was well educated and 
talented. He was prejjared by his step-father, 
Rev. James Gray, I). D., for many years |ias- 
tor of the Spruce Street Church, Philadelphia, 
for admission to the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, of which he was a graduate. He pur- 
sued his theological studies under tlie i-elc- 



liratLil l)r. Johii il. ^lason, and was for twen- 
ty-seven years pastor of the Associate liefDrnied 
Church of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, anil eight 
years of the Dutch Eeformed Chixreh at Fort 
Plain, New York. He was a fine pi'eacher, 
liut left pastoral work on account of his health 
just before coming here. The school was op- 
ened as the Indiana Female Seminary, and was 
very successful for some years, the first cata- 
logue showing 151 pupils, nearly all from In- 
dianapolis. It was a boarding school and day 
school occupying a three-story lirick building 
which was erected for it, at the southwest cor- 
ner of New York and Meridian streets. The 
faculty and course of instruction were of high 
grade. Day scholars ])aid from $4 a quarter in 
the preparatory department to $8 as seniors, antl 
there were numerous extras, im-luding vocal 
music, instruction on the piano, guitar and 
harp, drawing and painting. The pupils were 
also assessed $1 per year for "'support of the 
gospel". Dr. McLean continued the school 
till his death, in I860, after which it was con- 
tinued 1)V his son-in-law, Charles N. Todd and 
Rev. Charles Sturdevant, until 1865. This 
school was commonly known as McLean Sem- 

The Episcopalians were second on the iield. 
In 1830 Mrs. Britton, wife of the rector of 
Christ Church, opened a school for girls on 
Pennsylvania street above Michigan, which 
was later removed to the site of the When build- 
ing, and in the fall of 1843 to a frame liuild- 
iiig across the alley, to the north, from Christ 
Church, then owned by ;\Ir. Reck, the Lutheran 
pastor. Steps were then taken for the erection 
of a building especially for the school, back 
of Christ Church, and it was completed and 
occupied in 1845, the Reck property being pur- 
chased and used as a boarding-house for 
the school. On January 15, 1844, this school 
was chartered by the legislature as St. Clary's 
Seminary, with James Morrison and George 11. 
Dunn, wardens, and Geo. W. ilears, Cliarles 
Co.x, Jeremiah Foote, Wm. R. Morrison and 
Jose])h M. Moore, vestrymen of Christ Church, 
a.s directors ; the wardens and vestrymen of the 
church to be directors thereafter ex officio. Rev. 
Samuel Johnson, successor of ^Ir. Britton as 
rector of Ciirist (Miurch, ami his wife now took 
charge of the seiiool, whicli liad a very success- 
ful career for five years. 

-Vfter the discontinuance of the Axtell school, 
\'ol. 1—9 

the Presbyterians attempted another, and a 
charter was obtained .January 19, 1850, for 
the Indiamipolis Collegiate Institute, with 
James Blake, James M. Ray, Wm. Sheets, Thos. 
H. Sharpe and Isaac Coc as trustees, their suc- 
cessors to be elected by the First Presbyterian 
Church. This movement came to nothing and 
the Methodists decided that this was their 
time to get busy. They accordingly formed a 
voluntary association known as the Indiana- Fe- 
male College, and began operations in the base- 
ment, or Sunday School room.s, of old Wesley 
Chapel in 1850, with Rev. Thos. H. Lynch as 
principal. This was of course temporary. The 
same year the Episcopalian property, where the 
Board of Trade building stands was purchased, 
and an additional Iniilding was erected next 
to Ohio street. Mr. Lynch himself took an 
active part in the erection of this building, 
which was intended for the school proper, a 
two-story frame with four rooms upstairs and 
four down. The south building — the old Epis- 
copalian school boarding house — was used as 
a boarding house for the school, ami in the 
numbering system of that time was Xo. 14 
X. Meridian, while the school was Xo. 16. The 
school was chartered February 13, 1851, with 
provision that three-fourths of the directors 
should always be members of the Methodist 
Church. Mr. Lynch conducted the school till 
1854, when he was called to New Albany, where 
the ilethodists had made the mistake of start- 
ing Asbury Female College in 1852, instead of 
centering on one institution. In 1854-5 the 
school here was in charge of Rev. Charles 
.\dams, and in 1855-(>, of G. W. Moss, who 
was followed in turn by Benjamin T. Hoyt. 
In 1859 the school suspended, but was resumed 
in 1860 under Rev. Oliver 'SI. Spencer. By this 
time competition of the McLean Seminary and 
Baptist Seminary were making the female col- 
lege business somewhat precarious, and in 1862, 
Rev. Thos. H. Lynch was recalled to help the in- 
stitution out. In 1865 the school was put in 
charge of W. H. DeMotte, w-ho had been a 
teacher at the Deaf and Dumb Asylum from 
1850 to 1864, when he became for a year ^lili- 
tary and Sanitary Agent of the Stale at Wash- 
ington, D. C. And now a change was made. 
The McLean Seminary property had been sold 
to John Pyle, who wanted to open a hotel 
there, but concluded that it was too far out, 
and traded it for the Methodist school prop- 



erty. Mv put up a brick buildiiij;' butWL-on the 
two fraiue ones, uniting all in the Pyle House, 
which continued so long that everybody got 
tired of it. The Indiana Female College was 
removed to the old McLean Seminary, and 
Avas continued there until 1868, iu charge of 
Professor DeMotte. It was then determined 
to consolidate it with Asbury, which till then 
had not been coeducational, and this was done. 
The property was sold to the Wesley Chapel 
congregation, which built there, changing their 
church name to ileridian Street Church. This 
in turn gave place to the Central Telephone 

The Baptists got along without a separate 
female institute until 18-58. when they organ- 
ized a stock company and bought the old resi- 
dence of Robert I'nderhill. at the northeast 
corner of Michigan and Pennsylvania streets. 
He was a j^ioneer in iron work, and had his 
foundry one square below, where the Second 
Presbyterian Church now stands. In 1859 the 
school was opened by Rev. Gibbon Williams, 
who continued iu charge imtil 1863, when he 
was succeeded by C. W. Hewes. He remained 
until 1870, and was followed liy Rev. T.ucian 
Hayden, the last ])rincipal. The Indianapolis 
Female Institute, as it was called, closed in 
1872, not being able to compete with the free 
schools. The property was exchanged for 
other real estate, and passed into the hands of 
the City School Board. It was at that time 
quite an e.xtensive building, having been much 
enlarged while occuiiied by the school. This 
seminary had good standing as an educational 
institution. Among its teachers were Miss A. 
R. Boise (later Mrs. Dr. Wood), daughter of 
Professor Boise, of the University of ^lichigan, 
and Miss Rebecca J. Thompson, who was after- 
wards Professor of iratlicnintics at Franklin 
for thirty years. 

There were several other schools for young 
ladies at later dates that have since gone out 
of existence, in additicm to the mixed school 
of Mrs. Price. Mrs. A. Ashby had an excel- 
lent school at 78 East Xorth street (old num- 
ber), from 1872 to 1878. Mrs. E. R. Colwell 
taught at 956 K,„.tii T),,lnware from 1876 to 
1880. .Teiiiiie L. Burr had a school for voungor 
girls at Broadwav and Cherry from 1879 to 
1888. .1. H. Kaiipcs and wife conducted their 
Young Ladies' Institute from 1879 to 1883. 
Rev. .Tames Lvons liad an Institute for Younsr 

Ladies on Xorth Pennsylvania street in 18SS 
and 1889. The most notable, however, was the 
Girls" Classical School. T. L. Sewall started 
a classical school for boys, in 1879, at Home 
and College avenues, which was removed in 
1881 to Xorth and Alabama streets, and con- 
tinued there till 1887. In 1882 Mrs. :May 
Wright Sewall opened a classical school for 
girls at the southeast corner of Pennsylvania 
and St. Joseph streets, where the Eiiiscopalians 
had been holding St. Anna's school for girls, 
under charge of Rev. J. B. Clarke. In 1885 a 
special building was erected for the girls' 
school at 821: Xorth Pennsylvania, and the 
school was continued there till 1907. Both the 
boys' and the girls" classical schools were pri- 
marily designed to prepare for college, and 
the graduates usually took Harvard. Smith. 
Bryn Mawr. or other examinations, whether 
they went to these schools or not, but the Girls' 
Classical covered practically all the ground of 
the earlier female colleges and seminaries, and 
did a most satisfactory educational work 
throughout its long existence. 

The Quakers were always zealous promoters 
of education, but they were not strong enough 
to do much in Indianapolis in the early years. 
Early in the fifties Sarah A. Smith, wifi' of 
Hugh Smith, opened a private school at the 
southeast corner of Alabama and Market streets, 
whicli was continued for nearly thirty years. 
In 1856, her daughter. .Vnna ^Fary, then fifteen 
years of age, became an assistant in the school, 
and continued till its close. This was a pri- 
mary, neighliorhood school, and a good one of 
its class. When the Friends built their meet- 
ing-house at the southeast corner of Delaware 
and St. Clair streets, in 1856. they made it 
two stories so that a scliool might be held in 
the lower room, and a very excellent graded 
school was maintained there for a number of 
years. It was attended both by Friends chil- 
dren and outsiders, l)nt they were all marched 
upstairs to Wednesday morninjr meeting. 
Thouias Charles, assisted liy William ^len- 
dcnball. both mendtcrs of the Society of 
Friends, opened a school called the City .\cad- 
emy, in 1867, on Xew York street opposite 
T''niversity Square. This was an excellent 
school, and well attended. It continued three 
years, after which ^[r. Charles became joint 
editor with G. W. Hoss of the Indiana Schnnl 
Journal, for a sburt time, and later removed 



to t'liii-ajjo. llinim llaillcy. aimtliLT pi'cniiiiKMil 
FrieiiJ educatur, latur ])iVf;i<lont of the I'lii- 
vcT.'^itv of Xew Mexico, liiul a jirivate jsfhool on 
Illinois street above Tentli. in 1880, and was 
associated in 1881-2 with Prof. Junius B. Rol)- 
erts in the lladley & Hobcrts -Vcaileniy. at the 
soutliwest corner of Meridian and Vermont 
streets. This si-hool was continued two years 
longer by Mr. Roberts, at the southeast cor- 
ner of Pennsylvania and Walnut streets, af- 
ter which he resumed work iu the High School. 
The Disciples, or "Campbellites" were later 
than the others in getting their college started, 
but they located it at Indianapolis. r>utler 
University was originally begun, anil for 
twenty odd years continued, as Xorthwestorn 
Cliristian University. It owes its existence 
chiefly to Ovid Butler, wlio was at the head of 
a committee originally appointed at the state 
meeting of the ciiurch at Greensburg, in 1847. 
He designed and formulated its plan, drafted 
its charter, donated tiie site and a large jiart 
of tlie endowment, and gave it his ijersonal at- 
tention through life. The Xorthwestern Chris- 
tian University was chartered by act of Janu- 
ary lo. 1850. The charter created a stock com- 
panv of $100 shares, the total not less than 
$T">;000 nor more than $.500,000, of which 
one-third might be used for site and l)uilding, 
but at least two-thirds must bo held for en- 
dowment. In loaning the endowment fund, 
! the shareholders were to be preferred borrowers. 
When $T.5.000 was subscribed the directors were 
to be elected and proceed with the building. 
The charter voiced the features of ('am)ibell"s 
teaching that appealed most powerfully to Jlr. 
Butler, and the directors were to provide for 
"an institution of learning of the highest class. 
for the education of the youth of all parts of 
the United States, and especially of the states 
of the Northwest; to establish in said insti- 
tution ilejiartments or colleges for the instruc- 
tion of the students in every branch o! liberal 
and iirol'essional education : to educate and pre- 
l)are suitable teachers for the common schools 
of the country; to teach and ininlcate the 
Christian faith and Christian morality as 
taught in the sacred Scriptures, discarding as 
uninspired and without authority all writings, 
fornuilas, creeds, and articles of faith subse- 
quent thereto; and for the formaticui (pro- 
motion) of the sciences and arts." The charter 

pro\i(leil tbnl llic property should be exempt 
from taxation. 

Rev. John O'Kanc was appointed soliciting 
agent for the enter])rise, and by June 22, 18.52, 
the retpiired $75,000 was reported subscribed. 
On July 14, twenty-one directors were eleeti'd, 
with Ovid Butler as president. .Mr. Butler 
donated twi'iitx acres of fine woodland for the 
institution (at College and Home avenues) ; 
plans by Wm. Tiiislcy, a Cincinnati architect, 
wri'c ailopted. and contracts were let in Jtdy, 
]8.");i, for the west wing of the building, which 
was designed for addition as needed. The 
building was erected in 1854-5, at a cost of 
$27,000, and was opened on Xovember 1, 1855, 
with services including addresses by Elder 
O'Kane, Prof. Renton and Elder IToshour at 
the college ehajjel during the day, and by 
Prof. Young at Masonic Hall at night.* The 
university opened with John Young, president 
and professor of natural sciences: A. K. Ben- 
ton, ])rofessor of ancient languages, and 
James R. CJhalleii, late of Somer.set Pennsylva- 
nia Academy, principal of the ]ire|)aratory de- 
partment. In 1858, Prof. Young having re- 
signed, Prof. S. K. Hoshour, a noted teacher of 
eastern Indiana, succeeded to the presidency ; 
0. W. IIoss took the chair of mathetnatics ; R. 
T. Brown that of natural sciences, and Prof. 
Challen that of English. Prof. Ho.«hour 
ta\ight modern languages. The war caused a 
great falling off in students, and called for a 
reduction of ex])enses, so the faculty was re- 
organized ill isi;i uiiji A. It. Benton as presi- 
dent, who lii'ld the |)<isition for seven years. 
In 1868 Otis A. Burgess became president, 
but returned to the ministry in 1870 and was 
succeeded by W. !•'. lilack who held until 1874, 
when Prof, liurgess returned. During his 
])residency the university was removed to 
Trvington in 1875, and on February 22, 1877. 
its name was changed to Butler University. 

The liberal ideas of the founders of this in- 
stitution were manifest in its control as well 
as in its charter. It was from the first a co- 
educational institution, giving the same ad- 
vantages to voung W(unen as to young men: 
and in this it was a ])ioneer. There was no 
other educational institution in the Cniteil 
States, at the time, on a university basis, that 
admitted women, though Oberlin ])recedcd it 

"J nil nidi. Xi 

and .'i. 18." 



as a college. Earlham and other "Friends' 
boarding schools"' had departments for both 
sexes, but they were esseutiallj' distinct in facul- 
ties and teaching, and it was only about this 
time that they began to move towards co- 
education in its present sense. In this school 
no distinction was made as to sexes in the 
privileges of education. The school also 
adopted the elective system of studies, in which 
it has been preceded only by Campbell's Col- 
lege at Bethany, West Virginia, and Brown 
University. It conferred the degrees of Bache- 
lor of Science, Art or Philosophy, according 
to the course taken, with masters degrees in 
regular course for post graduate work. On 
March 10, 18G9, ilr. Butler submitted a prop- 
osition to the Ijoard of directors to endow a 
chair of English Literature in the university, 
which was accepted; and nominated as the 
professor Miss Catharine Jilerrill, daughter of 
Samuel Merrill, one of the most accomplished 
educators of the city, who accepted the posi- 
tion on April 21. This gift, amounting to 
about $11,000 was on condition that the chair 
should always be held by a woman. It was 
named the Demia Butler chair, and was in 
memory of his daughter, who was the first 
woman graduate of the institution in the classi- 
cal eotirse. Miss Merrill had first had a pri- 
vate school at the family homestead on Mer- 
rill street, the site of the present Catharine 
Merrill school; later in the basement of the 
Fourth Presbyterian Church, at the southwest 
corner of Market and Delaware streets ; and 
later about where the Commercial Club build- 
ing stands. After the war broke out she went 
out as an army nurse, and after the close of 
the w-ar published the work, "The Soldier of 
Indiana in the War for the Union". Miss 
Merrill remained on the Butler faculty until 
1885, when she resigned to take up private 
class work with Indianapolis women, and con- 
tinued this till her death in 1900. 

There was a law class in the university from 
the first, which had 4 graduates under Presi- 
dent Young, 18 under President Hosbour, and 
30 under President Benton. In 18T1 a law 
department was formallv organized, with Byron 
K. Elliott, Charles H." Test, and Charles P. 
Jacobs occupying the three chairs. John 
Young, Judge David McDonald, Judge Sam- 
uel E. Perkins and Judge Horatio M. New- 
comb were among the instructors at various 

periods. The Medical College of Indiana 
formed the medical department of the univer- 
sity. The preparatory department was pre- 
sided over, in order of succession, by James E. 
Challen, Love H. Jameson. Madison Evans, 
Mrs. Nancy E. Bums, A. C. Shortridge, W. 
W. Dowling, A. Fairhurst, and H. W. Wiley, 
of pure food fame. A teacher in, and later 
at the head of the "academic department", or 
the preparatory, from 18.5T, was Mrs. E. J. 
Price, a daughter of Professor Hoshour. After 
leaving the university she became one of the 
best known private school teachers in the city. 
Her school was on Broadway at the corner of 
Alabama and St. Clair streets, and later on 
North street, from 18T1 to 1875, and on Ill- 
inois street, now Nos. 803 and 805. from 1875 
to 1890. It was a mixed school for bpys and 
girls from twelve to twenty years of age, and 
was extensively patronized. There was an- 
other private school which might be consid- 
ered under Campbellite auspices, and that was 
the primary school kept by the Misses Laura 
and Charlotte McFarland, for more than 
twenty years, beginning about 18G0, on St. 
Clair street, opposite St. Clair park. This 
was a very popular school with northsidc 
youngsters, the large yard of the McFarland's 
making a choice playground for the girls, and 
the "Blind Asylum lot'' across the street, with 
a great hackberry tree half way between the 
present fountain and the north fence, being an 
ideal place for "black-man", which was the 
favorite diversion of the boys. The teachers 
were daughters of Demas ilcFarland, one of 
the earliest settlers, and their kindly natures 
cause them to be held in loving memory by 
their old pupils, of whom there are dozens in 
the city. 

It would be impossible at this time even to 
ascertain the names of all the private schools 
tiiere have been in Indianapolis, most of them 
of few j-ears' duration, like Miss Ellen Doug- 
lass' school on New York street, west of the 
canal, in the fifties; Miss Tousey's school on 
Ellsworth street in the sixties ; iliss Keating's 
on Dougherty .'■treet and Miss Fitzhugh's on 
St. Joseph street in the seventies ; Ilev. N. F. 
Tuck's on East ilarket street and Wm. W. 
Hall's in North Indianajwlis in the later sev- 
enties, the North Indianapolis school being 
continued by M. L. IJinehart in the eighties. 
Jt is to be remembered that the Catholics al- 



ways liad their separate seliools, wliich are men- 
tioned elsewhere, as also the l^utherans. and 
in fact the Germans, generally, until (ierman 
was made a study in the public schools. And 
tliere have been schools of all sorts, one of 
the most notable lines of activity being in 
business colleges, which were especially prom- 
inent in the sixties and seventies, with Bryant 
& Stratton, Purdy and Southard as the lead- 
ing proprietors. In brief, there have always 
been the fullest opportunities for education in 
Indianapolis, even outside of the public schools, 
and these will be considered elsewhere. 

Before leaving the subject, there is one pri- 
vate school legend that should be recorded. 
Along in the fifties there was a Mr. Dorsey 
who had a school on the south side of Walnut 
street just west of New Jersey. Among the 
pupils was George Owings, who had an ir- 
resistible penchant for profanity. Nothing 
seemed capable of stopping the habit. Warn- 

ings and whippings were fruitless. Finally 
Dorsey told him that the next time he was 
caught swearing he would slit his tongue. The 
offense was soon committed, and George was 
brought up on the platform, before the school, 
for punishment. Dorsey made him kneel down 
before a chair and put out his tongue. Then 
he produced a big jack-knife, and began to 
whet it on his boot, with a conversational ac- 
companiment. "I am sorry to have to do this 
George" — whet — whet — whet — "but you know 
what I told you" — whet — whet — whet — "put 
out your tongue ! " — whet — whet — whet — "it 
won't do to let you grow up this way" — whet 
— whet — whet — "it would be a disgrace" — whet 
— whet — "put out your tongue !" — "if I should 
try you once more" — whet — whet — whet — "if 
I should let you oif this time" — whet — whet — 
whet — -"do you think yoti would ever swear 
again ? " "No", sobbed the terrified culprit, 
"no! I'll be d^— d if I would." 



Oil May I.). 1S4(;, Congress declared that 
war cxistwl with .Muxico, and President Polk 
issued his prochunation of tlie fact. On May 
l(i, Seeretary of War Marey issued his retiui- 
sition to Governor Wiiitconili of Indiana f(U- 
"thrcf regiments of infantry or ritlenien"", 
wliicli reached Indianapolis on May il. On 
:Mav 22, Governor Whiteonib issued his call 
to the people "to form themselves into volun- 
K'er comiianies with all despatch". On June 
10 the quota was tilled. On June 11, the -^'cd- 
tinel said: "Just as our paper is going to 
press the twentietli company has been rei)orted 
to tiie Adjutant-tienerars office over and above 
the complement of thirty companies called for 
from this state. Well done, Indiana. 

"Ohio, with thrice our population and four 
times our wealth, was called on to furnish 
the same number ot men and had two days 
the start of us. and yet our quota was made 
up on the 10th inst., not any longer time, we 
believe, than was rctiuired i)y 01ii<i. 

"When the I'equisition reached here on tlu' 
V'lst it found us with our militia system 
iiroken and in ruins after thirty years of peace. 
Xot a dollar had been appropriated by the 
State or the General (Jovernment for such an 
emergency, yet the Governor devised a system, 
niainlv on his own res])onsibility, in time for 
his proclamation for the very next day, and 
he and Adjutant-General Reynolds have ever 
since been incessantly occupied looking after 
everything and answering correspondence, with- 
out even a private secretary, which office was 
abolished immediately up(m the Governor com- 
ing into office. The (Jovernor is much indis- 
])osed and fatigued by lal)or night and day. 
yet he will be ready to go with our troops to 
Xew Albany to aid in their organizaticm and 
to do everything foi- their comfort and wel- 

fare liefore they leave the state. Well done, 

When Indianajxilis was founded the militia 
svstem was m full bloom. It was but seven 
v\'ars since the close of the last war, and there 
were still enough Indians near at haml to 
cause apprehension of trouble. The militia 
was composed of all able-bodied men between 
the ages of 18 and 4.3, and was organized in 
regiments by counties, Nvhich, in turii, were 
grouped in brigades and divisions. As soon 
as Marion County was organized stejjs were 
taken for the organization of the militia, and 
on September 1, 1822, the first election of 
regimental officers was held. James Paxton 
was chosen colonel, Samuel ^lorrow, lieutenant 
colonel, and Alexander W. Russell, major, and 
on September 2(), they were commissioned. The 
detailed organization was completed in the 
following spring and on June 3, 182:!. ca]!- 
tain"s commissions were issued to Denias L. 
:\lcFarland, Asa C. Ives, John Montgomery, 
Xoah Flood. Thomas Anderson, Andrew W. 
Ingraham. John ^McFall and Geo. Smith: lieu- 
tenant's commissions to Eli Sulgrove, Andrew 
McClintock, John Jones, Alexander Ayres. Asa 
K. Strong, John Morris, Jacob Smock and 
Jacob Crone; and ensign's commissions 
to Jacob Bieler, James Freel, Hiram Mc- 
Cartv, James Williams. John Barnhill, Josejih 
Kirkendall, Wm. Kennick and John Foster. 
On July 30. commissions were issued to Hiram 
.M. Cuny, captain: John Hay, lieutenant, and 
Closes Cox, ensign, of a ninth company. On 
December 2, 1823, commissions were issued to 
Henry McGuire, captain, Elam S. Freeman, 
lieutenant, and Xoah Leverton, ensign, of the 
tenth company needed to fill the regiment. 
The reiiinient took number as the Fortieth, 




and iliU'iou (.'(uiiitv ahvMvs lu.'lil that iiumlier 
, while county organization continued. 

In addition to tlic regular rank and lile 
of the militia the law provided for three spe- 
cial companies in each regiment, ritiemen, ar- 
tillery, and light dragoons. .or cavalry as they 
would now be called. These were intended as 
more permanent and better disciplined organi- 
zations than the regular niilitia. There was no 
organization of these until 18xJ6, in the spring 
of which an artillery company was formed, 
and on April 21, Rethuel F. ilorris was com- 
missioned as its captain, Samuel Merrill as 
first lieutenant. Douglass ilaguire as second 
lieutenant, and .\iistin Bishop as ensign. Im- 
mediati'ly after a company of riHcmen was 
organized, for which Robert Wilson was com- 
missioned captain, Robert Martin, lieutenant, 
and Sydney Wilson, ensign, on June 14. On 
the same day Alexander W. Russell svicceeded 
as colonel of the Fortieth regiment, and Geo. 
L. Kinnard as lieutenant colonel. On July 
■"), Isaac Stevens became major, and Elani S. 
Freeman succeeded Robei't Wilson as ca])tain 
cif the ritiemen. On August 'i'.i, Judge Win. 
W. Wick was commissioned Brigadier (ieneral 
of the Seventeenth Brigade, of which the Forti- 
eth was then a member. James Paxton had 
lieen made Quarter Master General, and held 
that ollice until his death in 182!). when lie 
was followed for two years by Win. (^)uarles, 
and he, on December 12, 1831, by Denias L. 
MiFarland. Benjamin 1. Blythe became cap- 
tain of tiie artillery com]>any on A|)ril 10, 
1828 ; and on June i;!. 1828 a cavalry com- 
])any was organized with David Buchanan as 
captain, Edward Jleizer, first lieutenant, John 
.Sayior, second lieutenant, and Jacob L. Payne, 

The special compaiiio, particiihirly tlie ar- 
till<'ry ami the ritiemen, usually took part in 
the Fourtli of July parades, and appeared on 
other gala occasions. The regular militia 
did nothing but af)pcar on muster days and 
]icrf(irin legal "•militia duty", or get fined fen' 
neglect, 'i'iiey were not uniformed, and were 
armed with anything they might fancy that 
Would serve the pur])osc of going through the 
manual of arms. .Muster day was a sort of 
picnic, characterized by perhaps an hour of 
drilling and laige quantities of frontier recre- 
ation, from eating and drinking to racing and 
fiffhting. They were very convenvnt for re- 

newing iihl actpiaiiitaucc and political cam- 

There was no appearance of actual service for 
the militia until the Black Hawk War, news 
of which reached here on June 3, 1832. On 
tlie ne.Nt day Colonel Russell called for 150 
mounted voluntec'i'S from the Fortieth, and 
an equal iiuinber frour adjoining counties, 
which promptly appeared at the ai)pointed ren- 
dezvous at Indianapolis, armed with rifles, 
tomahawks, knives, a pound of powder each 
and ball in proportion, on June I). They were 
organized in three com])anies under captains 
James P. Drake. J. W. Reding, and Henry 
Brenton. Captain Drake had not appeared on 
the militia rolls before this time. He came 
to Posey County in 181(i, a youth of nineteen, 
and was soon prominent as a holder of both 
civil and military offices, being chosen first 
as colonel and in 1818 as brigadier general. 
In 1829 President Jackson apjiointed him re- 
ceiver of public moneys at Indianapolis, and he 
removed here. His com)iany for the Black 
Hawk War was organized as "rangers"' and 
I Make received a captain's commission on June 
s, with Geo. W. S. White as first lieutenant, 
liobert ifcHatton as second lieutenant and 
Douglass Maguire as ensign. The most san- 
guinary part of the campaign was the rendez- 
vous, at which, by a iiremature discharge of 
the cannon, William Warren lost both his arms, 
and qualiticd himself as the only pensioner 
of the war at this jioint, a special act of Con- 
gress for that purpose being secured by Geo. 
I J. Kinnard. On the day of the rendezvous, 
the three companies marched for Chicago, 
under command of Colonel Russell, with Wm. 
Conner fcu' a guide. At Chicago they learned 
that the war was over, and marching around 
file south end of Lake iFichigan they returned 
borne by way of South Bend. Here they en- 
countered the facile ])en of John 1). Defrees, 
more deadly than Indian tomahawk, for he 
christened them "the Bloody Three Hundred", 
anil tlicy never heard the last of it. Possibly 
the fun ])oked at them fell on the militia serv- 
ice for it gradually went almost out of use. 

Put civilized young men c-annot live with- 
out uniforms, and on February 22, 1S37. a 
meeting of the young men of the city decided 
to organize a military company. .\t later meet- 
ings constitution and by-laws were adopted, 
and officers elected, and on March 2* com- 



mi.ssioiii< were issued to Alexander W. Rus- 
sell, captain; P. W. Seibert, first lieutenant; 
Win. Uannamau, second lieutenant; Charles 
Cox, third lieutenant ; and Wm. H. Morrison, 
ensign. They had a showy uniform of gray 
with black velvet facings, tall bell-crowned 
leather caps with brass trimmings and black 
pompons, and were armed with muskets. Col- 
onel Eussell did not have time enough to de- 
vote to the company to satisfy the uniform en- 
thusiasm of the members, and in the following 
year he gave way to Thomas A. Morris, a 
West Point graduate, who was commissioned 
captain of the Marion Guards on June 30, 
1838 — recommissioned April 27, 1842. On 
September 1-3, 1S38, commissions were issued 
to Philip K. Landis, first lieutenant: John Mc- 
Dougall, second lieutenant ; Thos. Doncllan, 
third lieutenant, and Milton Foudray, fourth 
lieutenant. The company, which had been 
incorporated by special act on February 14, 
1838, was assigned to the Fortieth regiment. 
Captain (later General) Morris was a fine 
drill master, and l)rought his company to a 
high state of efficiency, it being the crack com- 
pany of the state. Its imposing appearance on 
parade awakened other military ardor. A 
cavalry company was organized, and on No- 
vember 4, 1840, its officers were commissioned, 
Samuel Ross, captain ; Thos. A. Thomas, first 
lieutenant; Ephraim Law, second lieutenant; 
Samuel Vandaman, ensign. It did not last 
long. Horse soldiering involves too much 
trouble for popularity in times of peace. In 
1842 the Marion Riflemen were organized, 
with Thomas MacBaker as captain; George 
Robinson, first lieutenant, and Reuben P. 
Adams, second lieutenant, the commissions is- 
suing April 30. This company, i)0])ularly 
known as the "Arabs", w-hile the Guards were 
called the "Grays'", or the "Graybacks", was 
uniformed in fringed blue hunting shirts, and 
armed with primitive and awkward breech - 
loading rifles. In August, 1842, the indepen- 
dent companies formed a battalion, and elected 
Harvey Brown lieutenant-colonel and George 
W. Drum, major. They had several parades 
and one or two encampments, but military dutv 
grew monotonous, and by 184.3 the companies 
were practically abandoned. 

When the call for troops for the Mexican 
war came, Lew Wallace was theoretically 
studying law in Indianapolis. The call came 

to him like a release to a prisoner. For years 
he had dreamed of military glory and es- 
jjecially in connection with Mexico. The 
romance of "The Man at Arms", unpublished 
to which he had devoted his juvenile talent, 
had been laid aside under the charm of Pres- 
cott, and that romantic tale "The Fair God" — 
the most artistic of all his stories — was now 
well-nigh finished. He had been a militianuin 
a sergeant in MacBaker's Rifles, and he gives 
this account of the militia conditions in In- 
dianapolis: "The differences between the com- 
panies were not of a kind to foster what the 
French call camaraderie. The Greys were solid 
men, verging, many of them, upon middle life; 
the enlisted of the Rifles were mostly incap- 
able of mustaches. The uniform of the Greys 
was of rich cloth ; that of the Rifles consisted 
of a cap, a cotton hunting-shirt, blue and 
yellow" fringed, and fashioned after the style 
bequeathed to the American people by General 
Daniel Morgan of Revolutionary renown. The 
Greys carried muskets with bayonets; the Rifles, 
Hall's patent breech-loaders. The Greys timed 
their steps to the sonorous music of a brass 
band ; the Rifles were contented with the fife 
and drum. The Rifles despised the aristocratic 
airs of the Greys ; the Greys laughed at the 
Rifles, and the good-natured contempt could 
have been endured had they stopped with it. 
Their last insult was the nickname 'Arabs'. 
We waited a long time for a chance to i)unish 
the Greys. At last a sham battle betwirn the 
comj)anies was hippodromed in celebration of 
January 8th, with Washington street for scene 
of action. We were posted at the intersection 
of Meridian street, facing eastward ; while, 
turning from Delaware up by the court-house, 
the enemy moved to the attack in column of 
.sections, their band plaving vociferously. Their 
appearance was beautiful : and it was then I 
first knew w-hat inspiration there is in white 
handkerchiefs shaken out by fair hands from 
overlooking windows. The Greys opened with 
volleys; we replied, lying down and firing at 
will. All went well until in the crisis of the 
engagement our captain forgot to order the re- 
treat provided for in the schedule of manoeu- 
vres. The melee that ensued was tremendous. 
Wads flew like bullets. We shot one man, 
took several prisoners, and were left masters 
of the field. At sight of the haughty foe in 
flisht I veiled mv throat into tatters. Tlie 



incident is, of coiirx', trivial: 3ct it was of 
eonbequciicL' to me. It ])iit a final finish upon 
the taste for military life by turning it into u 
genuine passion. It was my initiation into 
the Ancient and Honorable Order of Sol- 

Wallace longed for !Me.\ico, and war. He 
hastened to the office of the Adjutant Gen- 
eral before the call was issued, seeking an 
interview. He says: ''David Reynolds, the 
incumbent, was a good-looking person, stout, 
rubicund, afl'able, who had not yet appeared 
in uniform. He knew nothing military, and, 
to his credit, he made no pretension to such 
knowledge. His appreciation of the title even 
needed cultivation. He was intelligent an<i 
willing to learn. I found him in a riustered 
state not unlike that of a mother hen unex- 
pectedly visited by a marauding hawk. There 
were a hundred things to do — blanks to be 
prepared, books to be opened — cnerything, in- 
deed, that ouglit to have been done long be- 
fore, and that would liave been done but for 
the lack of the needful appro]jriation. A cor- 
responding inexperience on the [jart of the 
Governor heightened tiie confusion of the staff 
officers. * * * I |,;„| the good fortune to 
know him, though at a distance. His position 
was too e.xalted for familiar acquaintance with 
so young a man. He was a lover of l>ooks. 
His fine liijrary was useful as well as orna- 
mental. It was a certificate that his re])utation 
for learning and scholarly altaiiuncnts was de- 
served. * * * i[is picture in the state 
librar)' is a better likeness of the war governor 
than the statue under the monument. If in 
speaking of him one confines remarks to his 
abilities as a statesman, the choicest terms of 
eulogy may be used with pniprictv : but he was 
not a soldier. ""- 

.Vnd yet these were tiie men that made In- 
diana's fine recoril for ])romptness in this emer- 
gency, (iovernor WJiitcoinb did not wait for 
appro))riations. He liorrowed the needed funds 
from the banks that were willing to loan on his 
))ersonal and official 7'cs]ionsibility. One has 
but to glance over the coiitcni|iorary accounts 
cojleeted in that most a<imirable volume of 
Col. Oran Perry's, "Indiana in tlic Mexican 
\\ ar", to sec liow cpiickK ami bow I'lilh- he 

mastered the situation. Nor was Reynolds 
lacking. Says Perry: "Fortunately for the 
reputation of the state, the incumbent. Gen- 
eral David Reynolds, was a man of superior ex- 
ecutive ability, dauntless in all emergencies, 
a tireless worker, and blessed with an abun- 
dance of common sense, which largely offset 
his inexperience. His success in rapidly or- 
ganizing the State's quota for the war had no 
parallel at that time, and in 1847 a grateful 
legislature recognized the fact by adding $1.50 
to his salary for that year."'' The addition 
looks better when it is remembered that liis 
regular salary was $100 a year, and "find him- 
self with office, stationery and fuel. Inex- 
])erienced as he was, Adjutant-General Rey- 
nolds sent Wallace away with the information 
that a call would be made, and that anybody 
might raise a company, subject to acceptance 
by the Governor; and of his use of the knowl- 
edge I let him tell : 

"There was much talk in Indianapolis about 
volunteering. Other parts of the state wore 
showing activity. I bustled about, interview- 
ing members of the 'Grays' and 'Arabs'. To 
my argument that the term of service was 
short, only one year, some of them, witii an 
earnestness implying personal experience, re- 
plied that a year was ample time in which 
to die. Fiiuilly, in fear of the passing of the 
ojjportunity, I resolved to open a recruiting 
office myself. The town could not mort' than 
laugh at me. So I took a room on Washington 
street and hired a drummer and fifer. Out of 
the one front window of the building I pro- 
jected a flag, then a transparency inscribed on 
its four faces 'For ^fexico. Fall in'. I at- 
tacked the astonished public in the street. 
The first round was jirodnctive. A dozen or 
more young men fell into tlie procession. With- 
in three days the company was full. In the 
election of officers, .lames P. Drake was chosen 
ca|)tain and John McDougall, first lieutenant. 
The second lieutenancy was given to me. Upon 
acceptation by tiie Governor, we were ordered 
to the general rendezvous at Xcw .\ll)anv, on 
the Ohio Hiver."' 

The Indiaiia|)oiis company was not first. Its 
commissions were issued on JntU' I. 'I'hose of 
the Dearlwirn \'nl iiri1<'crs ,iiid MoMi'ne (luai'ds 

'.1 iitobiuf/nijilii/. 
-.[ iitohloi/riijiln/. 


'fnilidiKi ill till' Mf.niini 
*A iili>hi<iiiriijili I/. |i. f 11. 





































































^— ' 











5 ca 



were issuoil (III llic 1st; the Putnam IJIuo ami 
Cass County \'ohinteers ou the '-iud ; the Mont- 
gomery Volunteers and Johnson Guards on the 
3d. The Clarion Volunteers went into camp 
near the city, and after two weeks of drill 
they were started on the 17th on their march, 
or rather on their ride, for enthusiastic farm- 
ers had volunteered their wagons to take them 
to Kdinhurg. to which point the .Madison rail- 
road was then opened. They marched to the 
door of Drake's Hotel (west of the Lombard 
building) and there were presented a flag by 
the ladies of the city. Sarah T. Bolton made 
the presentation address, and responses were 
made by Cajitain Drake for the company, John 
II. Bradley for the citizens, and (rovernor 
\\'hitcond) for the state. Then they started 
with the godspeeds of the multitude, for all 
of Marion County seemed to have gathered for 
the departure. To Madison by rail, and New 
Albany by boat, then to camp for two weeks 
on tlir old estate of (ieorge Rogers Clark, 
then called Camp Whitcomb. and be mustered 
in. On July ,5, the Marion Volunteeis, now 
Company II, of the First Regiment, marched 
on board the steamer (irace Darling, and 
started for New Orleans. The company had 
reorganized at New Albany. Captain Drake 
having been elected colonel of the regiment. 
John McDougall was chosen captain, and Noah 
Noble Campbell, first lieutenant in ]ilacc oC 

If ever a military organization was I'ntitlcd 
to ]iromulgate a hard-luck story it was the 
Marion volunteers — or rather the whole First 
Indiana regiment. They got their first taste 
of real soldiering at New Orleans in their camp 
on (ienci-al Jackson's battlefield, wbirli was 
romantic but very damp. The regiment crossed 
the Oulf in two ships, the Flavio, of fi-10 tons, 
taking five comiianies, and the Sophia Walker, 
of ;i.")0 tons, taking thive, including the In- 
diana)Kilis company. Two comjianies were left 
behind temporarily. The voyage was fairly 
pleasant for those who were not seasick, and 
could keep out of range of those who were.'' 
Arrived at Point Isabel, the regiment 
was marched ten miles u|) llie R'io 
Grande and eani]ieil in a mcscpiili' chap- 
arral, about a mile fi-oin I be rivci-. 
separated by a low. wet bottom, through 

which all the water for the camp had to be 
carried. Here they began to experience the 
ills common to all soldiers who do not know 
how to take care of themselves, and whose 
officers do not know how to care for them. 
Measles and diarrluea broke out in the camp. 
.Many died and most of those who did not 
were greatly enfeelded. They were learning 
the lesson that with unsanitary living, disease 
always causes more deaths than the arms of 
the enemy. In the Civil War the deaths from 
disease were 249,23.5, while only 110,070 were 
killed in battle." In the Spanish War the pro- 
|)ortion was far greater, 4,015 by disease to 208 
killed in battle, because there was so little 
fighting." The great stress of militia train- 
ing now is on the preservation of health, and 
every commissioned ofiicer has to pass an ex- 
amination in sanitation. It is as important, 
if not more so, to know where to place a camp 
as to know where to place a battery. 

Fortunately the supply of medicine, wlii^-h 
consisted in those days of opium pills and 
calomel, gave out about the time the sickly 
season ended in the fall, and the health of 
the troops began to improve. But there were 
no indications of an order to move towards 
the front. It became evident that the First 
Indiana was to be left in tliat wretched hole 
to guard communications. I{e(|uests to move 
had no effect. But finally, after weary weeks 
of waiting Gen. Robert Patterson came along 
and ordereil an advance to Walnut Springs. 
Then there was joy. The regiment was to 
get some share of the glory others were ac- 
quiring. It marched with alacrity. On De- 
cember 24, it had reached Corristos, only six 
miles from Walnut Springs, when it received 
orders fnmi (Jen. Taylor to march back. 
There had been a mistake. The communica- 
tions must be guarded. Back they must go 
into the pacific and jirosaic nnid-hole. .\nd 
that was iioi all. .Along the line of mai-ch 
they had been passing <ilber troops that had 
been left behind, and which had cursed lustily 
because this regiment was brought up from be- 
hind them. Now the First had to march back 
past these envious creatures, and they were 
idiotic enough to think it was funny. Gen. 

^Indiana in the Me.riniii ]\'(ii: p. S3. 

'' F d.r' s li'fi/iiiiciiliil l.dssi's, p. 111. 
'•lie purl of A'/j'l drill.. Vol. 1, Pr. 



George F. lIcGiuniss was a lieutenant in the 
Second Ohio, stationed at the time at Punta 
Aguida, and he recalls with undisguised glee 
how they chaffed the First Indiana as it 
marched back again. And it stayed back till 
the j'ear of enlistment had expired, and it 
was sent home. It was a horrible blow to all of 
them, but worst of all to Lew Wallace. Think 
of a man who had been dreaming of '"the 
lialls of the Monteznmas"'" for years, who 
knew the City of Mexico by heart without 
having seen it, brought this near and then 
stopped absolutely and hopelessly. Think 
of a young fellow full of military ardor, a 
dreamer by nature, forced to hear the stories of 
the glorious acliievements of the others, so near 
at hand, while his regiment did practically 
nothing but take medicine and bury the dead. 
No wonder he hated Taylor. Xo wonder he 
tried to prevent his nomination for the pres- 
idency. No wonder he, a Whig born and bred, 
edited a campaign paper against the oppressor, 
and, when he was elected, went over bag and 
baggage to the Democrats. 

And so the ilarion Volunteers came home 
with hardly a smell of powder and large quan- 
tities of experience, but it was all the same 
here. They were all veterans. The first Regi- 
ment shared in the glories of the Third and 
the martyrdom of the Second under imjust 
criticism. Extensive preparation was made at 
Indianapolis for the public reception of the 
volunteers, but instead of coming in a body 
they came in squads, and spoiled the pro- 
gramme. And there was another event to turn 
attention from any celebration. There had 
been several Indianapolis people in other or- 
ganizations than the company raised here, and 
among them none better known or more popu- 
lar than Trustin B. Kinder. He had gone down 
to Orange Couuty to practice law, and when 
the war came on he volunteered there, and his 
company, of which he was captain went into 
the Second Regiment. He fell at Buena A'ista, 
and his body was brought home for burial, 
and it was the only one of the Indianapolis 
dead that was l)rouglit back. Luther Reck, 
son of the first Lutheran clergyman here, had 
been drowned in the Rio Grande on August 
18, ia4fi,'' and Harry Cartwright. John John- 
son, Jerome Lutz, Wm. Green, Edward ;N[alone 

"Indiana in the Mrslran ^Vlll•. p. 04. 

and John Peyton had succumbed to disease, 
but their bodies had been left on Mexican soil. 
Captain Kinder's funeral was on July 12, 
1847. His company had come from Paoli to 
attend the service, and acted as escort while a 
great concourse joined in the procession. It 
was by far the largest funeral ever seen in 
Indianapolis up to that time and for years 
afterwards. The remains were escorted from 
his father's house to the State House Square 
where the services were held. A prayer was 
offered by the Rev. Kavanaugh, a sermon de- 
livered by the Rev. Gillette, and an eulogv' by 
the Rev. Ames; after which the funeral train 
moved down to the old graveyard. Here an 
oration was pronounced by John T. Morrison, 
and the soldier was consigned to his grave with 
military honors. To the wreaths upon his 
grave, Sarah T. Bolton added her immortelle 
of song — - 

"Gallant soldier, farewell ; 

True, thy country has jjroved thee, 
And thy memory will dwell 

In the warm hearts that love thee." 

On April 34, 1847, Governor 'Wliitcomb is- 
sued a call for another regiment for the Mex- 
ican War, and a company was organized here 
with Edward Lander as captain ; Abraham B. 
B. Lewis, first lieutenant ; Benjamin Pill- 
bean, second lieutenant, and Joseph Combs, 
third lieutenant, by ilay 'i'i. It left on the 
2fith for the rendezvous. The ladies of the 
city made them a banner, but as it was not 
ready when they left the presentation was 
made on their behalf by Adjutant-General Rey- 
nolds, at Jeffersonville, on July T. The Fourth 
regiment, in which they were t'onipany D, or- 
ganized on June 1(5. electing Willis A. Gor- 
man of Monroe County, colonel; Ebenezer Du- 
mont of Dearborn — fonner principal of the 
Marion County seminary — lieutenant-colonel, 
and William ilcCoy, of Laporte Couuty, major. 
On the 24th they left New Orleans for Mex- 
ico on the "Sophia Walker," the same boat that 
took the former Indianapolis company, but 
they had better luck than their predecessors. 
They were assigned to Joe Lane's brigade and 
went almost direct to Vera Cruz, from which 
they marched on September 18 for the City 
of Mexico. They got into some of the pret- 
tiest fighting of the war, at Iluamantla, Puebla, 
Tlascala and Atlixco. 



As llitTr were ?i'\X'r;il organized coiiipaniL'S 
in tiie state desirous of going to tlie front, 
Adjutant-General Eeyuolds notified the Secre- 
tary of Wav of the fact, and James J I. Lane 
was authorized to raise another Indiana regi- 
ment. The call was issued by Governor Wliit- 
eomb on August 31. A company was raised at 
Jiulianapolis witii Jolui McDougall, wlio iiad 
served in the First regiment, as captain; 
Thomas iIaeBal<er, of the Kifles, as lirst lieu- 
tenant; Wm. C. KJse, second lieutenant, and 
Thomas 0'"N"eal, third lieutenant. This be- 
came Company F, of the Fifth Indiana. The 
rotriment was full on September •^;i. and on 
the "JTth, the Indianapolis company, then called 
the Center (iuards, left for Madison. The 
regiment organized on October 'i'i. with James 
Jl. Lane, colonel: Alli-ii May. ol' .Montgomery 
County, lieutenant-colonel, and JoJin ilyers, 
major. Dr. James S. Athou was surgeon of 
this regiment, and John M. Lord, adjutant. 
The regiment was hurried to tiie front, arriv- 
ing at Vera Cruz on }\ovember 'H. They were 
in time to "in at the death", and had the 
satisfaction of camping with the Fourth In- 
diana and others at En Cerro, the estate of 
Santa Anna, preparatory to their return home. 

A consideration of the troops furnished by 
JLarion County for llie ^lexiean War- would 
indicate that there was no intense interest in 
tiiat contlict at this ])oint, and there was not. 
This was a Whig stronghold and as a jiarty 
they were opposed to the war. though, at the 
same time, as citizens they felt under the 
necessity of supporting it after the country 
had got into it. Clayton and Corwin put this 
inconsistency at their fellow Whigs in Con- 
gress in a very pointed way. And liicir bigic 
was unanswerable. II' it were "a war of in- 

vasion " ; if it were an unconstitutional act for 
the President to declare that war "existed"', 
and to order the troops forward without any 
declaration of war by Congress; if it were "an 
unholy war" and "waged in the interest of 
slaveholders for the acquisition of slave ter- 
ritory", why should a conscientious Wliig sup- 
port it? But the people \wr{i evidently for 
war, as Americans usually are, and it would 
be suicidal politics to oppose "my country, 
right or wrong". And so the average Whig 
drifted along with the current waiting for 
the chance to say, "I told you so"', that never 
came. The feeling is cautiously expressed 
in the Journal's observation when the call for 
the Fifth regiment came: "We understand that 
Governor \Vhitcomb received by yesterday's 
mail a requisition for another regiment of vol- 
unteers from this state. It would appear that 
the President has not nuuli liopes of either 
purchasing or conquering a peace very soon. 
The end is not yet." '■' But the brilliant suc- 
cess of the war disposed of that horn of the 
dilenuna, and the Whigs certainly made the 
best of the situation when they nominated 
Taylor for president, though they said in their 
platform that he had gone into the war with 
reluctance. This political feeling probably 
furnishes the real explanation of why the mil- 
itia companies here did not volunteer as or- 
ganizations: and the expressions of fear of 
death by their members, of whicli Lew Wallace 
speaks above, shouKl be taken as evasions rather 
than sincere statements of sentiment. They 
were, no doubt, based on the theory of the 
legal aphorism that, "A bad answer is good 
enough answer to a bad complaint"'. 

'■'Jnurnal, September 7, 181^ 



If ever the adjective '"pathetic'" can be 
properly applied to a public failure, it may 
rightfully be used for the breakdowu of In- 
diana's internal improvement system. It was 
of such vast consequence and so near success. 
Xever did a people undertake a great enter- 
prise on more apparently rational grounds. 
And they came so near to accomplishing sorae- 
tliing really great. Just a little dift'ei;ence of 
jiolicy here and there would have carried them 
tiirough. If they had put their money into 
railroads instead of high-line canals; if they 
had put the southern terminus of the one rail- 
road they did undertake at Jeffersonville in- 
stead of Madison : if __they had started on the 
high level at Madison, and put off till later the 
work on the "Deep Diggings" to the lowei- 
ground, in which so much money was sunk; 
if thev had taken up one tiling at a time, 
finished it and put it on a paying basis before 
beginning another ; on any of these lines they 
might have succeeded. But they did not, and 
on the face of the situation they were Justified 
in expecting to get through on the basis on 
which they started. Possildy, if the panic of 
1837 had not occurred they would have suc- 
ceeded. As it was, the report of the State 
Auditor for 1840 shows that up to that time 
the State had expended for turnpike roads 
$412,32G.-2o: for the Indianapolis and :\[adi- 
son Railroad, $l,fi24,(i03.0r), and for canals. 
$8.108,543,— a total of $10,204,273,34. And 
for all this it had ])ractically not one cent's 
worth of property to show. If it had suc- 
ceeded it would have had valuable properties 
that would have been sources of revenue, in- 
creasing in value daily ; instead of having as 
now practically all of the state's transporta- 
tion lines owned outside the state. 

There were persons who advised mure wisely 

at the time. On Xoveniber 27, 1835, the Jour- 
nal jiublished a long and strong letter from 
S. Whitnuin, of Xew Alliany, advocating rail- 
roads in ])reference to canals on the substan- 
tial grounds that they were cheaper to con- 
struct ; gave more rapid transit ; could be 
used all the year round while canals froze up 
in winter; and were less liable to get out of re- 
pair so as to interfere with traffic. The cost 
of a railroad of course depends largely on 
the kind of country it runs through, and heavy 
cutting and lilling cost more then than now. 
The state began the road from iladison to 
Indianapolis in 1838, and in 1842 had com- 
pleted 28 miles from the start, as well as hav- 
ing done about half the grading and bridging 
for-tlie next 28 miles. It then surrendered 
the work to a company, being tinaiu-ially un- 
able to go on itself, which took jiossession in 
February, 1843. The inclined plane at ^ladi- 
son, and the heavy cuts and tills south of Ver- 
non, made an average cost for this part of the 
road, built by the state, of $40,000 a mile. 
The balance of the road from Six Mile Creek 
to Indiana]iolis, furnished by the company, 
and laid with iwir rail, cost less than $8,000 
a mile. The branch from Edinburgh to Shel- 
byville, sixteen miles, cost only $800 a mile 
for grading and bridging. Tlu^ road could 
have been built from Jeft'ersonville over much 
more favorable ground ; in fact, the Jeiferson- 
ville road when built to Edinburgh, had cost 
for the 78 miles, only $1,185,000, or about 
two-thirds of what the state paitl for the 28 
miles from ^ladison. And, moreover, it would, 
if built to Jetfersonville. have been completed 
much sooner, and would liave had a vastly 
more important terminus. 

There had been some effort at railroads by 
private ecun|)anies before the state adopted its 


niSTOl.'V OF (lltKATF.i; 1 X I H A N A IM »1.1S. 


internal iiii]tn)\cmL'nl sehciuL'. Inileod In- 
diana caught the railroad fever very early for 
it began chartering railroads in 183"^, and the 
first one in the countrv — a horse-tram, 3 miles 
long from the granitt' quarries at Quiuey, 
Massai-luisetts, had been iniilt in 18"2(i-T,, 
and the first steam locomotive built 
in the Tnited States was completed in 
1830. The succe>s of sh(n't lines, chiefly 
in coiniection with mines, created an 
enthusiasm for railroads throughout the coun- 
try, and on Fi'liruary 2 and 3, 1832, the legis- 
lature of Indiana chartered eight companies. 
five of which were to connect Indianapolis with 
the Ohio l{iver. They were the T.iawrenceburg 
and Indianajjolis. \ia .\a|>oleon and Greens- 
burg: the Harrison and Indianapolis, from 
Harrison, Dearborn County, via Brookville 
and Hushville: the ^ladison and La- 
fayette, via Indianapolis; the Xew Al- 
bany, Salem and indianajiolis, via Co- 
lumbus; and the Ohio and Indianapolis, from 
Jeffersonville via Columbus. The other three 
were the Ohio and Lafayette, from the Falls 
to Lafayette; the Wabash and ]\Iichigan, fi-om 
Lafayette to "the mouth of Dishman,' or Trail 
Creek, ill Laporte County'"; and the Richmond, 
Eaton and Jlianii, from Richmond to Hamil- 
ton, Ohio. The ln(liana])olis people inter- 
ested in these ventures at the start were, in 
the Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis, Nicholas 
McCarty. Heiijaniin 1. I'.lvthi' and James 
niake; in the Harrison and Indianapolis, Isaac 
X. Phipi)s. llervey Bates and Alfred Harrison; 
in the Xew .\lbany, Salem and Indianapolis, 
A. C. Reid ; in the Ohio and Indianapolis, 
James >rorrison and James Blake. 

None of these roads were Imilt under 
their original charters, tliongh roads were later 
eonstnietecl on nearly all the lines selected. 
Surveys were made on several, but tlie only 
constriietion by any was a mile and a c|uarter 
of road at Shelbyvillc, made by the Lawrence- 
burg and liidianajiolis Company, which, as 
tile first in Indiana, is of ])assing interest. 
James Hlake, as president, i)ro tem, of the 
coniiiany, made a report on December 5, 1834, 
of the work aeconiplisbed and of the lio|ies 
based on it. M that time railroad-building 
was so much in its infanev that most of the 
work was ex])erimental. The most common 

Du Clicniin — site (d' ^MieliiLi'an Citv. 

mode of conslniction was lu lay cross-ties on 
stone at either end, and on these place heavy 
wooden rails, which were capped with bar- 
iron. This mode was not altogether satisfac- 
tory, as there was no stone along part of the 
line. The following extracts from Mr. Blake"s 
rej)ort will give an idea of the work: 

"With a view to ascertain whether long 
pieces of timber laid lengthwise the road, one 
on each side for the cro-ss ties to rest upon, 
might not answer in the place of broken stone 
foundation, the one mile and a (piarter of the 
road at Shelbyvillc was laid in that manner. 
Tindier of various kinds, si.x liy eight inches, 
and twenty feet long, and completely covered 
with earth, have been used for this purpose. 
* * * After the road is laid, the stone for 
the horse path (should one be thought neces- 
sary) can be readily brought upon the road 
from the extensive (piarries on Flat Rock, at 
a very litile expense. * * * There are, 
however, tuo alterations in the |)lan of con- 
struction which the Board is desirous of mak- 
ing. The road in every respect is calculated 
for the use of locomotive power — and the speed 
and cheapness of that power over every other, 
will no doubt occasion it to be adopted on 
this road as it has been on almost every other 
of any extent in the L'nited States and in 
Kuro])c. It would, therefore, be pro]ier at 
once to save the ex])ense of a horse path. This 
is estimated to cost three hundred dollars per 
mile, and supposing the road to be ninety miles 
long, twenty-seven thousand dollars may be 
saved. A sum sufficient to procure all the 
locomotive power necessary for a long time. 
And it will likewise su))ercede the outlay of 
capital that would otherwise be necessarily in- 
vested in horses. In additiim to these advan- 
tages, if steam alone should be used, the in- 
termediate space between the rails need not be 
so entirely filled with earth as is required by 
the horse path, and thus the rails, at least, 
mav he tnade to last many years longer than 
lbc\- would do were they brought into immedi- 
ate contact with the earth. * * * 

"Having foi'med and ex])ressed the intention 
of completing this ])iece of road by the 4th 
of .Inly last, umh'r the expectation of having 
Mr. Van De GralT to sui)erintend it, the Board 
found it necessary to comply with the expecta- 
tions of the pidilic on the subject, notwith- 
standing Ibev were d isa ppoii\ted in procuring 

14 + 


an engineer as early as was expected. This 
piece of road was accordingly let out in quarter- 
mile sections, and completed in about two 
months by its enterprising contractors. And 
when it is considered that it was built with- 
out tlie aid of competent engineers, — by men 
without experience in such works, and with 
the ordinary labour of the country, it is not 
only highly creditable to those concerned, but 
is also calculated to give great confidence in 
the ability of the country to construct the 
work throughout the whole route, and at a 
cost far below the engineer's estimate. In 
the course of the day (July -1) between six 
and eight hundred persons were passed 
upon tlie road by one car, a distance out and 
in of two and a half miles. One horse was 
found able to draw from forty to fifty per- 
sons at the rate of nineteen miles per hour, 
and this when all the work, both of car and 
road, was new and rough. Owing to the dif- 
ficulty of procuring an engineer, the directors 
superintending the work did not deem it proper 
to carry it into Shelbyvillc, as they could not 
tell where the engineer might choose to cross 
the river. The work was, therefore, stopped 
three-quarters of a mile from town. Yet it 
is believed that it affords a fair specimen of 
the cost of construction through the line of 
level country already spoken of. Upon it there 
is one cut of five feet ; one embankment of 
five feet, and one of ten — two curves and two 
bridges, already mentioned,— all in the dis- 
tance of one and a quarter miles, and the whole 
cost was one thousand five hundred dollars 
per mile.'' Mr. Blake states that all expenses 
to date, including surveys, have been $3,524.- 
471/^, and the only receipts have been from 
passengers at Shelbyville, from which "there 
has been received eighty-three dollars, of which 
sixtv dollars was taken on the 4th of Julv 

Under the agreement with the company 
which undertook to complete the iladison rail- 
road, in accordance with the act for the sur- 
render of any of the internal improvement 
projects,'- the company was to pay the state a 
rental of $1,152 per year for three years. This 
was later extended to ten years on condition 
that the road be completed to Edinburgh be- 
fore July, 1846, and to Indianapolis within 

-General Laws ISJiJ, p. 3. 

two years afterward. After the ten years the 
profits of the road were to be divided between 
the state and the company in proportion to 
the amount constructed by each, giving the 
state about one-third. The company com- 
[ilied with the construction requirements by 
October 1, 184'i', and entered on a career of 
apparent prosperity. It had a monopoly of 
transportation between the river and the cen- 
tral part of the state. Population and busi- 
ness were steadily increasing and the receipts 
of the road grew accordingly. The receipts 
from transportation, which had been $22,110 
in 1843, with 33 miles of track, and $60,053 
in 1845, with 50 miles of track, rose in 1848 
(11 months, owing to a change in the fiscal 
year) to $212,090; in 1850 to $272,308: in 
1853 to $516,414. The financial success of 
the road seemed assured from this point of 
\'iew, and yet in 1852 it was practically bank- 

The road had scarcely begun operation be- 
fore the defects of inexperience began to ap- 
peal'. The portion constructed by the state 
had been laid with light T rail, and the rest 
with bar plate on wooden rails. Bj' 1848, 
]n-actically all of this had to be replaced. The 
ditching, and indeed almost every feature of 
tlie original work had been inadequate, and 
liad to be done over. In Februar_y, 1846, Pres- 
ident Samuel Merrill said: ''']\Iore water sta- 
tions must be made, and they must be better 
adapted to the business of the road. The 
turn-outs at Dupont's, Butlers, Yernon. and 
Scipio must be extended, so. that long trains 
can pass, and new ones must be made at Mid- 
dle Fork and Tannehill's Depot. More tracks 
are required at the Hill Depot, and more room 
for the deposit of freight. The depot in 
Madison must also be enlarged to double its 
present size. A new locomotive will be re- 
quired in the fall, and the mmiber of cars 
must be considerably increased." There were 
all sorts of trouble, some of which seem hardly 
sufficient now to seriously affect the business 
of a railroad, but they did then. In the fall 
of 1855 there was a prolonged drought, fol- 
lowed by extreme cold and much snow in De- 
cember, and President Merrill thus depicts 
the effects: "When frequently not less than 
200 barrels of water a day were to be dipped in 
buckets, or hauled in wagons : when, until ap- 
paratus could be made for throwing steam into 




the tank, one of the liose was usually beforu 
the furnace to melt the ice in it, while the other 
was in use; when more car wheels hroke in a 
month than had previously in two years: wluii 
the trips rcquiretl from IS to 20 hours instead 
of 10, the usual time, it is a matter of sur- 
prise that so much was done. Wells could not 
be dug in the region south of Rock Creek, 
nor suitable hands found to attend the pumps 
north, and it was only by great exertions of 
all who were cm|>loyed that no trips were lost. 
When one set of hands was worn down with 
fatigue, another took their places, and all thai 
could be dnnc under the circumstances was 

The inclined plane at ifadison was a source 
of heavy expense from the start. On ilarch 
28, 1844, when the track was wet and slippery. 
a loaded freight car escaped control and sped 
down the plane colliding with a ])assenger train, 
and killing live ])ersons and maiming as many 
more. The company undertook to escape the 
ditliculties and dangers of the plane hv a cog 
track, known as the Cathcart patent, for which 
it paid Cathcart $0,000. About $2,000 more 
was spent in defending the patent and $T."),000 
for installing it. But this did not secure either 
safety or convenience, and when the state sold 
its interest to the road in 18.")2. it stipulated 
for a new terminus. On A|)ril 10, IM.")."). I'res- 
ident Ellis said: "That work was immediately 
connncnced. over three hundred thousand 
dollars expended thereon, and was fin- 
\ ally abandoned"'. But all these things were 
' of minor importance as compared with an- 
other element of disaster. Tlie company ap- 
plied to the legislature of 18.31-2 for the pur- 
chase of the state's interest in the road, and 
by the act of ^February 28, 18.")2, the state 
sold, agreeing to take $600,000 in state stock. 
or $.300,000 in money, payable in four an- 
nual installments, beginning in 18.")l. Ip lo 
this time the state had avoided giving any 
opening to competing lines, but by the gen- 
eral law of May 11, 18.J2, it threw the door 
wide open to construction of railroads anv- 
where, by anybody. The results most barnirul 
to the Madison road were the construction of 
the JelTersonvillc road, giving direct competi- 
tion to Indianapolis, and a change in the line 
of the Eawrenceburgh and l'))])er ^Iississip])i 
road, giving more direct comniunicalion with 
Cincinnati. Says President Fllis: "The Imsiness 
Vol. I— 10 

of the Madison road began at once to decline, 
at the most rapid rate, and the line, instead of 
being the great thoroughfare for trade and 
travel, became a local road, shorn of its busi- 
ness and profits". It made an effort to re- 
cover by investing half a million dollars in 
the Columbus and Shelby road, and buying 
the controlling interest in a line of steamers, 
but in vain. It was doomed. 

The gross earnings of the Madison road, 
which had reached $47(5,892 in 1852, dropped 
to $2T.5,55T in 18.54. Its stock, which sold for 
$l.(iO in 18o2 had dro])ped to $(l.02ii; in Jau- 
uar}-, 18.56. On ifarcli 1, 18.5.5, a law was 
passed appointing Governor Wright, Judge 
Thos. S. Stanfield and Elijah Newlaud com- 
missioners to investigate the affairs of the 
Madison road and comj)romise to the best ad- 
vantage the debt to the state. The commis- 
sioners reported at the next session of the legis- 
lature, and on its report the i-oad was a hope- 
less wreck. On May 1, 18G1, to raise the 
money needed for its terminal and other work, 
the company had placed a mortgage of $600,- 
000 on the entire property, due in 10 years, 
and on this there was $46,310 of interest in 
arrears. The state had taken a second mort- 
gage for its $300,000 on August 12, 18.53. On 
October 1, 18.53, a third mortgage had l)een 
executed to secure $(iO().000 of additional 
bonds, and of these $261,000 had been dis- 
posed of. There was a domestic debt, unse- 
cured, of $287,286 for repair work, material, 
damages, etc., and in addition to this $1,647,- 
SOO of outstanding stock, making total liabili- 
ties of $3,132,396. The commissioners said: 
"The pecuniary condition of this company is 
a hopeless insolvency, and to some extent has 
been rendered so by the legislative policy of 
the state, in granting (-barters to other rail- 
road companies, who have made more fortu- 
nate locations in securing the trade and travel 
of the country. To maintain a successful com- 
jjctition with these rival roads, the company 
has ex])ended large amounts of money — more 
than the entire road is now worth, which ex- 
|iendilure has become almost an entire loss. 
Most of this money has been lost in an unsuc- 
cessful effort to avoid the inclined plane at 
^[adison, and the building of branch roads. 
-And after all these prodigal ex]icnditurcs W(>re 
made, and business connections formed with 
other companies, it was still dnonied to fall 



fnun its position of a trreat leading thorough- 
fare to a mere local road. The ex])ense and 
hazard in transporting over the inclined plane 
at Madison, and the increased distance by this 
route over others to the principal cities on 
the river, will forever prevent it from doing 
any considerable business, other than that in 
its own neig'hljorhood. 

"The present prospects of this road indicate 
the entire loss of its capital stock, one mil- 
lion six hundred and fortv-seven thousand and 
eight hundred dollars, and also the $■.'(;!. 000 
of Ijonds issued under the third mortgage. 
and, indeed, it seems quite evident from what 
has already been shown, that when the first 
mortgage bonds become due, viz.: May 1, ISlJl, 
the road must from necessity fall into the hands 
of tlie bondliolders under that mortgage. That 
there is not money enough in it to justify the 
state or anyone else to take the road by pay- 
ing that debt and the other necessary o\itUtys 
that will be added to it by the time the bonds 
become due." On this situation the commis- 
sioners agreed to accept $75,000 in 5 per cent 
state bonds in full of the claim, which was 
dulv paid, and the mortgage released. The 
state also liad $31,450 of" stock of the road, 
which had been issued as earnings dividends. 
when the road was sold in 1852, and this was 
then exchanged to Winslow, Lanier & Co. for 
$59,300 of state Si/o per cent stock. These 
represent the state's returns from the ven- 
ture; and the settlement was a good one. In 
January, 1854, the road was consolidated with 
and operated with the Peru for a few moiitiis. 
and then this relation was dissolved. On 
J[arch 27, 18G2, the iladison road was sold on 
foreclosure by the Ignited States Marshal, for 
$325,000. A new company was organized and 
operated the road for a year of two wlien it 
was bought by and consolidated with the Jef- 
fersonville road, which later passed into tlu' 
Pennsylvania Pailroad system. 

In reality the loss to the state was not so 
serious as the lo.'is to the stockholders and 
bondholders. The state got all the advantage, 
of opening up the part of the country at its 
center, in the beginning; and by its course in 
1852. although it destroved its ])rospects of 
getting its $300,000 from the Madison road. 
it produced a development that was of much 
greater value in income from taxation. No 
doubt it niiiiht iiave worked out a svstem of 

state-owned railroads by different management 
from the start ; but it is not given to mankind 
to use the knowledge gained by exi^erience and 
retrospection in the exercise of foresight as to 
the same affairs. The great point at the time 
was to get the road built at all, and the bene- 
fit of that was felt imnu'diately, es[iecially at 
Indianapolis. The jieriod of isolation of the 
capital was ended. A new era was opened. 
For the first time manufacture for other than 
domestic consumption became a possii)ility, and 
the agricultural products of the region be- 
came sensitive to the movement of outside 
markets. In a few wc^ks wheat advanced fi-om 
4(1 cents a bushel to 90 cents. Tudoulitedly 
the railroad investment was more than re- 
turned to the state; and undoubtedly Indian- 
apolis and Marion County had value received 
for all they paid ; and they paid a goodly 
share in the subsequent extinction of the state 
debt by taxation. 

There was naturally a brisk competition for 
the location of the new Madison depot at 
Indianapolis, various parties offering liberal 
donations, but it was finally located on South 
street between Pennsylvania and Delaware, 
which was then a quarter of a mile outside of 
the Settled district, there having been no ex- 
tension of the town south of Pogue"s Kun. 
The depot, or "depot house" as it was tlun 
called, was built in 1846-T, and though the 
location caused a great deal of criticism on 
account of its "distance from business", Mo- 
hanimeil concluded to go to the mountain, and 
soon an embryo town sprang u]) about the 
depot. On September 9, 1848, the Loruniofii:e 
gave the following description of the progress 
in that vicinity : ""Tlie Depot house is brick, 
substantially built ; the first building is 50 
feet square and two stories high. This is oc- 
cupied as offices, rooms for clerks, board of 
directors, ladies sitting room, &c. It is finely 
linishcd and is a handsome looking house. The 
ware-house extends 350 feet from the front 
l)uilding, and is 50 feet wide; this building 
is l)riek, with a covered roof — the eaves ex- 
tending about ten feet beyond the walls on 
each side, affording protection from the sun 
and rain. The cars run through the centre 
of the entire building, and in the ware-house, 
on either side of the cars, is amide room for 

"On the east of the railroad, and within two 






squares of it, there has been, and is now be- 
ing built, 19 liouscs this spring and summer, 
among which are two brick M-are-hou?e^, both 
two stories high, and one of which is 13(1 by 
25 feet, and a large Hotel. To show the dis- 
patch with which business is done here, we will 
state that the design of the latter excellent and 
valuable improvement was drawn in February ; 
on the 15th of August the house was finished, 
furnished and occupied; even to the sign, on 
which is displaved in large gilt letters, 'THE 
— The hotel is of brick, 3 stories high, the 
front fiOxSO feet, with a wing 160 by "20 
feet. — The balance of the houses erected east 
of the Depot are mostly one story frame 
dwellings. West of the Depot, and immedi- 
ately adjoining the railroad track, there was 
built this summer 13 houses, including 5 two- 
storv ware-houses, two brick, one of which is 
25 by 136 feet."' 

Of course the railroad increased in useful- 
ness to the town as it approached, but this 
only whetted the public desire to have it com- 
pleted, ^lien it was assured that it would 
be opened on October 1, 1847. a citizens" meet- 
ing — ajiparently predigested by the officials of 
the road — was held on September 3.") ; and 
resolutions were adopted for a celebration, 
with a committee of seven to prepare for it. 
and also "that the Railroad Company ought 
to permit passengers, for a week at least, to 
travel on the road at reduced prices"'. In re- 
sponse to this last. Samuel ^[errill, as Presi- 
dent and Superintendent of the road, gra- 
ciously announced that, "The M. & I. R. R. 
Co. will on the clay the Road is completed take 
passengers along tlie whole or any part of the 
route for one-third +he usual rates, and they 
will continue to take families, or parts of 
families at the same rates for the ensuing 
week, with the understanding that ladies 
alone, if their number be sufficient for the 
purpose, shall occupy the covei'ed cars. If 
any person shall wish to take a ride on the 
afternoon of the day of the celebration, they 
may ride to Franklin and back at 25 cts. 
each". The regular rate to Franklin was 75 
cents Diie wav. This was eminently satisfac- 
tory. The celebration was helped out bv the 
.nrrival of S|)alding's Xortli .Vmerican Circus, 
declared to embrace 200 people, including "35 
widelv celebrated ladv and gentlemen artistes. 

at the acme of their profession", and Xed 
Kendall's brass band of "15 picked musicians 
in lustrious uniforms". The importance of 
the latter may be judged from this statement 
of the circus advertisement: "Led bv the ni- 
as the MAGIC BUGLER has penetrated ever> 
circle to which music has access, (it) at once 
gives tone to the pure and admirable amuse 
ments of the ilonster Circus, whether in lead 
ing the immensely extended procession in the 
Gorgeous Colossal Music Car or awakening the 
echoes of the streets while ^iounted on 16 
UTCTriiY ro:\rrARisoNED steeds, or metamortilio^; 
ing the performance into a Soiree }[w^iralr! 
not the least attractive feature of which will bt 
the never to be forgotten Solo upon his ^Tagic 
Silver Biigle." 

-Mtogether it was a red letter day. The 
town was thronged with people from the vi- 
cinity. The last rail was laid at o'clock in 
the morning. At 10 the circus entered the 
town from the ea«t and Captain Evans' com- 
]iany of mounted volunteers from the west 
Citptain Chapman"s artillery company was al 
ready on hand. At 1 all moved out to the 
d(')iot. The Jniinifil developed so much local 
enter)irise on the occasion that its account is 
worthy of preservation. It said: "Friday, 
sure enough was all that was anticipated and 
more too. Spalding's North .\merican Circus 
came rolling along about 10 o'clock A. ^f.. at 
tended by an old-fashioned North American 
crowd that would have done honor to any 
jniblic occasion. .Vt about 3 o'clock in tht 
afternoon, the liclching forth of the loud- 
mouthed cannon announced the time for the 
a]iproach of the cars from Madison. Such ? 
collection of people as thronged the grounds 
adjacent to the depot has not been witnessed 
in these parts since Tippecanoe times. They 
were there by acres, stretching far out along 
the railroad, some upon trees, stumps, fences 
moiinds. and everything which tended to raise 
one sqxiad above another. Soon a dark spot 
in the distance was descried by those picketed 
upon the furtherest outposts; then was heard 
the shrill whistle of the locomotive, echoing 
thriuiii'h boai'v forests aiul o"er verdant fields 
and shout answering to shout as the two iron 
steeds puffing and snorting majestically turned 
the curve in the road a short distance from 
town, followed by two long trains of passen- 



gov and freifrht cars, completely lillcil witli 
human beings, tlio ladies wavinf; their white 
Iiandkerchiefs anti tlie men and hoys using 
their lungs in answering baek the long, loud 
huzzas from the people awaiting their ap- 

"Well, they came to a halt, as all things in 
this world must, sooner or later. Then there 
was such a getting out. and such a tumbling 
in, and such a calling for a speecJi fn)m the 
Governor, such a squeaking from a short 
sprinkling of young 'uns, then a sjirinkling of 
rain, which caused such another running to 
and fro as we never saw before. Then the 
Governor mounted the top of one of the cars, 
as did the men. women and children the long 
platform which flanks either side, outside and 
in, of the depot, for the purpose of nuiking a 
spi'cch to them. But the Governor couldn't 
govern there. Confusion was rendered worse 
confounded by a snort from a locomotive, and 
the chime of its bell, which signified a pleas- 
ure ride to Greenwood and back for ^r, cents 
a head. La me I what a scampering among the 
novices of railroad riding. It couldn't have 
, been worse if the ride was to have lieen per- 
j formed by steam, with the 'road' part left out, 
only as in that case instead of scampering 
\ away, they scampered right up to the convey- 
ance, jiell mell. as if tlio\v wasn't afraid (if the 
/•((i7 cars, 'bull-gine' and all. But hark I A 
tap of the bell — are you ready? A loud un- 
earthly if not unsteamly whistle — clear the 
track — and away went about five hundred as 
happy, uproarous fellows as was ever 'mixed 
up' — yelling like so many Indians at every 
thing they saw from the scampering of a pig 
to the wonder-struck gaze of the young 
hoosiers as they peered out from behind some 
huge forest tree or some humble cabin by the 
wayside. That much we will say about the 
ride. But we won't say anything about a sup- 
posed crack in one of the a.xletrees — how the 
train was stoppe<l — what an.xiety was all of a 
sudden depicted upon those hitherto happy 
faces — how they were eased of their ^'t cents 
in the interval — how they were relieved of all 
fear when the cars moved forward again, and 
how they laughed to think the cracked axle- 
tree was easily ])roduced sound! It was thought 
a Santa Anna mnneuvre to gain time to 'pass' 
round the hat, and lau<died over aeeordingiv. 

i>ut ill tiiai 'pass' as the conclusion of the 
whole rail road scene. 

"Friday was ended — and a "good Friday' it 
was witliout any accident to nuir the pleasure 
of the people — by an exhibition of fire-works 
after dark, the illumination of many buildings, 
and the performance of Spalding's equestrian 
troop — the latter of which, though exaggerated 
as all such exhibitions are upon paper, was a 
little superior to anything we have ever seen 
in these parts. And thus the day ended, at 10 
o'clock P. j\I., with the public appetite for 
amusement and excitement satiated." 

Amid the enthusiasm of the day Henry 
Ward Beecher left Indianapolis in response 
to his call from Plymouth Church. Thirty 
years later he wrote: "I left Indianapolis for 
Brooklyn on the very day upon which the cars 
on the Madison Railroad for the first time 
entered the town ; and I departed on the first 
train that ever left the place. On a wood- 
car, rigged up with boards across from side to 
side, went I forth. * * * rpjjg ^gj. ^^^g j^^ 

car at all. a mere extempore wood-box, used 
sometimes without seats for hogs, but with 
seats for men, of wdiich class I (ah me miser- 
able!) happened to be one. And so at eleven 
at night I arrived in iladison, uot overproud 
in the glory of riding on the first train that 
ever went from Indianapolis to Madison."'' 
And yet Jlr. Beecher overlooked the fact tliat 
he was escaping all the dangers of the "locked - 
in" system of the English railroads, of which 
Rev. Sydney Smith's ])en ])ictures of the more 
or less certain horrors had caused the hair of 
the English public to stand on end in 1S1-.'.* 
And this illustrates the fact that a really 
great clergyman can find something to com- 
plain of in almost any condition. 

The completion of the JIadisoii road made 
possible the building of roads from Indian- 
apolis, and numerous plans for this were 
projected, though they were rather slow of 
execution. The first company to accomplish 
anything material was the Bellefontaine, whose 
])resident, Oliver II. Smith, set a livelier pace 
for older companies. The company was char- 
tered in 1848, secured stock subscriptions and 
right of way in the year following, let con- 

^Beecher and Scouille's Bior/. of II. TV. 
Beecher, pp. 207. 2ir>. 

*Wit and Wiadoni of Syiliiey Smith, p. ;!44. 



tracts for grailiiig in tlir fall ol' KS4!>, vnm- 
inencL'd track-laying in April, 1850, and on 
December 19 of that year announced daily 
trains to Pendleton (28 miles) from which 
stage lines furnished connection with the iip- 
])er White Eiver valley and the Wabash. In 
December, 1852, it was completed to [Tnion 
City, at the state line, 84 miles, where it con- 
nected with an Ohio road to Bellefontaine. The 
two were consolidated in 1855, under the name 
of Indianapolis, Pittsburg & Cleveland Hail- 
road ; and in 18{j8 this became part of the 
Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indian- 
apolis. Originally this road was known as the 
"Bee Line", later as the Cleveland Division of 
the "Big Four", and now as the Cleveland 
Division of the New York Central Lines. The 
Bellefontaine Company built a brick depot and 
shops in 1851, at irassachusetts avenue, then in 
the extreme northeastern jiart of the city, 
which were used till the T'nion Depot and 
tracks M-ere finished, in Xovendier, 1853, a 
frame de))ot, and l)rick engine house and shops 
were l)uilt at the \'irginia avenue crossing of 
Pogue's Run; these were abandoned in 1864, 
and new ones constructed near the east ilichi- 
gan street crossing. The first depot and 
shops, with 1,100 feet of tracks and five aci'es 
of ground were sold for $17,500 in July, 1853, 
and were converted into the Indianapolis Car 
Shops, which were ojierated l)y Farnsworth & 
Barnard from 1853 to 1859. They were then 
vacant for three years till 1862, when the 
Government took the buildings for a stable and 
used them till they burned down in 1865. 

The Peru & Indianapolis Railroad was char- 
tered January 19, 1846. Tlie company was 
organized in July, 1S4T, the road surveyed and 
located in 1847-8, and work begun in 1849. 
On March 11, 1851, its completion to Xobles- 
ville was celebrated by an excursion to that 
j)oint, where there were speeches by ex-Gover- 
nor Wallace and others, and music by the 
Noblesville Brass Band. The announcement 
states that, "The cars will leave Indianapolis 
at 8 o'clock in the morning, stopping in their 
passage at James' contemplated warehouse. 
Wilson's :Mill, Castleton, Holl & Teal's ^Mill, 
and Big Branch. Will leave Noblesville re- 
turning, at half past 10, stopping only at the 
water station east of Allisonville. The trains, 
with the passenger cars, from Madison and 
I'rndlrtoii will leave 1 ndinii:i|i()l is at two 

o'clock precisely, stopping only at the water 
station. Returning, will leave Noblesville at 
4 o'clock, the two forward trains stopping only 
at the water station, the others stopping at the 
intermediate stations." Round trip 50 cents. 
The Peru seemed destined to hard luck. It 
was compl(>ted to Peru, 73 miles, on A]>ril 3, 
1854, at a total cost of $760,000. It operated 
at first without a regular depot at this ])oint 
but in August, 1856, began a frame depot at 
New Jersey street and Rogue's Run. After the 
frame work was up, the whole structure blow 
down on September 18, fatally injuring ^Ir. 
Hill, one of the contractors, and wounding Sev- 
eral others. It was originally laid with fiat 
bar. but T rail was substituted in 1855-(i. The 
country through which the road ran was new, 
and its business small until connections were 
made to the north. It went into the hands 
of a receiver in 1857 and was operated for the 
benefit of the bondholders for a numl>er of 
years. It passed into the control of the Lake 
Erie & Western in 1887, whose lines are now 
operated in the name of that company, thougli 
jiractically owned by the New York Central. 

For several years the Madison dejiot was 
"the depot", — unrivalled. It stood on the 
south side of South street, between Pennsyl- 
vania and Delaware, on ground now occupied 
by open tracks. The office building, fronting 
north on South street, was about 50 feet s(|uare. 
two stories high, with a single trackway 
through the center. On either side were of- 
fices, waiting room, etc. Back of this was the 
long freight depot, of brick, with a projecting 
roof that reached over the outside ]ilatfonns. 
The freight depot was about thirty feet wide, 
with a track through the center and raised 
nhitforms on both sides. The east line of the 
front building, and the east platform of the 
freight building, were the same as the east 
line of the present little frame office of the 
South street yards. The passenger trains did 
not run into the depot, but came u]i on the 
west side. Here they were met by the run- 
ners for the three u)itown hotels, prominent 
among whom were Taylor Elliott (late I're-i- 
dent of the Board of Public Works) for the 
Wright House, and Wash Little for Little's 
Hotel, discoursing v(dulily on the merits of 
t'u'ir various busses, 'i'ben came the drive 
through the Pogtu>'s Run bottom, where in wet 
weather a wauon with ni<ire than two tnudcs 



ma "wa^TH 






was apt to uiire dowu. Those who did not 
wish to go up towu could stop at the Depot 
House — name soon changed to Ray House — 
which stood where St. Vincent's Hospital now 
is. A little later Jacob Gruenert built the 
Jefferson Hotel west of the depot, and when it 
was torn down to make way for the Stand- 
ard Paper Co.'s building the name was carried 
on to the hotel at the corner of Pennsylvania. 
At the northwest corner of South and Dela- 
ware in the building still standing, was a sort 
of restaurant saloon, where the waiters for 
trains used to lunch on gingerbread and 
"krank beer,"' if they had the money; if not 
they would hie down the tracks one block to 
Fletcher's pork-house, and fill up on "crack- 

The other lines added to the importance of 
this depot for a time by running to it. In 
June, 1849, the directors of the Peru road 
asked permission "to straighten the Pogue's 
Run from ISToble's pasture north of the Na- 
tional Road, to the southeast diagonal".^ 
This was granted, and on August 18, 1819, the 
Locomotive noticed the progress of the rail- 
road work thus: "The lines of the Bellefon- 
taine and Peru railroads intersect exactly on 
the northeast corner of the donation, the Belle- 
fontaine coming from the northeast and the 
Peru from the north. From this point the 
Peru runs south along the donation line, one 
square east of Xoble street, until it strikes 
Pogue's Run — the gi-ading in the donation is 
partly finished, and hands are now at work on 
it; this will be a common track for the Peru 
and Bellefontaine to connect with the Madison 
and Richmond Depots. From the corner stone, 
tlie Bellefontaine comes down the northeast 
diagonal" until opposite the block on which the 
depot is located, where it makes a curve to the 
depot house, which will stand east and west." 
By means of this track laid by the Peru and 
Bellefontaine the existing roads were united 
before the Union was constructed. With the 
work that was going on at the time, not to men- 
tion what was being talked of, the Locomotive 
does not seem excessively enthusiastic when it 
proposed on September 22, 1849, that Indian- 
apolis should be known as "The City of Rail- 
roads". It was in fact a leading citv in that 

''i. e. Virginia avenue. 

°i. e. Massachusetts avenue. 

regard, and would soon have added several 
more to its list of railroads but for the hard 
times following 1853, which caused further 
development in that line to be deferred for a 
dozen years or more. 

Meanwhile the Terre Haute & Richmond 
road was making progress. It was chartered 
in 1846, but the construction did not commence 
until 1850, and it was finished to Terre Haute 
in May, 1852, the reported cost of the 73 miles 
being $1,415,000. It put up a brick freight 
depot at Louisiana and Tennessee streets in 
1850-1, and a wooden bridge across White 
River in 1851-2, whidi was replaced by an iron 
bridge in 1866. The depot was remodeled in 
1857, and was badly damaged in 1865 by the 
explosion of a locomotive within the building. 
This was the first road that put Indianapolis 
in touch with the coal fields. The eastern sec- 
tion of this road, to Richmond, was abandoned 
by this company in 1851, and taken up by the 
Indiana Central Railway Company, which 
completed the line to Richmond, and on to the 
state line, on December 8, 1853, at a reported 
cost of $1,223,000 for the 72 miles. At that 
point it connected with an Ohio line to Colum- 
bus, with which it was consolidated in 1863, 
under the name of the Indianapolis & Colum- 
bus road ; and this in turn was consolidated in 
1867 with the Chicago and Great Eastern. It 
now forms the Indianapolis division of the 
"Pan Handle"", owned by the Pennsylvania. 
The Terre Flaute road was extended on through 
Illinois to St. Louis, and has long been known 
as the Vandalia. 

The Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad 
was the name adopted in December, 1853, by 
the old Lawreneeburgh and Upper Mississippi 
road, which was originally begun in sections 
in 1850. It finally succeeded in getting a 
through line charter in 1851,' notwithstanding 
the opposition of the Madison road, and was 
completed to Lawreneeburgh, 90 miles, in Oc- 
tober, 1853. It originally ran into Cincinnati 
over the Ohio and Mississippi road, on which 
a tliird rail had been laid, but in 1854-5 it 
bought the old Whitewater Canal, and laid its 
track into Cincinnati in its bed. This company 
built shops at Indianapolis in 1853, southeast of 
the city. They were burned in 1855, but soon re- 
built, and continued here lantil 1865, when 

'o. g. See Locomotive, January 26, 1850. 



they wore removed to Ciuciimati. It erected 
the brick freight depot at Louisiana and Dela- 
ware streets in ISoo. Geo. II. Dunn, Thos. A. 
Morris and Henry C. Lord were the early 
presidents of this company. 

The Indianapolis and Lafayette road was be- 
gun in 1849, and completed between these two 
points in December, 1853. It was well man- 
aged by its iirst president, Albert S. White, 
and, as the stock subscriptions were small, was 
constructed almost wholly by loans. The 65 
miles cost $1,000,000 in round numbers. The 
road was profitable from the start, being the 
chief outlet to the northwest, and its construc- 
tion debt was paid from its earnings. In 1S6G 
President H. C. Lord, of the Cincinnati road, 
in order to force a sale of the Lafayette line, 
began the construction of a rival road to the 
northwest by way of Crawfordsville, which ac- 
conii)lisiioil the purpose and a perpetual lease 
of tile Lafayette line was obtained. TJie two 
roads were then combined as the Indianapolis, 
Cincinnati & Lafayette, and the Crawfords- 
ville line was abandoned. The consolidation, 
however, was too ambitious in its efforts to 
spread out : became financially ('ud)arrassed, 
and jiassed into the i!i<>' Four system; which in 
turn has been absorbed bv the Xew York ('en- 
tral. In 1852-3 the Lafayette road built a 
frame freight depot at Xorth street and the 
■ niiai. which buriu'd down in 1864, and was 
rebuilt of brick in 1S6(). As the city devel- 
oped the line of this road through it became a 
source of much danger to life and limb, as 
well as loss of time to the road in what re- 
duction of speed was made. In 100.'?-4 it 
shortened its liiu\ and secured greater speed 
possibilities, by throwing its line to the west 
of the city, and coining in over the Belt to the 
line of Louisiana street. It did not get the 
change made quite soon enough, however, to 
escape the horribk' Purdue wreck of October 
31, 1!)03, in which 16 lives were lost, and some 
forty of the young ))eople from Ijafayette who 
were cfimiTig here for a footliall game were 
maimed and injured. 

The Jefferson vi lie mad was cumpictiMl to 
Ivliiibunrli in lS."i'.' and stoppeil tluM-c. leasing 

the Madison line for Indianapolis connection 
in August, 1853, and purchasing it in 1863. 
They were consolidated as the J. M. & I. but 
the road was popularly known as "The Jeff."' 
This completes the list of roads that were con- 
structed prior to the Civil War. Several others 
were projected but these seven lines — eight, 
counting the Jellersonville and JIadison sepa- 
rate, all finished by 1853, were the only ones 
then built. And in addition to them was The 
Union connecting them. The desirability of 
this was realized before there was very much 
connecting to be done, for the company was 
organized in August, 1849, or at least a'^ joint 
meeting of committees from the Madison, Terre 
Haute, Peru and Bellefontaine roads met on 
August 15, and recommended the action to 
their companies.* The plan was indorsed, and 
on December 29, the Locomotive announced 
that the joint committee had purchased the 
north half of Block 96 from James Blake, for 
$7,000, and would erect a depot there. The 
tracks were laid in 1850, and the depot erected 
in 1852-3, being opened for use on Septem- 
ber 28, 1853. The depot was planned bv Gen. 
(then Capt.) Thos. A. Morris and was 120 
.\420 feet, with live tracks, assigned respec- 
tively to the Madison, Terre Haute, Lawrence- 
burgh, Central and Bellefontaine and Peru 
roads, the last two using a joint line from Mas- 
sachusetts avenue in. William N. Jackson, fa- 
miliarly known to two or three generations as 
'■Ilncle Billy"', was made general ticket agent, 
and held the position for 3-ears. In 1866 the 
building was widened to 200 feet, the offices 
removed to the south side, and an eating-house 
added. The latter was first known as the Union 
Depot Dining Hall, with John W. Ilenrie as 
superintendent. Later it came in charge of 
the Ohmers, who brought Thos. Taggart here, 
and gave him the chance to feed his way to 
the hearts of the traveling epicures of South 
jMcridian street, and elsewhere. The old Union 
Depot was used till ISST, when it was torn 
down to make way fur the ])r('si'nt Union Pas- 
senger Station. 

^Locotnotivc. .\ugusf 25, IS 19. 



Jnst why Indianapolis passed from town 
to city iioveriiiiieut in 1847 is stxiiethin^- that 
will have to be jjuessed at from the surroiind- 
insjs. The legislative journals show that petv- 
tions for and asrainst the change were pre- 
sented to the legislature, but the newspapers 
at the time presented no argument on either 
side, either editorially or as communications, 
and did not even mention that any such 
change was contemplated. The petitions are 
not preserved. On February VA. 1847. the 
Sentinel printed the charter law and noted 
that the people would have to decide on its 
acceptance or rejection, adding: "But how 
can they decide a.s to the comparative merits 
of the two ? Who knows anything about the 
provisions of the old charter.'" Apparently 
somebody made some explanations to the ed- 
itor, for on ;\Iarch 13, publishing the call for 
the election on the 27th to decide between 
the old and the new charter, he said: "Both 
are bad enough no doubt, and provide for a 
great deal too much qovernment. But there 
is this merit in the new charter: It 
to tax all property holders upon the basis of 
eiiuaUti) according to their wealth. The old 
charter is a perfect th urine) concern in this 
respect and allows some of the richest men 
in the comnmnity to escape from all taxa- 
tion whatever to support the corporation au- 
thorities, and at the same time to a consid- 
erable t'xtent to avoid county taxation. This 
old ordei- (if things has existed long enough, 
and a little too long, and if it were (mly to 
aid in breaking it U|>. every honest man 
should vote against the old charter, and in 
favor of the new one. It is Hobson's choice, 
to be sure, in some respects, but it is better 
than no choice at all: and we nuiy be thank- 
ful for it, mean as it is." 

The apparent source of enlightenment is a 
comnuniicated article in the Journal of 
March 1, setting forth the advantages of the 
new charter, under four heads. The tirst 
is the division of power by having a mayor 
to perform executive functions and have a 
restraining veto power on ha.sty legislation. 
The second was the limitation of taxes to 15 
cents on -1=100, while the old charter limit 
wa.s 50 cents. The third was a nu)re suitable 
arrangement of wards than the former shoe- 
string type running across the city from 
north to south. The new charter divided the 
city by Washington street, and made four 
wards north of it divided north and south 
by Alabama street. ^Meridian street and Mis- 
sissippi sti-eet, while there wei-e three wards 
south, divided by Illinois street and Dela- 
ware street. It wa.s urged that this could 
give no advantage to the north side, as there 
were annual elections in Avhich any atiuses 
could be corrected by the people. The fourth 
argument— the one that called for capital 
letters and more space than all the rest com- 
bined was JrsT .\ND EyrAi, t.vx.vtion ! which 
was to l)e attained because the new charter 
took in all of the donation east of the river, 
with equal taxation on all i)arts of it. It 
will be remembered that the charters of 1836 
and 1838 limited taxation for town purjiosi^ 
to the mile square, although the incorpora- 
tion included the donation. The opjiesitiou 
to the new charter was declared to come from 
certain rich citizens "who own large tracts 
of land situated out of the central part of 
the town, but near enough to be aft'ected in 
value by its proximity and fitness for resi- 
dence". The exemption from taxation in 
the old charter was by virtue of section 23, 
and the eonuMuniciition savs: "It wmild be 


HISTORY oi'' (;i?E.\ ri;i; indi.wai' 


an iiiterestinti; ([uestion— if time admitted — 
to in<iuiiv how the peculiar iirovisioiis of the 
tin iitij-Hiinl section of tlie old charter came 
to be enacted. WIid di'cw up that act, and 
especially that pai-t of it'.'"' 

These wei-e cotrent ariiuiiients f(ir addjit- 
in? the charter oflVi-ed. but all of them ex- 
cept the first coukl have been attainetl just 
as easily by amendins: the old charter. They 
involved no necessity for advance to city 
form of srovernment. It is very evident that 
the cliaiiire of taxation from the jjrovisions 
of "Section "I'.i" was what carried tlie new- 
charter in the election. That section read: 
"That the powers of the eori>oration for thr 
puqiose of raisinjr a revenue shall extend 
from North to South streets, and from East 
to West .streets, and embracin<!: those streets. 
which are the present bounds of said town 
as appeal's from the town jtlat filed in the 
recorder's office in Marion County: I'nn'idcd 
lidin v( r. That nil blocks. |)arts of blocks, 
within the donation that are now or may 
hereafter be laid out in lots of a less size 
than one-half acre, a plat thereof beiiii;- filed 
in the recorder's office of .Marion Coiuity, 
and all tavei'iis. ^'roceries. ti])lini;' houses. 
shows, theaties. and stores within the limits 
of the tlonation shall be sub.ject to the siime 
laws and ordinances as if the .s;unc were 
within the bounds of the corporation, desij;- 
iiated for the purpose of raisins a reveinie." 
The evident pnr|)ose was to exempt luipiatted 
lands within the city limit.s from taxation. 
thoufih economists jrenerally asrce that these 
arc what should be specially taxed, in oi'der 
to promote municipal <;i-o\vtli. It is a notable 
fact that exactly the same scheme was ef- 
fected over thii-ty yeai-s later, by a law ex- 
eniptinjr from city tiixation all nn|)latti'd 
lands, over five acres in extent, and 'used 
for ajrricnltui-al purposes, or wholly unim- 
proved", that were included witliin city 
boundaries. This i-emained a law for ten 
yeara before the jreneral public became suffi- 
ciently enlightened to cause its repe;d.' 

Dr. Thos. Klliott i-ecords that the law was 
drawn by Senator Oliver 11. Smith, excejit 
the scIkmiI tax section, which was addi'd by 
S. V. H. Noel. tlK'ii editor and proprietor of 

the Joiinidl.- This, with the evident iprno- 
rance of the S( nlind coiu-erninji: the matter 
while in jn-oirress, shows that it was a Whiii' 
movement, but there is no especial political 
advantaee in it beyond the appointment of a 
few otlicers. salaries of $24 to the coum-il- 
nien. and justice fees to the mayor. The 
Wliitis no doubt expected to hold the city 
offices. But political schemintr of that kind, 
wliere the parties concerned were tax payei-s. 
was not vei-y probable at that date; aiul. from 
the character of the men connected with the 
movement, the chances are that it was a 
i-eally intelli<rent movement for better anil 
more adeipuite iiovei'iunent. And there was 
need foi' tliis. The iladison railroad was com- 
l)leted to p]dinburtr. and was expected to 
i-each Indianapolis by sununer. which was 
prevented only by the heavy floods.-' Already 
it was oiviny Indianaiiolis .some of the fea- 
tures of a tei-minal town, by an infliix of 
vicious characters that had nmsed the indiir- 
iiation and alarm of the moi-al citizens. 

As a result of this a ])ublic meetiufr was 
held at the court house on .Mimday evening:, 
.Voveniber 30, to adopt measures for the sup- 
pression of <raniblin<r. It adopted resolutions 
eondemnintr g-amblint;- and denuuidint;- en- 
forcement of tlie laws that were otfered by 
Calvin Fletcher. Henry Ward Beecher and 
Win. Sheets; and also one offered by Rev. 
Love H. Jameson calling; for a citizens' coiii- 
mittee of thirteen members to take the in;it- 
ter in hand, such action beinfr necessary "in 
consequence of the prevalence of gambling: in 
our town, especially in the winter season. 
I wing- to the confluence of strangers at this 
point durintr the sessions of the legislature". 
The committee appointed was comiiosed of 
■ lames Blake. Calvin Fletcher. Wm. S. llub- 
". M-d. Thomas Record. W. W. Wright. A. W. 
M. rris. K. J. Peck. D. :\Iaguire. Wm. Haiina- 
nian. -las. Sulurove. L. ^I. Vance. O. Butler 
; nd Andrew Smith. The Journal in its re- 
port <if the meeting, says: "In the defer- 
iMiiation evinced by this meeting to carry 
o-:t the resolutions ado|)te(l. blacklegs may see 
\v-''at they may expect should they visit us 
tl is winter. It will have the effect, too. 
of inducing: resident blacklegs to change their 

'Acts 1881. 1). (i!)8: Acts 18!)1, 



-City School Report, 18(iH. 
"Jourual, April (i, 1847. 



location. 'I'lic .si)cech of ]Mi'. Fletcher was 
listened to with iinieh interest. The facts 
ofiven by him as to the extent to which g:am- 
bling has been carried on in this city, within 
the past few years, were new to a great nia- 
.jority of the audience. :\Ir. Fletcher derived 
his information from an undoubted source— 
the records of our courts! The list of indict- 
ments and convictions presented by those 
records show a beautiful picture. Along- 
side of the name of an U. S. Senator stands 
that of a (jcntleman of color, each of whom 
were found guiltv of the same offense, gam- 

The committee of thirteen, called "the 
vigilance connnittee" by its critics, reported 
on the 28th that they had instituted proceed- 
ings against two professional gamblers, but 
that they had fled from the town before 
sers'ice could be had ; the committee was mak- 
ing i)rogress in other cases. It had retained 
Hiram Brown to look after prosecutions. 
^Meanwhile some complications had arisen. 
The council, aninuited by the general spirit 
of renovation, v.n December 12, had adopted 
an ordinance specially punishing visitors to 
houses of ill fame : and a member of the legis- 
lature had "fired the Ephesian dome" by 
offering a resolution that this was "a reflec- 
tion and an msult to the visitors of this 
eity".^ And in addition certain citizens had 
I)etitioned for the repeal of the town charter 
altogether, on the ground of excessive and 
discriminating taxation and other burdens. 
The meeting of the 28th explained that no re- 
flection was intended on the legislature, and 
Councilman Louden carded tlie Sentinel of 
December 24 to the effect that the action was 
demanded by moral considerations, and was 
not meant as an imputation on legislators. 
The meeting of the 28th also appointed a 
coiiuuittee of five, consisting of J. L. Ket- 
eham, Hiram Brown, Oliver H. Smith, David 
V. Cidley and Alidrew Bronse to wait on 
the legislative committee having the petition 
in charge, and "give all necessary informa- 
tion on the subject of the charter".'' There 
is little room foi' doubt that the new citv 

^Journal. December 8, 184(5. 
^House Journal. December 18, 1846; Sen- 
tinel. December 22. lS4(j. 

''■Senfind. Dcccmlirr 24. 184(1. 

cluuter urew out of the work of this com- 
mittee, for it corrected the tax-evil of which 
the petitioners complained, and also strength- 
ened the municipal government in the lines 
of the sentiment i-epresented by the commit- 

The new charter ga^■e the mayor the pow- 
ers of a justice of the peace, with authority 
to require his processes to be sei'ved by the 
sheriff' or by the town marshal, who wag 
given the powers of a constable. The limit 
of tlie retail liquor license was made $100. 
The mayor was elected for two yeara and 
the councilmen for one. The council was 
authorized to pass "ordinances, as to them 
shall seem necessary, relative to the regula- 
tion and improvement of streets, alleys, side- 
walks, roads and highways, to clearing, rais- 
ing, draining, turnpiking, macadamizing, or 
otherwise making and keeping the same in 
repair; to making, causing and requiring the 
owner or owners of in-lots to pave or othei'- 
wise improve the sidewalks in front of his 
or their respective in-lots ; to establish and 
regulate markets: to regulate the inspection 
of flour, beef and pork; the sale of hay and 
wood in the city; the cabs, hacks, omnibuses 
and other carriages carrying passengers, and 
rimning in the city for gain; the assize of 
bread from time to time; to restrain or regu- 
late swine running at large within the city. 
* * * To regulate buildings, public and 
private, planting trees for ornament or use, 
public or private; to cleaning of chimneys; 
to dogs running at large or being kept in 
the city; to preventing and extinguishing 
fires in the city; to regulate the height and 
extent of fences before door-yards ; and to 
provide by ordinances for imposing reason- 
able fines and penalties upon all persons vio- 
lating the laws and ordinances as the said 
city council shall deem necessary and proper 
for the health, safety, cleanlines.s, convenience 
and good government of the city". 

The council was also empowered to exact 
a from all shows and amusements; to 
make requirements for guarding against fire: 
to organize and govern fire companies: to 
establish and nuuntain .schools; to imjiose 
a poll tax of not over $1 ; and to levy general 
taxes not exceeding 15 cents on $100, but 
this might be inerea.sed by special vote of 
the peojde. It was given "exclusive juris- 



diction over all streets, roads and alleys, and 
water courees within the city for the pur- 
pose of opening and keepinfr the same in 
repair". It was r<'f|uired to appoint one or 
two .street commissioners whose duty it was 
"to keep the sti-cets, roads and alleys in the 
city in repair'". To aecomplish this "earh 
ablc-txHlied white man. between 21 and 50 
years of ajre" was reciuired to pay $1 tax or 
do two days' work. Each eouneilman wa^ 
to receive $24 per year; "and he shall not 
be eligible to hohl any other office under this 
act in the city while he continues to be such 
member: nor shall he hold or make any con- 
tract with the city council, or become inter- 
ested in any job by which he shall in any 
way directly or indirectly receive any pay 
or compensation whatever, except when he 
shall be the lowest bidder at a public or com- 
petition bid; and all contracts in violation 
of this section shall lie void". 

As the new chai'tei- law was conditioned 
on its aeeptance by the people. .Josei)h A. 
Levy, iircsidcnt of the town council, issued 
a proclamation calling: a charter election on 
March 27. As before mentioned, all the 
newspapers favored acceptance, and the vote 
for it wa.s 44!) to 19. The result was certified 
to (iovcrnor Whitcoiid). as I'cquii'cd by law. 
on the 29th. and on tiic :{()th he pi-oclaimed 
the charter a law; and Iii(iianai)olis was a 
city. President Levy then dii'ccted an elec- 
tion on April 24 for mayor and councilmen 
from the several wards. The charter pro- 
vided that the councilmen from the fifth 
(Charles \V. Cady), third (Abram W. TTarri- 
son) and fii-st ( Win. ^Moiitauue) wards should 
hold over foi- one year as councilmen of th<' 
fifth, sixth and seventh wards. No elections 
for councilmen were held in the fifth and 
sixth. W'm. .Montagrue evidently droi)ped out. 
for an election was held in the seventh, and 
W'm. L. Winjiate was returned. The other 
councilmen elected were Uriah Gates from 
the first, Heni'y Tutewiler fi-om the second, 
Cornelius Kinir from the third, and S. S. 
Rooker from th(> fourth. Samuel Henderson 
Wius elected nuiyor, i'eceivin<,' 241) of the .50(1 
votes cast: afrainst 195 for David V. Cullev. 
54 for Nathan B. T'almer, and 2 blank. The 
school tax vote was 406 for and 28 against. 

The council organized on ^May 1, electing 
Samuel S. Rooker president. Mi: Roolui- 

i-esigned on November 1. 1847, and Charles 
W. Cady was elected in his jilace. The coun- 
cil opened its legislative career liy a salai\ 
ordinance on May 6, fixing annual compensa- 
tions as follows: Seci'etai'y, !i!l75: nun'sliai. 
.'t;280 and fees; trea.surer, 5 per cent on col- 
lections; ass(«iSor, $125; street comnnssionei'. 
$200; clerk East :\Iarket and West Market, 
each $50; messengers of Marion and (iood 
Intent engine companies, $20 each ; messen- 
ger hook and ladder com])any. $10. On .June 
7, Councilman Harrison resigned, alleging 
that "an alliance of a most luijust and unholy 
character has been entered into between four 
of the newly-elected members rd' the council 
for the pui'pose of thwarting and defeating 
every mea.sure of imi)ortance or not, which 
may be introduced for the benefit of the ward 
I have had the honor to represent". The 
resignation was accepted, and ordered pub- 
lished, and on motion of Mr. Tutewiler, a 
committee of three was a])pointed to i>ro- 
cure from Mi-. Harrison "a report of the 
road moneys received and expended by him 
during the past year, and to i-eceive 
from him such sum or sums of road money 
as is in his hands unexpended". On this 
.same June 7, 1847, the council adopted the 
city seal, which is still in use — "An eagle 
I)erched upon the globe, witii a pair of scales 
suspende(l from his beak, and surrounded 
by the words, 'Seal of the City of Indianap- 
olis' ". It was readopted under the new 
charter May 4, 1891, by council resolution; 
but this fact was lo,st sight of, and it was 
again adopted on November 20, 189.'5. 

There was little money in the treasury, but 
the council entered (|uite actively on the work 
of street improvement with what means it 
had. On June 21 an oi'dinance for street 
improvement, on petition of a majority of 
adjoining property owners, was adopted; 
and, at the same meeting, signs and sheds 
erected across sidewalks, or streets, were de- 
clared nuisances, and oi'dei-ed removed with- 
in three days. Improvcni(>nts were jiushcd 
from the central pai-t of the town outwai-d. 
and they went so fast that they outstripped 
the revenues, and by 1849 a debt o\' about 
$6,000 had been created. A special election 
Wii-s held on June 9, 1849, to vote a tax of 
10 cents on $100 to pay it. Thei'e were only 
258 votes cast at the election and the tax 



iiis'i'oi.'V OF (iUKATKi; ixnrANAroLis. 


carrii'il by 11 iiuijurity. 'I'liis hnuitrht the 
citA- tax. incliidiiiii' si-hooi tax. uj) to -43 cents, 
and there wa.s no little o-runihlinii': but the 
march of iiiipi'ovciiieiit was on and tlierc was 
no stoppinu: it. The coinin).r "t the railroads 
put a new iiii|)i'tus in the place, and with 
the i;TO\\th of busines.s there came a deiuaiid 
for public improvements and moi-e revenues. 
And yet the improvement was only compara- 
tive. The only street improvement was g:rad- 
injr and gravelinu;. and that was not very 
well done aud was jxiorly kept up. There 
was not even any bowlderin<!' of streets until 
IS.iil. The jrutters were simply shallow 
ditches at the sides of the streets, crossed 
by wooden feot-bridKcs at the street cross- 
inirs. In dry weather the streets were solid 
but dusty. In wet weather the dust evil was 
removed, liul tin' mud was appalliui;. 

The city was conducted under tiic chai'tei- 
of 1847 until 18;'):?. In 18o2 the Icszislaturc 
adopted a frenci-al law for the incorpoi'ation 
of cities, which was inor(> lilici-al Ihan the 
charter, pai-ticularly in the nuittei- of taxa- 
tion, as it iiuide the iiuixinuuii limit 75 cents 
on ifilflO in place of the 15 cents pi-cscribed by 
tile charter.' T'ndei- this law. any existing 
city miirht adopt it as a cliai'tcr. by vote of 
the council, and this action was taken on 
March 7, 18.5:1. councilmen Oreer, Buchanan, 
Fitter and Culley voting- for it, and council- 
nicii Pitts, i.oudcn and Dcl/.cll against. This 
law made elections annua!, fixing thciri in 
May, and the term of office was made our 
year. This year was the first in which nom- 
inations by convention foi' city offices oc- 
curred, and that only 1),\- tin- Dei I'ats. On 

April 2:5 a citizens' nK'etin<;- was held for the 
purpose of nominatiuu' "candidates frii-ndly 
to temivcrance and jrood order", but owinti' 
to the sh(u-t time to the election it was de- 
cided not to name a ticket. Nevertheless the 
election did not <j.;> by default, and on April 
29 the .JiiiiriKil announced tiuit "candidates 
are becominii' i)lerity as blackl)ei-r-ies": ami 
added: "The Democrats have seen proper 
\f> nonn'nate a party ticljet. but. for tlie life 
of us. v.e can't inuiirine what national ipies- 
tions of policy have to do with the jroveru- 
iiient of a city." The eleetion occurred on 
Jfay :?. thei-e bi'ini: l.<i5() votes cast, and inde- 

■Rev. Stats. 1S52. \'ol. 1, p 


pendent candidates were elected to all the 
offices but mai-shal. Caleb Seudder, the in- 
dependent candidate for mayor, hiul 4:51 nui- 
.joritv over his Democratic competitcu'. (ieorge 
I'. Huell. 

By the act of ^[arch i). 1857, the lei,'islature 
i-evised the law for the incorporation of cities, 
enlars^infr powei-s, and I'aisinw the tax limit 
to $1. Section 79 of this law provided that 
a eit.v might adopt it as its fundamental law 
by resolution of the eonnnon council. It made 
the official tenns of the mayoi' and city .iudjre 
two years. The new law was adoi)1cd as a 
ehai-tei- by the council on .March K!. The 
eleetion on ]\ray 5 was preceded by a square 
party tight between the Republican aud Dem- 
ocratic parties, and resulted in the election 
of a pretty evenly split ticket, the Repub- 
licans getting the council, and electing Wm. 
John Wallace mayor by 150 majority. By 
act of i\Iarch 1, 1859, the chai-ter was amend- 
ed, chiefly as to its luovisions for taxation, 
ami making all city offices two yeai-s. The 
law then continued with slight amendment 
till 18(37, when a general revision was nmde, 
and two years later the city got out a more 
I>retentious voluiiu> of "Charter and Ordi- 
nances" than anything previously attempted 
After 1867 the general incorporation law. 
wiiich served as a charter, was amended at 
evei-y session of the legislatui'e until 1891. 
without any general I'evision. Most of these 
amenduH'nfs were comparatively unimport- 
ant, regulating the moiles of doing business, 
ami extending powers in some cases. In 1877 
the legislature adopted a law providing for 
a boai'd of aldei'men, or upper house, in the 
eit.v council. This wa.s considerwl an ad- 
vaiu'c in city goverinuent, but it was fouml 
more cumbersome than useful, and in 1891 
the provision was droi)]ied. 

In 1881 occurred by far the most import- 
ant legislation foi* years, afi'ecting the city 
government: not as an amendment to the 
city law. but as an amendment to the state 
constitution. Old Article 1:? of the consti- 
tution was pi'actically ignori'd and of no i-f- 
fect— it was an article pi'ohibiting the inuiii- 
gi'ation of negroes to the state, and making 
contracts with them void. Hon. W. II. Eng- 
lish desired an anu'iulment to the constitu- 
tion restricting mutiicipal debt, and adopted 
the ingenious mode of substituting it for 



this provision, wliifli was iiuiversally re- 
garded as needing removal. He and the 
othere he enlisted in the cause succeeded in 
their eflt'ort, and on March 14. 1881. the fol- 
lowinfj- became Article 13 of the constitu- 
tion: "No political or municipal corpora- 
tion in this state shall ever become indebted, 
in any manner or for any puq^ose. to an 
ajnount in the a^irreiiate exceeding;' two per 
centum of the value of the taxable property 
within such corporation, to be ascertained 
by the last assessment for state and county 
taxes previous to the incurring- of such in- 
debtedness; and all bonds or obligations in 
excess of such amoinit, given by such cor- 
poration, shall be void : Provided, that in 
time of war, foreign invasion, or other great 
public calamity, on petition of a majority 
of the property owners in number and value, 
within the limits of such coiporation, the 
public authorities, in their discretion, may 
incur obligations riecessaiy for the public 
protection and defense to such an amount as 
may be requested in such petition." 

This provision has been of inestimable 
value to Indiana cities and towns, and there 
was need for it at the time it was adopted. 
In 1873 the legislature had given cities power 
to borrow to the extent of not over 2 per 
cent., but there was soon a desire to exceed 
this amount, and the act of Februaiy 13, 
1877, authorized exceeding it by temporary 
loans. It is well that the debt movement was 
cheeked when it was. for nothing is more 
demoralizing than piling up a heavy city 
debt, the interest on which absorbs a large 
part of the current city revenues. If a loan 
is desired for docks, water-works, or some- 
thing that produces a revenue that will cover 
the interest on the debt created, there is some 
excuse for it. Hut for streets, parks, and 
other investments that are not only non- 
productive, but soui-ces of additional expense, 
there is no .iu.stification for piling debt on 
future generations. It is much safer and 
wiser to pay as you go. It is to this pro- 
vision that Indiana cities and towns owe their 
excellent financial condition and their splen- 
did credit. 

In 1885 the offices of cit\- treasni-ei- and 
city assessor were abolished, and the county 
treasurer and assessor were required to per- 
form the duties of those offices. On ]\farch 8, 

1889, was adopted the Bari-ett Improvement 
law, which has been of greater value in pro- 
moting public improvements in Indiana cities 
than any other one agency. It is simply a 
provision under which a city pays for street 
and sewer improvements by issuing Iwnds 
that are liens on the adjoining property. 
These are met bj' payments by the property 
owners in ten equal installments with (i per 
cent, interest. By means of this, thousands 
of property owners have been enabled to pay 
for improvements, who could not have Iwrne 
the expense if it had come in one demand. 
In Indianapolis, under this law, there had 
been, up to January 1. 1909. $5,546,061.89 
of these bonds issued and .$3,696,916.86 re- 
deemed, leaving an outstanding balance of 
$1,849,145.03. This does not represent the 
total of public iuiprovenients in the 20 yeare, 
for anyone is privileged to pay his a&sess- 
ment in cash, and many property owners 
prefer this course. 

It will be of interest to notice here the 
mayors who presided over the alfairs of In- 
dianapolis during this period of city develop- 
ment. Samuel Henderson, the first mayor, 
was a local Wa.shington in his quality of 
being fii-st, for he was also the first post- 
master and the firet president of the firet 
board of town trustees. He was an old-time 
tavern-keeper, having joined with James 
Blake in building the original Washington 
Hall (site of the New York .store) in 1S24, 
and conducted the tavern after Blake dropi>o(l 
out. He also had an extensive farm uorfli 
of the town, and south of Fall Creek. When 
the California gold excitement came on, he 
sold out here and moved to California, where 
he died in 1883. He was a Kentuckian by 
birth, and an ardent Whig in polities. He 
was popular, and universally respected. His 
successor, Horatio C. Newcomb, was also a 
Whig, a Pennsylvanian by birth, who located 
in Jennings County, Indiana, in 1836, and 
learned the saddler's trade there. Ill health 
caused him to leave this, and he studied law. 
In 1846 he came to Indianapolis and formed 
a partnership with Ovid Butler. On April 
28, 1849, when only 28 yeaj-s old. he was 
elected mayor of Indianapolis, receiving 612 
out of the 775 votes cast. On April 26, 1851. 
he was re-elected, defeating John T. Jlorri- 
son by 502 to 441. The Sniliiid. in coinpli- 



mentin<r ^lori-ison on his race, said: "It is 
probable that no other man in the city could 
have seciued as many votes in opposition to 
the present incumbent." Judge Newcomb 
was always po|iular, and deservedly so. lie 
was afterwards elected to the legislature sev- 
eral times, and when the Superior Court was 
organized he was one of the first .judges, and 
in 1874 was re-elected to this position, his 
name being placed on both tickets. He also 
served as Sinking Fund commissioner and 
Supreme Court conuiiissioner : edited the 
Journal from 18(i4 to 1868; and declined an 
appointment as Assistant Secretary of the 
Interior from President Grant. He died at 
Indianapolis IMay 2.3, 1882. 

After serving six months of his second 
ti'rm. Mayor Newcomb resigned and Calel) 
Scudder was chosen by the city council to 
lill his place. He is always remembered a.s 
the cabinet maker who achieved fame by giv- 
ing his shop for the use of the first Sunday 
School. On May 3, 1853, Mr. Scudder was 
re-elected, defeating (ieorge P. Buell by a 
vote of 992 to 559. In 1854 the Democrats 
hail their first inning with James McCready. 
who defeated Caleb Scudder 1,313 to tiod. 
McCready wa.s bom in New York City Feb- 
ruary 22, 1816. He was a tailor by trade, 
and came here in the fall of 1836 as a cutter 
for Samuel Turner, v.itli whom he had been 
a.ssociated in the same fire comi^any in New- 
York. Turner broke up, and ifcCready 
started a shop of his own next to ]\rrs. Now- 
land's boarding-house— about 9 East AVash- 
ingtou street. Later he moved across tin' 
street, just west of the Capitol house, ami 
■>till later to the next block west, wliere Was- 
son"s store is 7iow located. In 1S52 he was 
I'lected justice of the peace, and was called 
from this to the office of mayor. He was 
the popular taihu- of the day, and was notable 
as the player of the bass tr<)nd)one in the 
first Indianapolis baiul, as well as one of 
the star performei-s of the Indianapolis Thes- 
pian Corps. In 1855 he was I'e-eleeted, de- 
feating Lawrence 'SI. Vance, the Knownoth- 
ing candidate, 1,469 to 1,221. :Mr. .McCready 
removed, in 1903, to ('alifornia and remainetl 
there for six years. He then returned to In- 
dianapolis, and made his home with his son 
Frank (Beiijaiiiin Franklini. where he died 
Vol. I— 11 

on October 9, 1909, at the advanced age of 
93 years. 

The Democrats won again at the election 
on ^[ay 6, 1856, their candidate, Heiu-y F. 
West, defeating Sims A. Colley, Republican, 
1,515 to 1,183, which was practically the vote 
all down the ticket. Mr. ^Vest was a very 
interesting character, ami it is astonishing 
how little has been preserved concerning him 

llliMlY K. WEST. 
(Fifth Mayor of Indianapolis.) 

in local histories, lie was liorn at I'iltslield. 
.Massachusetts, ;\Iarch 14, 179t). On January 
6, 1820, he married Betsey ^litchell, of South- 
berry. Connecticut, and .soon after removed 
to Maneliester. Clinton County, New York. 
A few- years later he went to Pulatki. Oneida 
County, New York, then to Kochester, New 
York, then to Circleville, Ohio, and then to 
Dayton, where the first Mi-s. West died in 
1842. He came to Indianapolis about 1845. 
He engaged in vai'ious lines of business. He 



had conducted a newspaper for a time in 
Ohio, and here lie started an edneational, 
semi-monthly, paper called the Conuiioii 
School Advocate, the first of the kind in 
Indiana, preceding; the Indiana School Jour- 
nal by a decade. It was devoted to the advo- 
cacy of free schools, and furnished the sub- 
stantial aruinnents that made the Indianapo- 
lis school tax election of 1847 almost unani- 
mous for free schools.'' It must also have had 
great weight in the campaign for free schools, 
which culminated in the constitutional pro- 
visions of 1851, and the school law of 1852; 
and in pa.ssing it may be added that more 
exclusive credit is conunonly given to Caleb 
]Mills for that result than is .just ; he did a 
great work, but there were others. What is 
preserved of ;\tr. West's writing shows him 
to have mastered the sub.jeet of free schools. 
and his heart was in. the work." He- later ren- 
dered great service as a member of the local 
school board. Mr. West also wrote for news- 
papers and magazines over the name 
"Viator'". In company with his brother, 
George B. West, he started the book-selling 
firm of Henry F. AVest & Co., at what whs 
then 18 W. Washington .street. Wm. Stew- 
art .joined the firm, which was then known as 
West & Stewart. In 1854 the firm dissolved, 
and Stewart succeeded to the business, form- 
ing the partnership of Stewart & Bowen. 
After various changes, this firm consolidated 
in 1S85 with the older but smaller house of 
Jlerrill & .Meigs, as the Bowen-AIerrill Co. 
]\rr. West died in office, November 8, 1856, 
and was buried by the ^Masons, of whom he 
was a member of high standing; with a full 
turn-out of the firemen, militia, and civic 
organizations; lamented on every hand as a 
good man. 

Following the death of Alayin- West there 
was an interim until the special election of 
his successor, when the city council unani- 
mou.sly selected Charles Coulon as mayor. 
He was at the tiiiio a justice of the peace. 

''Soitind, January 12, 1847. 

" The only copy of the Common School Ad- 
vocate I have foiuid is No. 2. of Vol. 1. 
which is bound in the i)ack of a volume of 
Beecher's Westirn Farmer and Gardener. 
originally belongiuii to Judge H. P. Biddle. 
and now in the Indianajxtlis Public Lil)i-ary. 

and an excellent one. He came of an old 
Huguenot family, his father being an army 
officer, and later a lawer at (ioettingen. Left 
an orphan at 14. he first ac(|uired a liberal 
education and then learned the trade of mak- 
ing mathematical instruments. In 1847 he 
emigrated to America, and in 1852 settled 
at Indianapolis. Here his health became im- 
paired, ami he read law with Robert L. Wal- 
pole, and opened a real estate and law otfice. 
In 1856 he was elected a justice of the peace 
for a term of four years. In a political way 
his election as mayor was a break of Demo- 
cratic rule. He was oi-iginally a Democrat, 
and having the usual liberal views of foreign- 
ers, he and Adolpli Seidensticker were in- 
dulging in a game of billiards one Sunday 
when the minions of the law swooped down 
upon them, and haled them before Alayor 
McCready. It was a plain ease, and the 
mayor imposed the statutory fine. Coulon 
was so angered over the aft'air that he swore 
he would never vote the Democratic ticket 
again, and he kept his vow. After his two 
weeks as nuiyor he resumed his service as 
.justice of the peace, and then resumed the 
law. In 1863-4 he was .school couuuissiouer 
from the Seventh ward; and from 1864 to 
1868 he ser\ed another term as justice of the 

The city clerk. Alfred Stephens, had died 
on October 14. and on November 22 a special 
election was held to fill the two vacancies. 
The Democi-ats nominated Nathaniel West for 
mayor, and Captain AI. North for clerk. The 
Republicans nominated Frederick Stein for 
clerk and William John Wallace for mayor. 
The campaign was warmer than anything 
preceding, and became quite personal. Wal- 
lace was denounced as too ignorant for the 
office, and West as a member of the "Codfish 
aristocrac.v"', who jierformeil no labor but 
hunting and fishing, and who had taken the 
l>enefit of the banki-upfey law. In reality 
both were verv excellent men. Wallace was 
the older brother of Andi-ew Wallace, and 
while not highly educated, was an intelligent 
and capable man. of many admirable qual- 
ities. The Wi sts were aristocratic — of one of 
the best families of New England, whose an- 
cestors came over in the Mayflower. The 
head of the family established the old cotton 
mill whei'c Sixteenth street crosses the canal 



— better known to later generations as the 
coffin factory — and owned a faiMii runnin<r 
down to Tentli stri'i-t. The factory g-ave tlie 
name of "Cottontown"" to tlie neiirlihorhootl. 
Nathiinii'l West was a sportsman, and lie had 
been hanki'upt. Init it was for the debts of 
others, and he iiad iriven up all he had in 
settlement. He was not of the same family 
as the deceased mayor. But the campaign 
coini)liments were warm enough to have 
served fifty years later.'" 

The personal issues apparently cut little 
fi^ire either way. It was a party tight, ami 
the yoinig Kepnhlican |)arty won its fii-st vic- 
tory in Indianapolis in that special election. 
Wallace was made mayor by a vote of l.-ioO 
to 1,332, and Stein's majority was 150. Will- 
iam John Wallace was born in County Done- 
gal, Ireland, .March 16, 1814. He came to 
this country as a child with his parents, and 
they located at Madison, where he learned 
paper making with John Shi'ets, bi-othcr of 
William Sheets, of lndianai)olis. Wallace 
I came to Indianai)olis in the forties, and was 
engaged in conducting a grocery when 
elected. His service as mayor was terminated 
by his nomination and election as county 
sheritf. He had been re-elected mayor in 
th-.' spring of 18.")7. defeating X. H. Taylor 
by a vote of \.7'M> to l..")8.5. In .Xovembc-r 
he tendered his resignation to the council. 
but was pei-suaded to defer its taking effect 
to the next city election. May 3. 18o8." He 
served as sheriff to June 27. lSrt9. and was 
appointed to the ollice again on June H, 
1860, in place of John F. riuliclc. I'csigned. 
He remained in the otTice till l)eccmi)ei- il. 
1862. when he resigned, and resinned the 
grocery business on Washington street, west 
of Noble. He also engaged in bi-ick-making. 
and managed his farm. He died on Janu- 
ary 9. 1894. Mr. Wallace was a very active 
Union man, and served on several missions 
to soldiers in the field for (iovernor iIort(ui. 
He also .served as draft commissioner. '-' 

The election of 18.)8 was warmly contested. 
both parties niakini;- s|)ecial etl'oi-ts to secure 

'"Silitiiifl. NoveiMber 17; Jnii null . Xovem- 
ber 10. 22, 18afi. 

"Journal, May 3. 1808. 

'-See ohituai'v notici's and .hninud. ^Fav 
3. IS.-.S. 

the German vote. The Republicans nom- 
inated Samuel D. Ma.\well, and the Demo- 
crats N. B. Palmer, both old citizens and 
highly respecte<l. The result was practically 
on party lines thi-oughout, .Ma.xwell wiiniing 
by a vdte of 1.984 to 1,696. Samuel Dunn 
Maxwell was one of the first settlers, coming 
here with his father in .March, 1820. He was 
b(n-n in Garrard County, Kentucky. Febru- 
ary 19, 1803. In 1809 liis father. John .Max- 
well, removed to Hanover. Indiana; and in 
1813-14 served as a "ranger"" in the militia 
organization. On one expedition his com- 
mand [lenetrated to the Delaware towns on 
White River, and on the knowledge of the 
country he then obtained he determincil to 
settle in it as soon as it was opened. The 
inniiigrating party consisted of John Maxwell 
and his two sons, Samuel D. and Irwin B.; 
John Cowan and his two sons; and two negro 
men. Aaron Wallace and Richard ]\Iorland. 
They k)cated on Fall Crei'k near the present 
City Hospital, id the head of the bayou which 
was later made into a mill race; and each 
family cleared about seven acres of land and 
put it in corn. All then returned to Han- 
over except Sanniel I), and one of the Cowan 
boys, who remained to attend to the croji. 
When the croj) was "laid by"' they also re- 
turned to Hanover, and in Angiist came back 
with a wagonload of gootls, the family fol- 
lowing in -Xovember. Their residence was a 
cabin on Fall Creek near Indian.i avenue and 
Maxwell street, in that vicinity, is named 
for Samuel D. He is also remembered as the 
leadei- of the .singing at the first Pi'csbytei-ian 
pi-eaching ever held in Iiuliana|)olis. In 1822 
he moved to Montgomery Comity, of which 
he was appointeil sheriff' by (iovernor Hen- 
dricks in April. 1823. On December 1.'), 1822, 
he married Sarah Cowan, of Crawfordsville. 
Later he removed to Clinton (^ounty, where 
he was the first clerk, in 1830. In" 1855 he 
i-eturned to Indianapolis, where he practiced 
law. He also had some ice-houses on the 
(Miial above Sixteenth street. 

.Mr. .Maxwell was re-elected, after another 
warm cam])aign. on May 3. 1859. defejitiiig 
James .McCready. 1.895 to 1.4(i2. The Demo- 
ci'ats saved only two men on their ticket. Jef- 
ferson Springsteen for marshal, and Byron 
K. Elliott for city attorney. Mr. Maxwell 
was renominated in 18(11. his opponent being 



James M. Bracken. The election on ]\Iay 7 
of that, year was the quietest that liad been 
seen in Indianapolis for years. The shadow 
of Fort Sumter was over the city, and men 
spoke with bated breath. The newspapers 
scarcely mentioned that an election was in 
prospect. On ]\Iay 6, the JoHnmJ said : "In 
calling the attention of our readei-s to the 
fact that our municipal election is so close 
at hand, we do not intend to speak of the 
matter in a partizan manner. Since the at- 
tack on Fort Sumter political discussions in 
the city papers relative to city affairs have 
dropped, and the election will turn, in good 
part, on the position of the candidates rela- 
tive to sustaining- the general government in 
its elforts to put down rebellion and crush 
out treason. Those known to be firm Union 
men, who have no association with secession 
sympathizers, and are thereby not contam- 
inated in the least, are entitled to the full 
confidence of the public and should receive 
the hearty and earnest support of all 
pati'iots. ' ' 

To this ingenious non-partisan plea, the 
Sentinel, which was vigorously demanding 
the prompt .suppression of the rebellion, in- 
dignantly answered that the Democratic ticket 
was composed of honest and capable men, 
pledged to city reform, and that "every man 
upon the ticket is not only loyal to the con- 
stitution, but is willing to respond to every 
call made by the Government, either National 
or State, to defend its honor and maintain 
its integi'ity, whether by personal sei-vices or 
material aid and comfort, as may be required 
of them. It is not the men who are the loud- 
est in professions of patriotism that do the 
fighting when the hour of trial arrives, and 
when the country needs their services". 
These two articles were practically the wliolc 
discussion of the campaign. The Reiniblican 
ticket was elected throughout, ]\Iaxwell re- 
ceiving 2,078 votes to Bracken's 1,390. ]\Ir. 
Maxwell was desired to be a candidate again 
in 1863, but his health had failed and his 
doctor told him he must give up public life. 
He went South and settled at (irand Gulf. 
Mississippi, from where he was brought home 
to Indianapolis fatally ill in 1873. He died 
on July 3, 1873, at the home of his son-in- 
law, Lewis Jordan. ^^ 

"News, July 5, 1873. 

In 1863 both parties nominated tickets, 
the Republican candidate for nuiyor being 
John Caven, a.nd the Democratic candidate 
G. AV. Pitts. On May 2 the entire Demo- 
cratic ticket withdrew from the contest, giv- 
ing as reasons the refusal of the Republican 
authorities to allow them any representation 
on the electicm boards, and the mob violence 
at the polls at the township elections in 
April. The Journal denounced the charges 
as false, and "the withdrawal of the copper- 
head city ticket" a sham. It said the Demo- 
crats were then colonizing voters, and that 
if the "Union men" slacked their efforts 
they would be trapped. It averred that "at 
the present election they were tendered a 
fair representation of Union Democrats, 
though not of K. G. C.'s," and the distinc- 
tion was right." In other words, they were 
offered former Democrats who had left the 
part}', and were refused representation by 
men acting with the party. At the election 
2,889 votes were east for Caven, and 8 against, 
the latter classed as "Butternut votes" by 
the Journal. In 1865 the Democrats put 
no ticket in the field, and Mr. Caven was 
again elected, receiving all of the 2,241 votes 
cast, as reported. 

It was fortunate for all concerned that 
the city fell under control of so excellent a 
man as John Caven during this period for 
{)artisan feeling wa.s running high and the 
large number of soldiers located here from 
time to time caused an influx of the cla.sses 
that prey on such gatherings of men. He 
was born in Alleghany County, Pennsyl- 
vania, April 12, 182-1, of Scotch-Irish and 
Scotch-English parentage, and came to In- 
dianapolis in 1845. In his youth he became 
familiar with labor, in the coal mine, the 
salt-works, the flatboat. His school priv- 
ileges were limited, but he had a desire for 
knowledge and a taste for reading that made 
him a self-educated man of much more than 
ordinary attairunent. In 1847 he began the 
study of law in the office of Oliver H. Smith 
and Simon Yandes. He was duly admitted 
to the bar and practised thereafter except 

'* Knights of the Golden Circle— all Dem- 
ocrats acting with their party were uni- 
formly called "copperheads." "butternuts," 
"Southern sympathizers," etc., bj' the Jour- 
nal, especially before elections. 

ttts;tot;y of (itjeatf.r txdiaxaitjlts. 


one year— 1851-2— employed in cual iiiiiiini;'. 
His administration was admirable, and made 
him many friends, who were of value to 
him in his later contests witli the popular 
Major Jlitehell. ^Ir. Caven was eleeted to 
the state senate in 18G8 for a tci'ni of four 
years: and in 1875 he was bi-ou<;lit out fru- 
mayor ajzainst Mitchell, who had a.stounded 
the Kepublieans by settinu; eleeted in 1873. 
Caven won by only 8,805 to 8,320, while the 
Republican candidates for treasurer, clerk 
and a.ssessor had ina.ioi'ities of over 1,000. In 
1877 he defeated Mitchell airain, after a very 
warm fisiht. in which the nci^-ro vote loomed 
lar-e. by a vote of 7.324 to 6,194. In 1879 
he defeated Edward C. Busldrk. 7,985 to 
fi,001. These last three times covered the 
disturbed period of financial depression, 
1875-80, including the so-called "bread- 
riots", and the iireat I'ailroad strike of 1877. 
which will be considered in connection with 
the railroad development. 

Caven 's successor in 1867 was (iJen. Dan 
^lacauley, a man of yreat ])ersonal jiopu- 
larity. Handsome, dashini;, leady, Indian- 
apolis never had a man who ai)peared to bet- 
ter advantage in a parade or a public func- 
tion of any kind : and even his political ene- 
mies conceded that a.s a "general utility 
man"' he was unsurpaR.sed. lie defeated Col. 
B. C. Shaw, in 1867, bv 3,317 to 2.318; John 
Fishl)ack in 1869 by 2,843 to 2,797: and 
Fislil)aek again in 1S71 by 4.535 to 3.675, — 
and these wei'c formidable opponents. Daniel 
Maeaulev wa.s of Irish parentage, born in 
New York City Septend)er 8, 1839. Left an 
orphan at ten. he learned the book-binding 
business and worked at the trade in Buffalo 
till 1860. wlii'u he came to this city and 
worked for Bingham & Doughty. At the 
beginning of the wtir he enlisted as a private 
in the "Indianapolis Zouaves" which forni(»d 
a company of Lew Wallace's 11th Indiana. 
He was elected first lieutenant of his com- 
pany, and ajipointcd ad.iutant by Wallace 
befor(> the I'cgimrnt left For the field. With- 
in a year he was a ma.ior: in Scpti'mbi'i'. 
18()2. lieutenant-colonel; in .March. 1863. 
eolonil. He was twice t)ri'vcftcd biigadiiT 
general for sei-vice in battle, and comnKUuled 
a brigade for a yeai-. For five years he 
inis,sed only 30 days of service, and in 
them lie saw nuu'li li.nd lighting. A bullet 

went through his leg at Viclcsburg, and an- 
other lodged in his hip at Cedar Creek, Vir- 
ginia, on the day of "Sheridan's Ride". 
After the war he engaged in the book-bind- 
ing business in Indianapolis until elected 
mayor. After liis service as mayor he was 
for a time superintendent of the city water 
company, and foi' several years manager of 
the Academy of Music. He left Indianapolis 
in 1880. He held a position in the treasury 
depai'tment under President Harrison, and 
later became connected with the Maritime 
Canal Company, operating in Nicaragiui. He 
died in Nicaragua in April. 1894: and his 
I'emains were brought to Washington and 
buried at Arlington on June 22. 1899. near 
the graves of two otliei' Indiana soJdiei-s, 
Walter Q. Gresham and lleiu-y W. Lawton. 
(In ]May 30 his old comrades dedicated a 
modest monument, at that place, to liis 

The spring of 1873 saw the tii-st Democrat 
for a generation in the mayor's otifice, in tiie 
pei-son of ^la.i. James L. Mitchell. The 
campaign and election were very quiet. 
There was a great deal of dissatisfaction 
among Republicans, and he made his cam- 
l)aign on a nonpartisan basis. He had been 
nominated by the Democrats when he was 
absent from the city, but consented to ae- 
ee])t and nuike the race, 'i'he Kepublieans 
nominated Capt. William D. Wiles, and 
:\Iitchell defeateil him 5.878 to 5,100. The 
rest of the Republican ticket were elected. 
The Sentinel said of the result: "In the 
selection of Ma.ior IMitchell there is nothing 
savoring of a partisan triumph. It is not, 
beyond all else, a Democratic triumph. 
Liberalized Rej)ublicans made his calling cer- 
tain and his election sure." Major Mifclicll 
was born in Shelby Counts-. Kentucky. Sep- 
tember 29, 1834. His i)arents moved to 
.Monroe County, Indiana, when he was eight 
years old. He woi-ked on the farm, and at 
nineteen entered the State Fnivei-sity. grad- 
uating in 1858. He tlien read law witli his 
uricie, John L. Ketchaiii. with whom be later 
formed a pai'tnership. lie entered the army 
July 16, 18()2. iieing conuuissioned adjutant 
in the Seventieth Indiana, Cen. Henjamin 
Harrison's regiment: and served through the 
war. From November, 1W()4. lie was on the 
stall' of (ieii. Lovell lb liiiusseau. He re- 



sullied the practice of tlie law after the war, 
and in 18S6 was nominated by the Democrats 
for proseeutiny; attorney of Marion and 
Hendricks Counties. He was elected, and 
re-elected in 18SS. After ciunpletiiis- his 
term he resumed the practice of law. which 
he continued till his death on February 21, 

At the close of .Mayor Caven's loui;- jieriod 
of service in 1881 the Republicans nomi- 
nated Daniel W. Grubbs for mayor, ilr. 
Grubbs was a native of Henry County, In- 
diana, and in his youth served an apprentice- 
ship in the office of the Xeircastle Courier. 
He came to Indianapolis in 1807, and took 
up the study of law in the ofiHce of William 
Henderson. After admission to the bar he 
was associated for a time in practice with 
E. B. Martindale. He went out as a private 
in Co. B, 132d Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
in the one hundred day service. He did not 
appear in i)olitics until 1877 when he was 
elected to the I^oard of Aldenueii, and there 
served as president of the Police Board until 
1880. The Democrats nominated Prof. 
J. H. Smart, who had .just finished his term 
as Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
This clever political move was probably in- 
spired by (iovernor Hendricks, who presided 
at the Democratic city convention. Profes- 
sor Smart was a man of hijjh character and 
attainments and was in jreneral esteem. 
However, Mr. Grubbs won out by a vote of 
7,182 to 6,6ti5. After the close of his term, 
in 188-1, ]\Ir. Grubbs went to Parral, ilexico, 
where he en<rafi:ed in the baiikiu'r busines.s 
until 190:?, and then retired from active busi- 
nes". For several years |) he has resided 
at Harrodshur^. Kentucky. 

In 1883 the contest for the mayoralty was 
between John \j. McMaster. Republican, and 
(iabriel Sehmuck, Democrat. McMa.ster was 
not seeking: the nomination, Imt was requested 
to allow his name to be used two or three 
days before the convention. He was nomi- 
nated without any canvass by luHi. and was 
elected by a vote of 8.().")7 to 8.387. John 
Lennox McMaster was born at Rutland, 
^leisr'i County, Ohio, February 9. 1S43. He 

enlisted in the Second West Virginia Cav- 
alry, and served until November, 1864. After 
the war he entered Ohio University, at 
Athens. Ohio, from which he graduated in 
18()9. He then entered Cincinnati law school, 
and graduated in 1870. He came here in 
October, 1870, with Angustin Boice. and 
formed the law firm of Mcilaster & Hoice, 
which continued until his election to the 
bench. He became mayor on January 1, 

1884, the law of succession having been 
changed during the term of his predecessor. 
Before becoming mayor he had been a can- 
didate for judge of the Superior Court in 
18S2. anil had been defeated by Napoleon B. 
Taylor, in the sweep of a general Democratic 
victoiy. In 1894 he was again nominated 
for .judge of the Superior Court and was 
elected. He was re-elected in 1898. 1902 and 
1906. and still holds this office. 

There were two othei- mayors pri(M' to the 
adoption of the present city charter, Caleb 
S. Denny. Republican, and Thomas L. Sul- 
livan. Democrat. Mr. Denny, on October 13, 

1885. defeated Thomas G. Cottrell by the 
narrow margin of 9.098 against 9.038. He 
was re-elected October 11. 1887. over Dr. 
(Jeoi-ge F. Edenharter. by a vote of 9.9t)(l to 
9.186. (In October 8. 1889. Judge Thomas 
L. Sullivan was elected over Gen. John Co- 
burn bv a vote of 11.363 to 9.570. On Oc- 
tober 13. 1891. he defeated William W. 
Herod. 14.320 to 11.598. As both of these 
mayors served under the new charter, fur- 
ther mention of them will be made hereafter. 
It may be mentioned that city elections were 
held in April until the adoption of the gen- 
eral city law of 1852. and thereafter on the 
first Tuesday in :\Iay. until 1883, when be- 
gan elections on the second Tuesday in Oc- 
tober. Also, that during the early city 
period, from 1847 to 1891. the mayor was a 
.judicial officer, serving as police .judge, or 
its e(|uivalent. As the city grew, this came 
to be the most onerous part of the mayor's 
duties, for he heard iiractically all of the 
cases of arrests liy llie city police, for minor 



The first fire in Fmlinnaiiolis of whieh tliere 
is any reedrd was tiic liiirnini;' of Thomas 
Carter's new frame tavern, on WashiiiL'ton 
street ()]i])osite the eoui't house, on January 
17. 182."). Tliere was no fire oi-^'anization at 
the time, but the eiti/.ens turned out en ma.sse 
and .saved .most of the furniture e.xeejit some 
beds, and a quantity of flour, wliieh were 
stored in the rear of thr liuildini; where the 
fire oriL'inatcd. Smnr of tile volunteers were 
so enthusiastic in the rescue that the.v 
cho|iped down the |)ost in fi-ont of the tavern 
to save the new siirn it carried, and were 
much abashed to see it break to splinters 
when it fell. .\otwithstaiidin<;- this wai-uin^' 
a year more passed without a fire company, 
but on June 20, lS2f), the Indianapolis Fire 
I'ompany was or^'anizt^d under the state law 
of 1S"31, which jiermitted forty or more citi- 
zens of a to\\n to form a company, and make 
rules and reyulafions foi- themselves, for in- 
fractions of which they could imj)ose fines, 
collectable before a justice of llie peace. 
This company had no apparatus but leather 
buckets and ladders, and alai'iris were jiiven 
by rinj;injr the church bell. Its president 
was John Hawkins, and the seci'ctar.v Jjniics 
II. Hay. Fortunately it was not much called 
on f(U" service, and its |)rotection was consid- 
ered satisfactory until the buildinji' of the 
new state introduced the new factor 
of a buildinf.' too hi^rh for any of tlie latlders 
in use, and too valuable to be left with no 
protect i(in. 

'I'he lejiislature cousideretl the matter and 
on February 7, 18:!."), (lassed ati act condi- 
tioned (in the jicople of 1 ndiana|)olis sub- 
scribing "one-half the amount re(|uircil to 
purchase a fii'st-i'ate fir-c cuLrine and a suit- 
able quantity of hose for the same": if this 

were done, the act directed the treasurer of 
state to 2.5 fire buckets and four 
ladders lonif enouj;h to reach to the top of 
the state house, to pay half the cost of the 
(Miixine and, and to erect a building: for 
the eneine. The people at ouce beg:an a 
movement for the acceptance of this offer by 
a public ineetinsr at the Methodist church on 
Februaiy 12, at which (iovernor Ray presided 
and A. W. ]\Iorris acted as secretary. It was 
decided to aret a list of signatures of those who 
were willintr to .join a company, and to ask 
the trustees to levy a special tax, or other- 
wise co-operate with the state in the |)ni'- The matter was pushed diiriim the 
summer, the county board eontributinir .+100, 
and in August Treasurer Palmer advertiseil 
I'oi- bids for the engine house. It wa.s a one- 
story frame building. 14x20, on a brick foun- 
dation, with a double door at the front, and 
stood on the nor-th side of the Circle .just west 
of .Meridian street. In 18:^7 the city added 
a second stoi'v to it which was used for a. 
council chamber and city otfices. The en- 
gine, named the ]\Iarion, a second-hand end- 
brake hand engine, was bought of .Merrick 
i!v; Co. iif Phila(lel|)lMa for .^sLSOO, and arrived 
hei'e in Septendier, 18.S."). During that and 
the following year live (lublic wells were 
dug for fire protection. The old bueki't com- 
pan.v was merged in the new organization, 
which re.joiceil in the name of the Mai-ion 
Fifi'. lliise and I'l'oteetiou Company. 

t >ii .January 20, 18.'^8. this company' was 
incorporated undei' the name of the Marion 
l-'ire Engine CoMii)any by "Caleb Scuddci-, 
Xiehola.s .McCai-ty. Hen.). I. BIythe, Cal- 
\in l-'letchei'. and not more than :iOO others." 
Hy the incorporation act. the membei's wi're 
"exemjit from militia duties except in case 




( ir. //. Bdss I'hoto Company.) 

(Showing populated districts at various periods.) 



III' iiisiii-i'ec'tion or invasion, and from service 
on juries in .instiees courts, and from the 
payment of poll tax for county purposes, 
and road tax for jx'i'sonal j)rivile<;e, and they 
shall, after ten years' service in said com- 
pany, be forever thereafter exempt from the 
[lerforuiance of militia duties except in case 
of insurrection or invasion". For five years 
this company and its ensrine constituted the 
fire department. Caleb Sciidder was the first 
cai)tain. and he was followed by James 
Hlake, Dr. John L. Mothersheacl and others. 
The company occupied the on the 
Circle until it was burned down in 18.51, 
some people believiriE: it was fired by some 
incndjer of the company, which was demand- 
ing better (juarters. ^lost of the early town 
records were lost in the fire. A new and 
sub.stantial brick house was then built for 
the comiyany at the corner of Massachusetts 
avenue anil New York street, where the fire 
headquarters is now located, and the com- 
pany occupied this till it disbanded in 1859. 
It used the old ]\Iarion luitil 1858. when a 
fine side-brake euuine was purchased for it 
by the city: which, having: been little u-sed. 
was sold in 1800 to the town of Peru for 

In 1840 a second engine was added to the 
Mai-ions' equipment. It was also a second- 
hand end-brake engine, but in good condi- 
tion, called the Good Intent. It run with 
the JIarion until arrangements could be made 
for a division of the company. An act was 
jia.ssed by the legislatui-e on Febi-uary 4, 
1S41, extending all the i-iglits and privileges 
of the I\Iarion company to ''forty or more 
of the citizens of Indianapolis" who should 
fonn an additional fire company, selecting 
sucii name as they might desire. Under this 
act a part of the .Marions, under the lead of 
John II. "\Vi-ight. one of the leading iner- 
eluuits and ]iioneer pork-packers of the city, 
organized the Independent Relief Company, 
and went into business with tiie (iood In- 
tent. Dui'ing most of its existence this com- 
I)any was housed in a two-story building 
south of Wa.shington on Meridian street, now 
covered l)y the establishment of L. S. Ayres 
& Co. It. used the (UhuI Intent until 1849. 
when it was fui-nislunl witli a "i-ow-boat" 
engine, on wliieh the men wei'c seated, aiul 
worki'd the lirakes iKH'izonlallv. 'I'liis was 

used until 1S5S, when by tlie aid of the coun- 
cil and subscriptions of citizens a powerful 
end-brake engine was purchased and ])ut iu 
use. The company was chartered by special 
act of January 21, 1850. which gave addi- 
tional powers for holding property. When 
the company disbanded in 1859, there was 
difficulty with the city authorities over the 
ownership of the engines, but in February, 
1860, the company compromised by sur- 
rendering everything to the city but the old 
"I'ow-boat", which was broken up and sold 
a few weeks later. 

There were no separate hose companies in 
the days of the volunteers, though there were 
hose reels for the several companies, but the 
companies divided themselves into hose men 
and engine men. In 1843 a hook and ladder 
company was organized and the neccssaiy 
hooks, ladders, axes, buckets and wagon 
were procured for it. It disbanded with the 
rest of the volunteer department in 1859, but 
was reorganized in 1860, and located in the 
house formerly occupied by the Invincibles 
on North New Jersey street. In 1849 the 
Western Liberties Company was organized 
iu the wcstei'n part of the city, taking the 
(iood Intent when the Keliefs got their '"row- 
boat." They occupied a house in the i)oint 
between Washington street and the National 
Road until 1857, when a brick house was 
built for them on the south side of Wash- 
ington, east of California street, now occu- 
]>ied by engine No. G. At their fii-st loca- 
tion, the Westerns, as they were commonly 
called, were the only company that did not 
have a bell, but used for alarm a 
large triangle which was (piite as alarming. 
In April, 1857, a new hand-brake engine 
called the Indiana was bought for them, and 
used until they disbanded. In ]\Iay, 1852, 
the Invincible Company was organized, chief- 
ly by (iernuins. and a rather snudl hiuid- 
brake engine called the Victory was bought 
for them. They had a brick house on the 
east side of New Jersey street, half a s(|uare 
north of Washington, on the site made no- 
torious later by the establishment of "Queen 
Mabb". The Victory was a light and service- 
able engine, and was used until 1857, when 
the Con(|ui roi', a fin(> hand-bi"ake engine, was 
pui'chased for tli(> company and us(>d \uitil 
.Vugust, 1859. The i'iiiiii)Mn\' then disbanded. 



but ivor^'iinizod sis yiavt of the paid de|)<irt- 
iiieiit. and served until the summer of 18(i(), 
when it disbanded permanently and the ("on- 
((ueror was soon after sohl to Ft. Wayne. 

In 185.") the I'nion eompany was oi'^^anized 
on the south side, and a two-story brick house 
was built for it on South .street, just east of 
the present St. Vincent's Hospital. A larue 
Jeffer.s hand-brake etiiiine was purchased foi- 
them, and was named "Spirit of 7 and (i" 
because the eompany represented those twn 
wards, but it was more conunonly known as 
"the Spirit of Seventy-six". The eom]iany 
was disbanded in November, \Sr>9. and after 
some unsuccessful elfort to reoriranize it un- 
der the paid department, the eu^trine was 
given in part pay, at -$600, to the Seneca 
Falls Company for steam engine No. 3, which 
was afterwards located at the I'nion 's house. 
The last volunteer comi)any organized was 
the Northwestern Fire Company, commonly 
known a.s The Rovers, It had a house on 
Indiana avenue, and was usins- ( ne of the 
old enorines, after its oro-anization in Mai-ch, 
1858, until a new one could be purchased, 
when the evidences of pending- rui)tiiie l)e- 
eame so stronir that the pi-ocretl- 
inss were stopped, and the conii)auy dis- 
banded with the otliers in 1859. There ^hiuld 
be mentioned, however, two additional or- 
•ranizations which do not seem to have luid 
etpial official standino-. In December, lS41t, 
a number of boys, who could not uet into tiic 
regular companies on account of youth, oi-- 
•ranized tlie "(), K. Bucket Comi)any", and 
uot ])osse.ssion of the old buckets, ladders and 
wat;-on of the o!-i^inal Indianapolis P'ire Coni- 
I)any. What they lacked in etpiipnu'nt thi'y 
made up in enthusiasm, and were successful 
in reaching so many tires first, and puttinu 
out so many "inci])ient conflagrations" tliat 
the council bnuyht them a new wairon aiul 
Imcket.s ami fiu-nished them a house, which 
was located on .Mei-idian street above .Mary- 
lanil. about where Kip's notion store now is. 
They disbanded in 1854. reor£;anized in 1855. 
disbanded ajrain in 1851) to reoriranize as an 
eri«;ine company, takinsr the old Victory 
when the Invincibles jiot the Coiu|uei-or. In 
Jlay, 1858, the Youu<i- America Hook and 
Ladder CoiTii>aiiy was fonned, and was su])- 
plied with ajipai'atus in .Jinie, which it used 
until it disbanded in Xnvember, 1859, 

The tire companies were triven powers 
connnensnrate with tiie duties they were ex- 
pected to perform. I'y the elaborate fire 
ordinance of April 24, 184(1, the coiUK-il was 
to apjioint annually a "chief fireward", and 
each ortranized eomjiany an "assistant fire- 
ward", who were recpiired to appear prompt- 
ly at any fire, when alarm had been oiven, 
with their "badire of office, which shall be 
a pole five feet in len«rth, painted red." The 
tii-ewards and officeis of the eiiirine and hose 
companies were sriven authority to "com- 
mand all resident citizens to form into line 
for the purpose of con\eyin<;' water to the 
enirines, or to render any aid that may be 
deemed necessary", A citizen who refused 
was subject to fine of $1 to $20. They also 
had power to order a building pulled down, 
blown up, or otherwise I'emoved dui'inir the 
profjress of a fire if deemed necessai-y. The 
owners of buJldins'S haviiii;- fireplaces or 
stoves were reipiired to have laitdcM's reaeh- 
im;' to the ridse, and ti)'<' buck(4s. one to 
every three fireplaces or stoves. The 
Hrewar'ls could also reiiuire buildinijs to be 
re]iaired if dauoerous, seize sjunjiow 'cr if 
Icept in (luantities ovei' 25 pounds, and cause 
fires made in sti'i^ets oi- alleys to be- extin- 
iruished, if considered dangerous. 

In the early times membersbin in n tire 
company was almost a bad>je of tiood citizen- 
ship for the able-bodied. Fvei-ybody wanted 
to help. Ministers were i'xemi>t from duty 
iin call, but they oft(>n waived their priv- 
ilege. Henry Wai-d Beeeher was noted for 
fiffbtinjr tenu^oral fii'cs with as much viiror 
as he did the eternal kind. Theie was a 
spirit of fellowship in the companies that 
made them vers- potent political and social 
influences: in fact they became ultimately, 
as in nuiny other cities, almost dictatiu'ial in 
their political power. Anion<_' the members 
of the companies whose names are bi'st re- 
membered were John Coliurn. Joseph K. 
English. Berry Sulyreve and Thomas Bu- 
chanan, who Avere all captains of the Clarions; 
Col. N. R. Ruckle, the last ruiuiintr officer, 
and (ieu. Fred TCneflei-, the pipemau of the 
Marions, with Henry Coburu, John 1>. ^lor- 
ri*;. Hiram Seibert. James Feriruson. Samuel 
Wallace, ,\ar'-n Clem. Milton Sulgn ve and 
(ieorue H. West, of the same comnany: 
B\'roii K. Elliott. (Icoi-ge W. Sloan. James 

HISTORY OF (;i;i;.\- 



McCread.T. William Mansur, Alex (iraydon, 
E. S. Tyler. Paul Sherman. Taylor Elliott 
and Johu C. New of the Iiidepeiideiit Ke- 
liefs; Charles Richmaiin. Eniaimei Ilauirh 
and .Joseph \V. Davis of the Iiiviiieihles ; 
John Mai-see. Tlumias (!. Cottreli, Fi-aiik and 
Dan Glazier of tlie Unions; W. (). ("Deek"') 
Sherwood. Michael (i. Fitehey and Isaac 
Thalnian of the Westerns. 

The couiieil elected Thomas .M. Smith 
"chief fire warden" on S('i)tember a, 184t). 
and. for some unknown ivason. there was no 
subsequent annual election of a "chief fire- 
ward" as i>i'oviiled l)y tlie ordinance. On 
March 7. 1853. the council ahandoncd the 
special city chartei', anil adopted the j;en- 
eral city ineorporatic ii act of June 18. ISii'I. 
as the city charter. This provided for a 
chief fire enji:ineer and two assistants, and 
Joseph Ijittle was elected chief, with Beri'v 
Sulgrove and William Kintr as assistants. 
By this time the companies were l)ecomin<r 
somewhat unndy. .Many of the orijiiiuil 
menibei's. who represented the consen'ative 
sentiment of the community had dropped 
out tiiidcr the ■"ten years service" provision, 
and the ranks were tilled with younji'cr men. 
The council sought to curb tlie power of the 
compaiiies by makin<r them undci'stand that 
obedience to city authority would be the pi-ice 
of city aid. The eomjianies met the intima- 
tion by oriranizini; the Kire Association, 
which was comixised of delejrates from each 
company, and held montldy meetini;>; in the 
tipper room of the Relief eomi)any on 
Meridian sti-eet. Rcri\v R. Sulgrove was the 
first i)rtsident of this, and it was at onei! 
rwoijnized as the representative of the whole 
bod,v of firemen. From the first each com- 
pan.v had elected its own officers — a captain 
(also (ircsidcnt), seeretar.v, treasurer, enjiine 
directors ami hose dii-ectoi-s. the "messen- 
ger" beinfi fonnali.x' i-husen by the council, 
and paid $.")(> a year for keei)in^ the api)a- 
ratns in m-der. iiut icall.v beins' named by 
the companies. The Fire Association also 
came to a tacit powei- to name the elei'k of 
the council, and |)r;ictically to dictate the 
fire appropriations, and the erowth of their 
demands ma,v be .iud<red from the extensive of new apparatus in 1857 and 1858. 
The people ob.jected to the expense, and so 

did the council, for it madi' a dcai'th of funds 
for other 

There was another feature that caused a 
sentiment as;ainst the companies. Many of 
the members wei-e in the oreanization ""fur 
the fun of the thintr, " and they un(|ues- 
tionably •rot a great deal of fun out of it. 
Jlueh of this was ([uite harmless, and grew 
out of the commendable rivali-y of the com- 
paJiies in getting the first watei' on lii-es. 
This naturall.v developed contests in badinage 
and occasional free fights, but no lasting 
bitternes,s. Indeed there was rem.irkable 
gtod natui-e in all their horse-play. The In- 
vinciblcs. being lai'gely (lennans, were 
dubbed "the AVooden Shoes" b.v the other 
companies, while the Reliefs— or Good In- 
tents — were sninetinu^s called "Swallow 
Tails" and sometimes "Silk Stockings," but 
by the Invineibles. who i-egarded the Reliefs 
as s|)eeial rivals, they were called the 
"Shangliais". The (Jei-mans of the Invin- 
eibles being addicted to music had a sort 
of battle-h.vnni, which originated when 
Emanuel Ilaugh was their captain, a frag- 
mctit of which. <is their rivals claimed they 
sane- it. ran : 

'■]\Ian Ilaugh is our capt;iin. 
Vere lie leads ve go; 
I run mit de Wooden Shoes, 
Trow. Wictorv. trow." 

Thi'i'e was a elim iis i-unning : 

"Trow, Wictor,v. ti-ow. 
Trow, Wictorv. trow, 
De Shauirhais has no wasser. 
Trow. Wictorv. trow." 

And aiiotln'r I'cfi'ain tliat is handetl down, 

"Trow, Wictory. trow, 
]\Ian llaueb is our president; 
lie makes us wax de (hxxI Intent: 
Trow, Wictorv. trow." 

With all their rivalry tlii' companies had 
little trouble about iK-ttini;- tog(>thcr when 
the,v scenteil common pre,v. and one of their 
diversion.s was "washing out" houses of ill 
fame. This was lu^t altogether pure deviltry-, 
for. after the railroads were opened, the 



river towns, ospofially Cineiiinati. used to 
furnish us with some very imdesirable citi- 
zens; and, sometimes on coniphiints of neigh- 
bors, and sometimes on a tip from the police 
tliat a resort was becomiuEr obnoxious, the 
department would so through it. It is won- 
derful that no serious affrays resulted from 
these affairs, but none did. A male attache 
of one place on Washington street once un- 
dertook to use a shot-gun, but he was 
promptly hustled out of the way before do- 
ing any damage. The nearest serious results 
\\as at a place on North New Jersey street 
where a Cincinnati outfit had located, much 
to the disgust of the neighbors. The com- 
l>anies decided +0 act. and had their hose 
laid, when the proprietress appeared at the 
door with a big six-barreled pepper-box and 
opened fire. All of the pipemen vamoosed 
Imt one plucky fellow who danced around to 
dodge bullets and yelled lustil.v for "watei'". 
Finall.v the water came, and when a solid 
stream struck the defender in the pit of the 
stomach she keeled over and went into the 
wash. They say the like of that wetting was 
never seen. They washed out closets, bureau 
drawers, everything: and when they got 
through there was not a dry hook and eye 
in the house. In Jidy, 1857. there was some 
resistance to visitations to a couple of places 
in the western part of the city which led to 
the arrest and fining of several firemen for 
riot, but this had no notable restraining ef- 
fect. On the contrary the Locomotive, which 
was the conscience-keeper of the community 
at the time, .iustified the oiTense, and it was 
followed within a month by several other af- 
fairs of the same kind. 

Rut all of this sort of reform work begot 
a disregard of property rights, and when, one 
year, some injudicious insurance men offererl 
two prizes, a silver trumpet and a silver 
pitcher, to the companies making the rec- 
ords for getting first and second water on 
fires during the year, it was not surprising 
that there were numei-ous cli.-irges of incen- 
diarism. There were astduiidingly numei-ous 
alarms from fins in old and isolated build- 
iugs, to which some 'company responded with 
strange rapidit>'. One old timer says that 
whenever he saw a fii-e ca])tain step out of 
the house with his trumi)et he knew thei'C 
would be an alarm \ei-y <|uicl<ly. M this 

time, in preparation for the building of the 
Yolin Block, at the northeast corner of 
Washington and ^Meridian streets, the old 
frame building that stood there had been 
raised on pi-ops preparatory to removal, hav- 
ing been purchased by a colored citizen. 
This feature was in the nature of a pub- 
lie affront, for no "airs" were tolerated from 
the colored population in those days, even in 
Indianapolis. Passing on the opposite side, 
after supper, a member of the Reliefs heard 
a crv of fire, and saw that one was starting 
in this building. He sped away to the en- 
gine-house half-a-block below, yelling "fire!'' 
and grabbed the tongue for the run. In a 
trice he was tripped up, and as he rose from 
the tloor a husky voice admonished him, 
"Keep still, yon d— d fool." He explained 
that he meant no offense, and after a brief 
wait a watehnuui called. "Here come the 
AVooden Shoes I" Then the ropes were 
manned in a .iiff'y. and the Good Intent got 
fii-st water — but it did not put out the fire. 
Nor did any other company. If it looked 
like it might become dangerous to ad.joining 
property they would smother it down ; and 
then they would turn the hose on each other 
and on the crowd, until 'they had fooled 
away most of the night, and there was not 
enough left of the burning building to be 
worth moving. Of course evei-ything was 
denied publiel.v, but there were numerous 
curious events, and not a little of slanderous 

The companies might have outlived all this 
if they had not fallen out among themselves. 
Joseph Little had lieen followed as chief en- 
gineer by Jacob Fitler in 1854. Charles W. 
Purcell in 1855. Sauniel Keeley in 1856. An- 
drew "Wallace in 1857, and Joseph W. Davis 
in 1858. Davis had been captain of the In- 
vincibles, and was one of these positive char- 
acters who make strong friends and equally 
strong enemies. Charges wei'e made against 
the fairness of his election and also of his 
management, and i\w dissensions in the de- 
partment became acrimonious. In 1859 an 
effort was made to restore harmony by elect- 
ing John E. Foudra.v chief engineer. He 
had not been a member of any company, but 
there was somi as much ob.iection made to 
him as to Davis. On August 13. 1859. the 
council added the last straw bv instructing 



North Side. Illinois to Meridian. 


Xmili Si. I. M.ridian to Pennsylvania. 

Soiitii Side. Pennsylvania to Meridian. 

f\y. II. Hiixa Phnlo Compamj.) 

Little's Hotel. State Bank 

Court House. 



thr coiiiiiiitti'c on tirt- (lepartnH'iit ti) ascer- 
tain on what tci'nis a steam fire eni;ine conld 
be profured. The first steam fire enj>ine 
had been built in the United States in 1853, 
but they were rapidly gaining favor not only 
on account of efficiency bi;t also because, as 
]\riles Greenwood said, they "neither draiilc 
whisky nor threw brickbats"". The com- 
panies were alarmed, and with cause. At 
that tinu^ Joseph K. English, of the ^larion.s, 
was president of tbe Fire As.sociation and 
also councilman from the first ward. On 
August 27 he introduced a resolution that 
"in the opinion of this council it is inex- 
pedient at this time to attempt any I'eoiiiani- 
zation of the Fire Department of this city"", 
which wa,s laid on the table. On August 30 
it was taken up. discussed, and lost, the vote 
standinir. Ayes: English, Ilaughey, Kidilman, 
McXabb, Pratt and Wallace; Noes: Cottrell, 
GeiseiuloriT, Locke, Metzger, Richmann, Sei- 
bert, Tilley and Vandegrift. A resolution 
that it was expedient to reorganize the fire 
department, and that a connnittee of five 
be appointed to prepare a plan, was then 
inti'oduced and passed by a vote of 10 to 4, 
Ilaughey and Wallace joining the reorgan- 
izers. For this connnittee Mayor ^laxwell 
named Richnuinn, Geisendorff, ]\IeNabb, Van- 
degrift and Wallace. On motion Locke and 
English were added. 

On Septembei- 4 the ma.jority of the com- 
mittee repoitetl a plan to continue the pres- 
ent companies in active service, to 
at once a third-class steam engine with hose 
reel and e(|nipment, and to issue bonds in 
payment. The minority, English and 
Mc.Vabb, recoMunended indefinite pestpone- 
nu^nt : they urged that "whilst we admit the 
superiority of a paid fire department in some 
respects, over the present volunteer system, 
and while we ai-e willing to admit that the 
present dei)artment is not a.s active in some 
of it.s branches as it might he", the expense 
was too gi'cat 1o lie luidertaken. and "wc 
also believe that the pi-esenf depai'tment can 
be made efficient and even respectable if the 
propel' course be taken by the citv council"". 
They also ofVe)-e<l a resolution "that foi- the 
encouragement of the ])resent volunteer de- 
partint>nt all trood citizen.s be requested to 
rebuke persons who have either wilfidly or 
iunorantiv abused and slandenvl the members 

of the fire department, by joining some of 
the fire companies now existing'". The nu- 
nority report was quickly i)ut to rest, and 
the majority report, after being amended to 
provide for a connnittee to inquire at what 
price an engine could be bought, and whether 
it could be paid for in bonds, wa.s adopted. 
The connnittee appointed was composed of 
Locke, Cottrell and Richmann. At the same 
meeting a connnittee composed of Vande- 
grift, Richnuiini and Metzger, which had been 
appointed to investigate the demands of the 
companies for new hose, reported that there 
was plenty of hose which needed only to be 
oiled and put in repair, and that they had 
taken the liberty of Ordering this to be done. 
(The couneilmen were fire wardens under the 
charter law.) This report was accepted, and 
the committee was directed to see that its 
orders were carried into efi'ect. 

The committee of inquiry proceeded to 
busines.s by solicitinu' both bids aiul exhibi- 
tions from the engine manufactui'ei-s. which 
met favorable responses. On September 23 
and 24 a Latta engine was exhibited here at 
the county fair, and tried before the com- 
mittee at the Palmer House cistern — corner 
of Illinois and Washington streets. On Oc- 
tober 15, and again on the 22d, a Lee & Lar- 
ned ensrine was tried at the canal. On Oc- 
tober 22 the connnittee reported that city 
bonds could be sobl at 93 cent.s or could be 
u.sed at that fiirure in the purchase of an 
engine ; that the Latta and Lee & Earned 
conipanie.s had both made offers which were 
submitted; and recommended that a commit- 
tee of three be appointed with discretionaiy 
power to purchase an engine as socm as pos- 
sible. The Latta company offered to furnish 
an engine for .$5,500 in bonds, and the Lee 
& Lamed company made an oft'er for •$4.()00. 
On October 29 the Lee & Lai'ned offei- was 
accepted, and a motion, offered by Coun- 
cilman Wallace, was adopted that the insur- 
ance company givins" the lamest amount, 
.$500 or upwards, and paying for the letter- 
ing on the engine, miiiht name it. It is not 
reeoided that this chance for advertisement 
was utilized. 

Tlu> relations of the companies and the 
council now became tense. On November 12 
a resolution was ottered in council that 
"wh(>i'(>as it is repoj-fed that the volunteer 

TTTSToijY OF (;i!i:.\'ri;i; 


fire cdiiipMuii'S ai'P in a state of rebellion and 
refuse to render strviee at tires,'" tlie eoiuicil 
buy two engines and hose wagons, buy four 
horses, hire six men to take eharge of tlie 
equipment, and employ 40 men to \v<irk thr 
engines. Xo action was taken then, but it 
was eviilent that there would be. and on that 
day Councilman Kiiirlish resigned. On No- 
vendici- 14. tlie council, by an unanimous vote, 
suspended the rules and pa.ssed an ordinance 
di.sbandiug the volunteer companies. It then 
pa.s.sed another organizing a paid department 
with Joseph W. Davis as chief engineer. Then 
followed a resolution for two engine com- 
panies and a liook and ladder company, the 
first engine company, under Capt. Charles 
Richiiiann to take tlie Conqueroi- engine and 
the Invincible's house; the second, under 
Capt. W. 0. Sherwood, to take the Indiana, 
No. 4, engine and the Western's house: and 
the hook and ladder company, under Capt. 
W, \V. Darnall, to take the apparatus and 
house of the old company on the west end 
of the .Market S(|uare. Conncilmen Wallace. 
VandcL'rift and (ieisendortf were appointed 
a eonuiiittce to carry the resolution into ef- 
fect and make such contracts as might be 

On -Xovember 19, Hichmann reported that 
his eompany wa.s organized and 25 men em- 
ployed. Daniall i-eported that he could not 
organize the hook anil ladder company unless 
a iiorse wei-e fui-iiished to haul the ti'uck. 
which was (piite heavy. Sherwood reported 
that he was unable to organize a eompany. 
and that the cause of the failure was ob.jec- 
tion to Chief Engineer Davis. ]Mr. Cotti-ell 
at nncp offered a motion that, inasmuch as 
the wester'ii part of the city had failed to oi'- 
ganize. the engine be located at the Xo. o, ]irovided a eompany organized there. 
This was lost, and the mihler course was 
taken of directing the chief engineer to fur- a list of names to Captain Sherwood. 
and that he accept them "if sober and com- 
petent men". At the same meeting the com- 
mittee which had been appointed to buy 
horses reported the i)urchase of foui-. and 
recommended the |)nr('hase of two more, one 
of which should be f(u- the hook and ladder 
company; which recommendation was adopt- 
ed. On Xovember '26, Sherwood and Darnall 
'■eportcd their companies organized and ready 

i'or .service. At this meetintr the council took 
uj) the resignation rf Mr. Knglish. .•nd 
adopted luianiinously a resolution i-ecitiug 
that lie had resinned "for the rea.soa that 
he was an untiring and uncompromising 
friend of the ^'olunteel• Fire Department, anil 
preferred to i-etire rather than to a.ssist in 
instituting a paid fire (le]iai'tiiieiit " : that "we 
ap])reciate his efforts in behalf of the Volun- 
teer Fire Department, and rcLrret that we 
were deprived of his services in instituting 
the new department": and that the council 
"bear testimony that he was faithful and 
honest in all his otificial acts while letrislatiiur 
for the city, and we feel his loss from our 
couiu'il chamber". This oil foi- the troubled 
waters was introduced by Councilman Andy 
Wallace, who was a wise nuin in his genera- 
tion, even if he did later write a letter to 
one of the city papei's criticising the City 
Library because it contained "the pernicious 
works of Bocos", 

Thi' atmosphere now beuan to clear. On 
Di'ceiiiber 3 the Reliefs submitted a compro- 
mise proposition offering to surrender their 
new engine aiul all apparatus except the old 
rowboat engine if the city would pay the 
sum of !)>742.1o, which was still due on the 
engine. This was at once accepted. On Jan- 
uary 14, 1860, the ^Marions submitted a prop- 
osition to sui'i'cnder all of their property if 
the city would pay the amounts still iliie on 
the same. This was referred to a committee, 
which found the amount due to be $9(1. :?n, 
and the otfei- was accepted. With these trans- 
a<'tions the relations of the city and the vol- 
unteer companies closed, and an cixieh in 
the city's history ended. It is gratifying 
that the ending was sueli as to leave no bit- 
terness. There has always lieen a warm feel- 
inc for the men who fei- miu'c than a (luarter 
of a century foiiuht the city's battles against 
fii'c. and there have been no bettei- friends 
of the i)aid depai'tment than the old-time tire 
laddies who had learned from ex])erieiu>e what 
fire service meant. 

During the time of the volunteer depart- 
ment, fires were neithei- numerous nm- exten- 
sive as mea'jured bv the standards of today. 
Coal oil and gas( line were not in use, and 
Hues wei-(> not of intrieate construction. The 
framework of buildiii'.'s was heavier, and iiine 
was not in use. so that smne of the features 



of modem "slow-burning- eonstnietion" were 
iu ueneral use. And people were more care- 
ful, p(ssibly because more of them in pro- 
portion occupied their own homes and did 
not feel the tenant's lack of responsibility. 
The first recorded fire was Carter's tavern 
in 1825, as noted, and the second is said to 
have been the residence of Nicholas MeCarty 
about 1827. Henry Brady's residence was de- 
stroyed by fire July 15, 1832. The next of im- 
portance recorded was Scudder & Ilannaman's 
tobacco factory on Kentucky avenue in 1838, 
which is said to have caused a loss of $10,000, 
uninsured. On February 4, 1843, Wa-shing- 
ton Hall was damaged to the extent of $3,000, 
and only saved from destruction by hard 
work of the eni^ine companies and hundreds 
of citizens who formed bucket lines. The 
weather was very cold, the water freezing 
whenever it fell away from the fire. This 
was the great Whig hotel, and possibly for 
that reason efforts were made to burn it in 
May, 1848.' A fire on Washington street 
on May 14, 1848, burned out two or three 
stores, and threatened others, but was finally 
extineuished by the combined eft'orts of the 
engines and tlic citizens, women aiding in 
the bucket lines.- Another on December 27, 

^Locomotive, May 27, June 3, 1848, 
-Locomotive, May 20, 1848. 

1848, burned Stretcher's furniture store, 
Cox's warehouse and Xoel «& Co. 's warehouse.' 
The old Hannaman mill burned in January, 
1851, while occupied by ]Merritt & Coughlen. 
in 1853 there were some trying fires. The 
first was the large stables back of the Wright 
House, on August 10. Sevei'al other build- 
ings took fire from this, but by great elforts 
of citizens and firemen the destruction was 
confined to the stables. On November 16, 
1853, the old Steam iMill burned, and gave 
most of the community an exhausting task. 
The bad year closed with the burning of Kel- 
shaw & Sinker's foundry in December. The 
old ferry-house was damaged by fire on No- 
vember 27, 1855, and Carlisle's mill was 
l)urned on January 18, 1856. In 1857 the 
foundry of Ira Davis & Co. at Delaware and 
Pogne's Run was destroyed by fire. The year 
1858 was another bad one. witnessing the 
burning of Ferguson's pork house, Allen 
May's pork house, and the old city foundry, 
which was then occupied by E. C. Atkins 
with an inc'pient saw works. Atkins then 
built and occupied a small shop near the same 
place, which burned in June, 1859. The 
burning of Hill's saw mill on East street, in 
October, 1859, closed the era of the volun- 
teer companies. 

''Locomoiivc. December 30, 1848, 


(By Mks. Anx.v C. Baggs.)' 

I cannot fcnu'inin'i- wlun I was not re- 
ligiously inilini'd. The bible I have read 
and stiulieil from childhood. I enjoyed the 
iarg:e family bible that lay on the stand in 
my mother's n oin when I was not tall enoiig:h 
to read it with ease. It was what we called 
a candle-stanil. There was always a white 
cover, with netted frinjie around it, on that 
stand, and on top the bible. I had a little 
green wooden stool upon which 1 stood to 
make me hi^h enouuh to look at the pictures. 
and read in the ^food book. '!"he schools were 
very diti'ei-ent then and now. What dititicnlt 
text books we had I No simplified work for 
us ! At eight years of age I was in the large- 
dictionary spelling class, where we were com- 
pelled to conunit a cohuiui of words with 
their definitions daily. .Joscpbus Cicero 
Worrall was our teacher; woe be unto us if 
we did not have our lessons. In this same 
school were the Wallace, Cobni'u and Dunlaji 
boys. I next attended a ^fethodist school 
for two years, taught by a ^fiss Leseur. She 
was not nnieh of a teacher— at least she did 
not a|)peal to me. She was a cranky maiden 
lady. When I was eleven years old. my 

' Mi's. Anna ('. Haggs, who has kindly 
furnished this chapter, is a daughter 
of Obed Foote, mentioned elsewliere as one 
of the earliest settlers of Indianapolis, and 
the most prominent of its early .justices of 
the peace. As a luitive, and life-long resi- 
dent of Indianaiiolis. educated at St. .Mary's 
Seminary, and always in close touch with 
the religious lif(> of the place, her conti-ibu- 

tion has an cs| ial value as histoiy at first 


Vol. 1—12 1 

bi'other arrived at tin- age of twenty-one, 
and I chose him for my personal guai-dian, 
and Mr. Sanuicl Heck (an old friend of the 
familj^j for my property guai'dian. .My 
brother sent nic to St. Clary's Seminary, an 
Kpiseopalian school. Dr. Samuel Johason 
was rector of the church and also principal 
of the school. His wife, Julia (aftei'wards 
.Mrs. Stoughton A. Fletchei-i, was his a.ssist- 
ant. Dr. Johnson, both as rector and as 
teacher, was true to his pujjils. He helped 
us both intellectually and spiritually. I 
think he was disappointed that I did not 
choose the Episcopalian church, but I told 
him I could not be a true church woman, be- I believed in other denominations, and 
that there were other churches as good as 
the Kpiscopalian. 

In the fall of LS4« l)i-. (lillette was sent 
to Roberts Chapel. He was one of nature's 
noblemen, a thoroughly consecrated Christian 
uiinister, so graceful and courteous in man- 
ner. Having been educated in the navy, he 
renuiiued in the navy for two or thi-ee years 
after his conversion: then he felt the call 
to i)reach, and entered the ^lethodist itiner- 
acy. His sermons abounded in nautical ex|)re.s- 
sions. He seemed to know the bible fi'om the 
first verse of Genesis to the verse of 
Revelation. His charming mannei's first at- 
tracted me; he was so gentle in his bearing 
to everyone. I was the first yoiuig person he 
spoke to on the sub.iect of religion, in Iinlian- 
apolis. He was especially interested in me 
liecause I was an oi'|ilian. He began pro- 
tracted meetings about the firsf of Jaiuiary, 
1S47. It was my last year at school. I could 
not attend the meetings regularly. Init on the 



28th (if •Tiiiiuai-\-. iii>' t'onrtrentli liirllidjiy, I 
went to the Thursday night nieetinu. I went 
to the allar, cave myself to tlie Loid; eom- 
mitted my way unto Him. 

I think it was really the beaiitifiil man- 
ners of Dr. and Mrs. Gillette that just at 
that time won me to IMethodism, for I am the 
only member on either my mother's or my 
father's side that is a ^Methodist. ^Fy mother 
had been a charter member of Roberts Chapel, 
but she died the ijth of January. 184:1 I 
attended the Rolieits Chajiel Sunday-sehool 
in the afternoon, but the Episeoi)alian Sun- 
day-sehool in the mornins, often staying to 
church with my sister, who was a couununi- 
cant of Christ Church. For two years be- 
fore I joined the church I was a member of 
Brothel- Tutewiler's class, and a rejrular at- 
tendant. I did not speak, but I attended. 
And whil(> I was not an acknowleds'ed mem- 
ber of the church until I was fourteen years 
old, I always received a little pink ticket for 
the quarterly love feast, for in those days you 
could not enter the love feast meetinjr with- 
out a ticket— otherwise the members would 
have been crowded out, so general was the 
desire to hear the experiences of these 

Seventy yeai's aso the (|uarterly meeting 
was an important event to the little connnun- 
ity that worshipped in the ^Methodist chni-eh 
at the southwest corner of ^leridian and 
Circle streets (now ^rouument Place). For 
weeks the "apiiroaching quarterly meeting'' 
had been a subject of prayer, not only in 
the congregation on Sabbath, but at the 
weekly prayer meeting, the family altar, and 
at secret prayer; "that there might be a 
refreshinu- from the pi'esence of the Lord, 
sinners convicted and converted, backslidei's 
reclaimed, and believers built up in theii' 
most holy faith". In the homes they were making |)repai-ations to entertain the 
presiding elder, the district stewards, ami all 
visiting brethi-en. The members of the church 
po.ssessed the old-fa.shioned idea of hospitality 
and the.v deemed it a pleasure to entertain 
not only the elder and stewards, but other 
friends that came in from the surrounding' 
country to enjoy the ])rivileges of the meet- 
ings. The simple muslin curtains were freshly 
laundered and rehung, the andinms given an 
extra polish, the brick heai-tbs a fi-esh co<ir 

of red ])aint, and the jiantry rejjlenished with 
the good things so necessary to the happiness 
of the hostess or enteitainer. 

The elder generally arrived in the village 
Thursday m time for supper and the prayer 
meeting. Friday before the quarterly meet- 
ing was always observed as a day of fasting 
and prayer. A.lso on this day the elder, with 
"the preacher in charge", visited the homes 
of the aged and the sick members, in 
fact all the shut-ins, holding with each a sea- 
son of song and prayer. Friday evening 
there was a short service in the church. Sat- 
urday morning at 10 o'clock there was a 
preaching service. The men of the church 
attended, as well as the women. I have often 
heard the old folks sav, "what a blessed meet- 

(From an old cut.) 

iug we had this morning : I really believe our 
Saturdaj' morning services are the very best 
of the season"'. It was no small sacrifice 
for some that were pi'esent to lay aside their 
business in the middle of the day and spend 
an hour or longer in worship. Satui'day 
evening was given over to the preparation 
for the Sabbath. The good housewife had 
everything arranged that as little cooking as 
possible should be done on the Sabbath day. 
On quarterly uu='eting occasions, knowing a 
crowd would be present Sabbath morning, 
we were all ready and stai-ted in good time 
to obtain comfoi-table seats. I rather liked 
the eai-ly ai-riva! at the church, for I could 
watch the people as they entered. Fathers 
and nuithers, brothens and sisters could walk 



to the church tog-ether, but at the door they 
must be separated, the boy.s goino: with the 
fattier on one side of the aisle, and the girls 
witli th'' mother on the other side. 

.\iiii ng the first to (>ntei-. in a very stately, 
dignified uiaiuu'r. were Morris Morris, wit'e. 
boys an<l girls. The fathi'i-. a tall, angular 
man. aeeoniiianied iiy the sons, Austin, 
Thomas and John : the mother, a stout lady, 
always dresseil in soft gray dresses, wool in 
winter aiul silk in sununer, her daughters, 
Aiiumda. Julia and the little girl, Bettie. 
Mrs. Morris oci-upied a ehair in the "aineii 
corner", and the girls sat near her. .Mrs. 
JLorris earrit'd a large white feather' fan, 
which was the admii'Htiou of njy young life. 
I resolved that when I grew to be a big lady 
I would have a fan like hers. But here comes 
Alfred flaiM-ison and his sweet-faced wife, his 
dauirhter Mary, a tall. (|ueenly girl, and the 
little iiirl. Des.sda. Down the opposite aisle 
w:iiki-d Mrs. Kinder with her four dauvjhters. 
tlie famous twins among them. Then came 
Mrs. Henry I'orter and Miss Pamelia nan- 
son; and here is brother Isaac Phipps with. 
his merry black-eyed wife and three mischiev- 
ous daiis^hters: tlien Tncle George Norwood, 
his daughters ^laria and Louisa following; 
then .Mi-s. Pa.xton and Miss Susan Luce, so 
dennire and saintl.v-lookinu'. 

Then come Henrv TIannaman and his young 
wife; Mrs. (iiven and her thi'ee handsome 
dauL'hters; Aaron Johnson and his unique- 
looking wife. James Drum, immaculately 
clad. ap]iears. James was the leader of the 
siniring. and occupied the very front seat. 
Then there weiv amonir the younirer inembeis 
Samuel Beck. Henr.v Tutcwiler and Jesse 
Jones; but now the ciuircli is filling i'ai)idl.v. 
I am crowded into such a snudl sjiace in the 
corner my view is limited, hut there come 
the elder and the preacher. They lay their 
bats on the table, go up the steps of the pul- 
pit, and kneel a few miinites in silent i)i-ayci'. 
Then the elder annoliiiei's the hymn. I'ejiils it 
thi-oiiL'li : 

"Befcre .leJKivali '-- awful tlii'one 
Ve luitions bow in sacred .io.v. 

Kiiiiw that the Lord is God alone; 
lie e:iii eiivile Mild lie destroy.'" 

Tlieii iirL'iiii;' 1li<- eoiiL;reL.';itioM to sing with 

the spirit and the understiiiiding. he lines 
the hymn, two lines at a time. Brother Drum 
starts the tune. The whole congregation .ioiii 
in singing. There are few hymn-books in 
the audience, so the minister alwa.vs lines the 
hymns that are given out fi-om the pulpit. 
After singing the hynui, the entire congrega- 
tion is requested to kneel in prayer. All, 
turning, kneel with faces to the backs of their 
l)ews. It seem.s to me now, through these sev- 
enty years, I can hear the dee|) tones of the 
elder as he revei'enflv pra.ved ; "Oh. Thou 
who inhnbitest eteriiit.v. Thon Ci'cator and 
ju'eserver of mankind. Thou who ditlst send 
Thine oidy begotten Son into the world, that 
will soever believeth on Ilim should not per- 
ish, but shoidd have eternal life: to Thee we 
come this morninu, knowing we are unworthy, 
but we come in the name of Jesus, our Medi- 
ator and Redeemer." 

The pra.yer of adoration, of confession, of 
supplication, of thanksgivitiir, was accompan- 
ied by the heart.v ''aniens", "hallelu.iahs". 
"praises to the Lord", of the earnest mem- 
bers of the church. At the conclusion of the 
prayer the congregation, being seated, led by 
Brother Dr>un, the.v heartil.v .joined in sing- 
ing some familiar hymn: "Come, Thou 
Fount of Every Blessing", "Jesiis "Sly All to 
Heaven has (ione", or "Oh, Hapi\v Day that 
Fixed My Choice". The morning lessons 
woidd be read, one fi-om the Old, the other 
from the New Te.stament. The inevitable col- 
lection would be taken, with an exhortation 
to give liberally to the support of the chiu'ch. 
.Another h.ymn lined and sunu'. and then would 
conu' the sei-mon. In those da.vs the jiresidimj: 
elders were the strong men of the confei'cnce 
and invai'iabl.v go'd sermonizers. The ])cople 
were willing to listen to a sermon an hour 
and fifteen or an hour aud twenty minutes 
long. I believe, a.s a rule, their senuons were 
on God's plan of saving the woi-ld. the iilau 
of salvation from the .\i-iiiiiiiMii pnint of 
view. The text would be from the Old Testa- 
ment, some lu'oplieey nf the coming of the 
.Messiah, the eflect of His coming and the 
results. The fii-st of th(> sermon was argu- 
mentative, the secoiul fulfilled pi'0])liec.v, and 
lastl.v the efl'ect on the wiu-ld of the coming 
of Christ, the api)lication to dui' own souls — 
the consciousness of ;i personal Savi(U'. T 
(d'fen wondered wli\' the Hist of the sermon 



was not as enthusiastically delivered as the 
suniniint;- up at the close. 

^\fter the sermon "the doors of the church 
were opened", an invitation given to join 
the church, either on probation or by letter, 
the long meter doxology was sung, the con- 
gregation was dismissed with the apostolic 
benediction. They slowly and reverently filed 
out of the church, but when out on the lawn 
began the buzz of the greetings of the breth- 
ren and sisters of the chiu'ch. The out-of- 
town visitoi-s were invited to the homes of the 
members. The sernum and church affaire 
were the topics of conversation ; all worldli- 
ness was avoided. Arriving at the homes, 
the dinner was soon in readiness. No expanse 
of fine table linen was visible, for every avail- 
able inch was covered. Either turkey or 
chiclicn (according to the season), vegetables, 
jellies, pickles, preserves, bread, butter, pie 
and cake. The viands were all placed before 
you. You could make your choice of the 
various eatables. How heartily they did eat! 
After dinner there was a little rest for the 
older people. The children went to the Sab- 
bath school. At 3 o'clock the members gath- 
ered at the cliurch to celebrate the holy com- 
munion. After entering the house of God 
there was no recognition of friends, no bow- 
ing and smiling, but everyone seemed engaged 
in silent prayer. The services were intro- 
duced by singing that grand old hymn: 

' ' When I survey the wondrous cross 
On which the Prince of Glory died, 

]My richest gain I count but loss. 
And ]>our contempt on all my pride." 

The ordained ministers and local preachci-s 
were invited to come to the altar and join in 
the consecration of the bread and wine. After 
the simy)]e ritual of the church was concluded, 
and the ministers had partaken of the holy 
emblems, all the members of the IMethodist 
church, and the members of any sister church 
that might be present, were invited to come 
to the table of the Lord. Brother Drum was 
requested to lead in singing a vei-se, while 
conniiunicants were coming and going, but 
not during the administering of the sacra- 
ment. He began \\ itli : 

■'lb' dies, the friend of sinners dies. 
Lci, Sjili'in's daughters weep around; 

A sudden darkness veils the skies, 
A sudden trembling shakes the ground. 

Come saints and drop a tear or two 
For him who groaned beneath your load ; 

He shed a thousand drops for you— 
A thousand drops of riclier blood." 


"Alas, and did my Saviour bleed? 

And did my Sovereign die? 
Would he devote that sacred head 

For such a worm as I?" 

The beginnings of the hymns were sad, but 
they ended with the triumph of the risen 
Christ. As the meeting progressed the hymns 
became more joyous. After all the white 
folks had communed, the ci)lored friends from 
the gallery were invited to come and i)artake 
of the holy conmuinion. With suppressed 
emotion they came down the gallery steps and 
down the aisle to the table, i'rostrating theiii- 
selves, with most reverent humility, they re- 
ceived the emblems of Christ's broken body 
and shed blood. Their joy was too great to 
be further restrained ; they went back to theii- 
seats shouting hallelujahs to God. 

IMonday night the love feast was held. As 
mentioned, no one could be admitted witiioiit 
a ticket. The members received their tickets 
when they paid their quai-terage. Outsiders 
could procure tickets from the pastor or some 
one of the class leaders, but they nuist prom- 
ise to conduct themselves propei-ly while pres- 
ent. On a table in front of the pulpit were 
four plates of very small squares of lijzlit- 
bread, and as many pitchers of water with 
glasses. After the singing of a hynni and 
prayer came the peculiar ceremony of pa.ssing 
this bread and water, each pei*son taking a 
liiece of bread and a sip of water in token of 
the love and fellowship existing among the 
members. Then the ((uarterly report was pre- 
sented by the pastor, telling of the niuiiber 
who had died, who had removed, the nuinher 
of probationers, the number of convei-sioiis, 
the present number of members in full stand- 
ing, and the moneys received and disbursed. 

The pastor would give his persoiud experi- 
ence, then turn the meeting over to the mem- 
bers to conduct according to tlieir pleasure. 
Father Foudray, a sweet singer in Israel, was 
generallv the first to speak, lie liked, he 

lllsroKV OK (MiKATKi; I N DlAXAl'Ol.lS. 


Siiiil. ti> "sti'ii out from tlic h\ tln-imj;- and 
sit ilowii by the wayside to meditate on and 
talk aliont the Chi-ist", who had done so niueh 
foi- liim. Christ had always been a present 
help in every time of trouble. "He walks 
by my side and helps me over the roush 
places. lie is the ( )ne in whom my soul takes 
delitrht.'" Sittinii- down he sintrs: 

"Oh. 'I'hon in whose ])resence my snul takes 

On whom in affliction I call: 
My comfort by day and my song- in the night : 

My hope, my salvation, my all." 

A strange brother arises and says: ''Ten 
years ago at a eamp-meeting across the Ohio 
river, in the woods in Kanetucky. I was con- 
victed of sin. I went to the mourner's bench. 
sought forgiveness, was pardoned, and, thank 
the Lord, I have never backslid. Pray for 
me, friends, that I may always be faithful, 
outride the storms of life and get home to 
glory." Mother Little would speak. She al- 
ways held her hantlkei'chief over her face, and 
with a sobbing, muffled voice gave her experi- 
ence. Those near her could understand, hut 
I could not catch her words. There was al- 
ways a peculiar interest in listening to her, 
hecause, in the old country, she had seen and 
heard .lolui Wesley, and was one of his eon- 

Brothel- l'lii|)ps was a very proud young 
iiiiin and ahhoi-i'ed the mourner's bench, but 
when ho was convicted of sin and felt the 
need of a Savioui-, he found him.self on his 
knees at the mourner's bench praying aloud 
for mercy. The Lord heard his prayer, and 
forgave his sins. .Vow he could sing: 

"My God is reconciled, 
I liis pardoning voice I hear, 

lie owns me for His child, 

I can no longer fear, 

(ilory to His name." 

A dear old lady arcse and said: "When 
a little girl I attended a revival meeting at 
old St. CJeorge's church. Philadelphia. After 
a stirring exhortation by the pastor, he said, 
'Now, everybody tluit wants to lead a new 
life, that would like to be a follower of Christ, 
hold up your right hand'. I saw the hands 
going up. I felt I wanted to hold up mine. 
but T was sue]] a little girl no one would 

n< tice me. I had on a little red cloak. I held 
up my hand under my cloak, and made my 
pledge to my heavenly Father. I knew He 
could see me, if no one else could. I am 
thankful for that decisive moment, for Jesus 
has been my friend all my life. Amidst all 
its vicissitudes He has been with me to com- 
fort and sustain me. Thank the Lord that 
even a little child nuiy know Him." 

A brother said: "I came here this evening 
with a heavy heart, the cry of which is, 
' Where is the blessedness I knew when firet 
T saw the Lord? Where is the soul-refresh- 
ing view of Jesus and His word?' Friends, 
pray for me that the clouds may be removed 
from my mind-sky, and that I may once moi-e 
be blessed with the witness of the Holy Spirit 
of my acceptance with Cod." A brother 

"Oh do not be discouraged. 

For Jesus is your friend. 
And if you lack for knowledge, 

H(>'11 not refuse to lend: 
Wither will He upbraid you, 

Thouah ofttimes you request; 
He'll give you grace to conquer 

And take you home to rest." 

A sister said: '1 :ini glad salvation is 
free: that whosoevei- will may partake of the 
water of life freely." Then with a voice that 
iilled the house with its melody, she sang: 

"Long as I live I'll still be crying, 

Mercy's free! ]\Iercy's free! 
And this shall be my theme when dying, 

Mercy's free! ?»Iercy's free! 
And when the vale of death I've passed. 
And lodged above the stormy blast, 
I'll sing while endless iiges last, 
M erey 's f i-ee ! iMei'cy "s free. ' ' 

The song and the singer awakened the 
greatest enthusiasm. An old man. trembling 
with age. arose and said : "My life is nearly 
spent. It will not be long luitil I shall come 
face to face with death. He that has been 
with me, will still be with me, and bring me 
off more than conqueror. T do not doubt my 
admittance into the New Jerusalem. Then 
I shall walk its gold-iiaved streets. The soft 
iiand of Jesus shall \\\]io every tear from my 
eye. I will meet the loved ones gone before, 
and we shall he forevei- with the Ijord. 



" 'AdcI wheu to Joi-dau's flood we are come. 

We are come; 
And when to Jordan's flood we are come: 
Jehovah rules the tide. 
And the waters he'll divide. 
And the ransomed host shall shout, 


le ! W 

e are eonie 

And so with song and testimony no time 
went to waste. One would infer from the 
experiences given that the Christian life was 
a warfare: that we oould not expect to go to 
lieaven on flowei'v licds of but — 

■ ■']"() watch, and ti'jlit, and pray, 

The battle ne'er give o'er, 
Renew it boldly day by day. 

And help divine implore." 
The i>astor said : 

■"My willing soul would stay 

In such a frame as this. 
And sit and sing herself away 

To everlasting bliss." 

"But it is time now to dismiss our meeting. 
We are grateful for the refreshment we have 
had from the Lord. Good has been done; the 
church has been strengthened. Now let us all 
sing : 

" 'Together let us sweetly live. 

Together let us die. 
And each a starry crown receive. 

And reign above the sky.' " 

The benediction was pronounced, and the 
quarterly meeting was something of the past. 
It was gone, leaving only pleasant memories. 
But not all the experiences of my childhood 
were so happy. I was brought up under the 
old-fashioned regime that children should be 
seen, and not heard. Being a delicate child. 
I was constantly thrown in contact with older 
people, heard much of their conversations, and 
drew my own conclusions. A few months of 
my childhood were terrorized by what was 
called "Millerism". I heard the people talk 
of the second coming of Christ. The day 
was set. and rapidly approaching. INIy imag- 
ination ran riot, depicting to my.self the hor- 
rors (sf what should be— the loud thunder; 
the lightning flashes; the rolling together of 
the heavens as a scroll ; the cries of the wicked 

as they would call upon the mountains and 
rocks to fall upon them, to hide them froiii 
the presence of the mighty God. They were 
not Millerites in our family, but the "ism" 
was discussed. I hoped they were right, yet 
feared they might not be. ily mother did 
not know the agony I suffered or she would 
have soothed and comforted me. Across the 
alley from our house, on the rear of the lot, 
lived Dicky Weeks and his family. There 
was a little girl of my age, and I used to play 
with this little girl. This family were ^liller- 
ites. They had their white robes made, ready 
at the second coming to fly up and meet the 
Lord in the air. To me that was a wonderful 
thing. Dicky Weeks had laid aside his daily 
labor, and .spent his time in prayer, praise 
and reading the bible. He believed God would 
care for his own, even with all temporal bless- 
ings, as he did for the widow of Zarephath. 
f^very village had its yoimg wags : so. here, 
were the Wallaces, the Dunlaps and the Co- 
burns. They clubbed touether and decided 
that they would confirm Dicky Wells in his 
faith. As locks to doore and windows were 
superfiuous— really unknown— these young 
fellows could easily have access to the Weeks 
kitchen; so every night when the family 
would be sleeping, some one of the boys wnnUI 
place there supplies for the next day. 

At last the morning of the great dny ar- 
rived. Up from the countiy came an old 
lady, very tall, very angular. As she and 
her family drove into the village, she stood 
up in the wagon ; she had donned her white 
robe; she drove through the one principal 
street, ringing a bell, and exhorting the look- 
ers-on to make ready for the coming. Hav- 
ing gathered the faithful together, they 
started toward the highest point east of the 
village— I think where Hilton U. Brown's 
house now stands f Xo. 5087 E. Washington) ; 
and there they spent the day in prayer, praise 
and exhortation. The sun kept on his liright 
way, and Anally went down behind the iii'eat 
forest trees. The stars came out one by one; 
the bii'ds had gone to rest, and the tjuiet 
niyht was settling down sweetly and peace- 
fully over the earth. There had been no con- 
vulsion of nature. The old world seemed to 
be going on in the even tenor of its way. The 
poor deluded souls took off their white robes, 
folded them up cai-efullv and sori-owfnlly. 











Z 9 

< 5 

Z H 

Z -^ 



and wcndid tlu'ir way back to the village a 
disappointed, unhappy band.- 

Tliis incident introduces one of the unique 
characters of our church, known in his hiter 
years as Father Weeks. At this time there 
was but the one ^Methodist church, Wesley 
Chapel, in the vdlage. Father Foudray was 
my mother's class leader. He was mucli be- 
loved in our family. My mother was anxious 
for the conversion of a young lady cousin 
and my sister, who was about fifteen years 
old. She thought if they would attend the 
class-meeting, Father Foudray 's persuasive 
powers and sweet singing would influence 
them to the better life. They led class dif- 
ferently then ; members did not speak volun- 
tarily, but the leader called on every one in- 
dividually to testify. Father Foudray would 
not comjiel a timid sister to speak, but with 
a word of advice, a text of Scripture and an 
appropriate hymn, would pass on. Unfor- 
tunately for my cousin, Dicky Weeks, then 
a zealous young Methodist, was leading a 
portion of the class that morning. AVhen he 
came to this young lady, in a very loud, em- 
phatic way, he asked her to speak a word for 
the Lord— "Tell your brothers and sisters 
what the Lord has done for you the past 
week." My cousin smiled and shook her head. 
He said: "What! Not a word for the 

-Miller's jtrediction, based on an extremely 
plausible interpretation of Scripture, was 
that time would end in the vear. Jlareh 21. 
1843, to March 21. 184-i. After the latter 
date had passed, some of his followers con- 
cluded that the error had been made in not 
using the Jewish year, which extended the 
peridd seven months; and fixed the last day 
on (Jetober 22. which was generally acceiited. 
The boy.s mentioned as supplying Weeks were 
probably the victims of reputation. Weeks 
worked at Yandes & Wilkins" tan-yard, and 
his hopes and aspii-ations were fully known 
to Uncle John AVilkius. who was a member 
of the Methodist Chaiiel. and possessed of a 
marked vein of luuimr. Brother Henry 
Tutewiler. of the same church, likewise ap- 
preciative of a .ioke. and chunnny with Wil- 
kins, always said tliat Wilkins was the aiigcl 
that replenished tlie Weeks' meal-jar. which 
was set on the back porch for the conveni- 
ence of his siipei'iiaturnl fi-iends. 

Lord.'" As she did not respond, he said: 
"Brethren and sistei-s, let us kneel and pray 
that the dumb devil may be east out of this 
young woman'': and. fallinu' on his knees be- 
fore her, he prayed most vehemently that she 
might be released from the power of the evil 
spirit, and that thereafter she might be free 
to testify for the God that was so good to 
her. ]\Iy cousin, chagrined and humiliated, 
left the class-room never to return, but soon 
after, under the more gentle instruction of 
Henry Ward Beecher, became a good Pres- 
byterian: and my sister entered the Episco- 
palian Church. 

As the years passed, the old IMethodist hive 
became too full. The conference felt that 
there nnist be provision made for the increas- 
ing population, so. in 1842. from the little 
church at the southwest corner of ^leridian 
and Circle streets, there was an eastern charge 
set off, with ^Meridian street as the dividim;- 
line. Never was a church organized with a 
more devoted, self-sacrificing, practical, lov- 
ing, tender-hearted niembership than this 
"eastern charge", afterwards named Roberts 
Ciiapel— now Roberts Park. The motto 
adopted by this zealous people was, "Roberts 
Chapel, ail toaether". They knew that in 
uuion there is strength, and while there were 
differences of opinion, each party would yield 
a little to the other and thus all friction was 
avoided. "See how these brethren dwell to- 
gether in unity", was the one pride of the 
church. They were strongly intrenched in 
the old customs of men and women sitting 
apart : of no music but the human voice ; of 
plain dress — no putting on of gold and costly 
apparel : so it was possible in 1846 to pass 
the following preamble and resolutions: 

"Whereas, we, the uudersiirned members 
of the :\rethodist E. Church. Roberts Chapel 
(Quarterly Conference, and trustees of said 
Roberts Chapel, believe that instrumental 
music and choir singing in public worship are 
prejudicial to the w(u-ship of the Lord our 

"And whereas, we believe the Scriptures 
retpiii'e sacred music to be made with the 
human voice by sin'.;ing with the spirit and 
with the understanding also: therefore, 

"Resolved: That instrumental nnisic and 
choir singing in public worship shall never 

lIls'l'ol.'V OK CRKA'I'I 

be introduced into the eongregatiou attending 
said Chapel with our consent, while we are 
permitted to be members of said Chapel coii- 

■■2nd. Resolved: That we most sincerely 
request all our sueeessors to the offices we 
now occupy to adhere strictly to the prin- 
ciples contained in the above preambk' and 
resolutiou so lon<;' as it may please a kind 
Providence to let said Roberts Chapel stand. 
■■3d. Resolved: That each of the members 
of the (Quarterly ileetinii' Conference, to- 
sietlier with tlic ti'ustees. suliscribc lii'r<'witli 
their names officially. 

■■4th. Resolved: That the above be I'ccordcd 
in the church book, and a copy be foi-wardetl 
to the Western Cliristian Advocate for publi- 

■ 'Signed - 
"Is.\.vc Piiipps, Sec. J. ]\Iarsee, P. E. 

John Wilkiks Johx Louis Smith, S. P. 

Joiix I). TnoRi-H Abraham Koontz 


Henry Tutewiler Jas. W. Hii.l 
William Smith Sims Colley 
Joiix F. II ILL \V. R. Strange 

.\ndre\v Brouse 
•■Au-ust ■_'4tli. lS4(i."" 

In those days Bi-ntiuy Kai-ns and lirotlier 
Bristor sat in the center of tiie ehui'ch. and 
led the singinir. The young people, both girls 
and yoimg men, sat near them to assist in the 
imisie. This lasted until about ISoO, when 
Brother Thomas (!. Alfoi-d was transferred 
from Wesley Chapel to Roberts Chapel, and 
became the leader. Me was most faitliful — 
never jiitched a hymn toct high or too low. 
He coidd sing thi-iPUL;h a thi'ce months' revival 
I and be as fresh at the close as at the begin- 
ning. He was most aeconnnodating, never so 
happy as when singing, in the gi'cat congre- 
gation, at the social meetings, at the funerals, 
and at the bedside of the sick and d\iiii;. But 
as the years rolled on there was an unrest 
among the younycr people — the same old ex- 
cuse— we wanted to be moi-e like other people 
and other churches. The organ was first 
brought into the Sabbath school. :uid finally. 
on feast days, when the children took pai-t in 
•the service, up into the church. Families be- 
■,'an sittini: together. There were some cross 

Xni \\ AI'OI.I.S. 


looks from the older brethren and sisters, but 
we had been warned by our leaders never to the (luestions. but to be very gentle 
and respectful to our elders; and so these 
great changes gradually came about. As we 
left old Roberts Chapel I noi'theast corner of 
i\larket and Peiuisylvauia streets) to go into 
our new home, we left some of the old-fash- 
ioned customs, but not the spirit of the old- 
fashioned religion. A choir was organized, 
with Dr. Heiskell as leader. It was a volun- 
teer choir: no one was paid but the organist: 
This faithful leader aiul choir sei-ved over 
twenty years, when they were e.xeu.sed. and 
the new order of things was inti-oduccd. 

In relating these incidents of the long ago, 
I do not mean to .speak lightly, nor to find 
fault with the fathers and mothers of the old- 
time church. They had the peculiar ideas of 
their time concerning chui-ch government, the 
form of service and the style of dress: but 
they were honest in their belief and fully 
convinced in their own minds that they were 
right. I give them only to present an idea 
of the customs of other days, veiy different 
from the present. For change is written 
everywhere. '"AVhatever lies in earth, or flits 
in air, or tills the skies: all suffer change, 
and we that air of soul and Itody mi.xed are 
members of the whole:" and so our program 
of public woi'sliip has changed — just enough 
of ritual to add dignity and make the service 
impressive. As at the Easter time I listened 
to Hiss Hyatt play the March to Calvary. 
I heard the solenni tread of the soldiers as 
they led the ^Messiah from Pilate's .iudgment 
hall, on througli the streets of the city, out 
through the western gate, up the Mount of 
Calvai-y. and there the consununation of the 
gi-eat tragedy. The body, by loving hands, is 
conveyed to the new sepulchre, laid away, 
guarded by Roman soldiers. Then came the 
sweet strains of Mendelssohn's Spring Song. 
Early in the soft gray of the morning, that 
first day of the week, I hear the birds sing- 
ing: the grass is green: the crocuses, the daf- 
fodils, the tuli])s. the hyacinths are blooming; 
the brown buds are opening, clothing the fruit 
trees in their beautiful pink and white blos- 
soms; ;iiiil 1li;it sr|iiilclii-c has given up it.s 
occui)ant; and lie. the Christ, is risen. 



The reader will be aided in t-ettiiig a com- 
prehensive view of Indianai)olis as it was by 
a glance at the impressions it made on some 
of its visitors. Among- these was Mine. The- 
resa Pulszky, who was here iu 18.52, in Kos- 
suth's party, and who published an account 
of their visit to the United States under the 
title. "White, Red. Black". She opens the 
second vohune with the arrival of a deputa- 
tion from Indianapolis, at Cincinnati, to es- 
cort them to the capital, in accordance with 
the invitation of the legislature. They all 
started down the rivei', on a steamboat, for 
Madison : but Kossuth, who was extremely 
I)laiu-spoken, and who apparently discom- 
moded himself for no one. shut himself up 
in his cabin 1o lest, and left his party to 
entertain the committee. In her diary ;\[rs. 
I'nlszky says : 

"We found most amiable persons amongst 
them; Senator Mitchell and his lady, plain, 
unassuming and kind-hearted people, inter- 
ested themselves wannly about our children, 
and when they understood that we had four, 
they offered us to adopt one boy, as they were 
childless. I took the proposal fm- a .jest, but 
they told me that such adoptions were not 
unusual here, and the,v reiterated their kind- 
ness, sa.ying that by trusting the child to 
them we should not lose him. When his edu- 
cation would lie completed they would send 
him back to us. and if we did not return to 
Hungary, we should all come to them : though 
they were not rich, they had enough likewise 
for our wants. 

"Mr. Robert Dale Owen, also a Seiuitor of 
Indiana, is the son of the well-known philos- 
opher, Robert Owen, with whom he had man- 
aged the large conuiiunistical establishment of 
'New llariiHinv' on tiie Wabash, which has 

[>roved unsuccessful. We spoke about it with 
him, and he remarked that nothing cmdd re- 
place the stiuuilus of individual proprietor- 
ship. His brother has since become a cele- 
brated geologist, and has made the geological 
survey of the north-western country for the 
general government. He, himself, is a 
wealthy farmer in Indiana, of great influ- 
ence in the legislature. Some of the ideas 
of his father he introduced into the laws of 
Indiana. By his efforts the women have here 
more legal rights in respect to the manage- 
ment of their own propei'ty than in the other 
States where the English common law pre- 
vails, which considers the wives as miiuii-s, 
and deprives them of the control of theii- 
property. Accustomotl to see in Hunuai'y the 
\v(]men managing their own inheritance, the 
connnon law always appeared to me very bar- 
barous, and I was glad to understand that 
Indiana set an example, in this respect, to 
the other States of the Union. Mr. Owen 
spoke much about the new Constitution of 
his State. He had taken great part in fram- 
ing it last year, and explained to us that such 
a refonn was easily carried in America. When 
the General Assembly of a State finds it nec- 
essary to alter the Constitution, it submits the 
(|uestion to universal suff'rage, whether the 
jH'ople wish to elect a convention or not. If 
the ma.iority requires a new Constitution, the 
membei's of the convention are elected by the 
counties; a Con.stitution is drawn up. a short 
report marks the different i-ef(n-ms and inno- 
vations introduced, and the plan is submitted 
to the acceptance or re.iection of the people. 
The principal change suggested in the Consti- 
tution of 1851, was, that the General Assem-' 
bly shall not grant to any citizen privileges 
(ir' inmuuiities which shall nut e(|ually belong 


lllSI'ol.'V OF CKKATKR 1 X Dl A \ Al'OLIS. 


to all the citizens. Tliis tendency to diseou- 
tiuue jirivate bills, and to establish general 
laws for tlie public at lartre, is a remarkable 
feature of the di-aft. The Seci-etai-y. Auditor 
and Treasurer of State, and the Su|)renie and 
Circuit Judiies, foi-nierly eh( sen by the Leyis- 
lature, are now selected by tb.e people and 
the Judges are appointed only for a definite 
term, not for life. The Lciiislatnre is pro- 
hibited from incurring any debt, and resti-ic- 
tioiis are estal)lished for Banks. These re- 
forms j)rove that the Democrats had the ma- 
jority in the Conventimi. Provisions were 
likewise made for a uniform system of com- 
mon sehiiols. where tuition sliall be free; the 
Institutions for the blind, tlie deaf and dumb, 
and the insane, ami a House of Refuge for 
the reformation of Juvenile offenders, have 
become State Institutit ns. ilost of these in- 
novations liad been |)i-eviously accepted In- 
other States. The election of the Judges b.v 
the pc(iple. for instance, and foi- a limited 
term, luis been introduceit in Xew York. Ohio, 
and other States. 

"But the most striking featuie of the Xew 
Constitution was, to me, that whilst it begins 
with tlie declaration tliat all men are created 
e(|ual. it contiiins an article forbidiling any 
ni'gro or mulatto to come into the State nf 
Indiana after the adoption of the Xew Con- 
stitution, and rccomiuends that future legis- 
lation should provide for the future trans- 
portation of the free colored inhabitants of 
the State to the black republic of Liberia. 
Of course I did not dissuise m.v surprise at 
this inconsistenc.v, and ^Ir. Owen remarked, 
that as the negro cannot obtain c(|ual social 
and |)olitical rights amongst whites, owing to 
the anli|)athy of the two races, it is greatly 
to be desired that the black should find a free 
home in other lands, whci-c |)ublic opinion 
imposes u|)on color no social disabilities, oi' 
political disfranchisement. 'Oui- children 
shall not have helots bcfoic tliiir eyes', said 
he. 'l^ut why are the.v to be helots.'' asked 
I. 'In Ma.ssachuselts. as far as I know, in 
Vei'mont and in Xew Yoi-k, they are free citi- 
zens of the I'nited States, if they po,ss(>ss 
landed f)ropert.v.' The answer was that piili 
lie opinion disa|)proved this in Indiana. 

"Another most interesting acfiuaintance for 
nie was Mrs. Bolton, the poetess of Indiana, 
distinguished bv lirr talent and her iiccom- 

I)lishments. \Vc spent most i)leasant hours 
with lier. and as her name is not yet known 
in Europe. I insert here one of her poems, 
connrnmicatcd to mc by .Mi-. Owen: 

'Fi-om its home on high to a gentle flower. 

That bloomed in a lonel.v grove. 
The starlight came, at the twilight liour. 

And whisi)ered a tale of love. 

'Then the blossom's heart, so stiff and cold, 

(!rew warm to its silent core, 
And gave out perfume, from its inmost fold. 

It never exhaled before. 

'A.iul the blossom slept, tlil'o' the suiiuiiel' 

In tile smile of the aneel i'a,v. 
Hut the morn arose with its garish liijht 

.\nd the soft one stole awa.v. 

"Tlu'n the zephyr wooed, as ho wandered by 
Where the gentle How 'ret gi-ew. 

But she gave no heed to his ])laintive sigh, 
Her heart to its love was ti'ue. 

'Ajid the sunbeam came, with a lover's art. 

To cai-ess the flower in vain : 
She folded her sweets in her thrilling lu'ai-t 

Till th(> starlight came again.' 

"It is a sweet flower of the West. 

"Witli the other ladies 1 spoke much of 
their household concerns. The.v almost all 
lived on fai'ins or in small country towns. 
where their husbands, the Senators and Rep- 
resentatives, were law.vers. |)liysiciaiis oi- mer- 
chants, and come only to Indianapi lis fni' the 
session. All complained ol' the great dil'li- 
<'ult.v to get servants: colni-ed peeple are 
scarce, whites work on their own account, ;ind 
even the blacks say often, when askeil to come 
as a liel]), 'l)o your business yourself. The 
feeling of e(|ualit.v pei'vades this State so 
much that people do not like to work for 
wages. Towards evening we ari-ived at .Madi- 
son. The fashionaljle pe()t)lc had as-sembled 
in the church, and paid for their seats, in- 
tending the result to be given to the Ilun- 
e-arian funds: but Kossuth thought that in 
the countr.v of e(|ualit.v such ])roceedings were 
too exclusive, and he addressi^d the citizens 
of .Mailison from the baleon.v of the hotel. 

■'Todav \\r left this small citv on the rail- 



way. It is carried over a steep aseeiit from 
tlu- banks of the Ohio to the high plain of 
Indiana. Formerly this inclined plane wa.s 
worked by stationary engines, but a workman, 
Mr. Cathcart, overcame the difficulty by plac- 
ing between the two rails a third rail, with 
cogs corresponding to a wheel in the center of 
the wagons. One day. rolling a heavy barrel 
to the railway, he iiiis.sed the train, and had 
to roll the cask up the hill. He repeatedly 
stopped to rest, patting a stone under the 
barrel that it might not slip down, and was 
suddenly struck by the idea that cogs would 
alleviate the a.scent, and diminish the danger 
of the descent. He suljmitted his i)lan to the 
Railway Company, they advanced him the 
money for the experiment, and as it succeeded 
they built the present line, and gave him 
;t;fci,000 for his patent. With this capital he 
established himself as an engine builder in 
Indianapolis, and" is getting a wealthy man. 

■'In the afternoon we reached the capital 
of Indiana, a very small place, whose re- 
sources are not yet sufficient to ]irovide for 
drainage and ]iavement. The aboriginal mud 
of the rich soil reminded me here of the 
streets of Debreczin. We proceeded to the 
hotel, whilst the gentlemen were paraded 
through the sti-eets, and were introduced to 
the Legislature. The hotel is very far from 
nice, and the attendants seem to be fully 
aware that everybody here is to do his own 
business. For example, when I was in a 
hurry to dress for the levee of Governor 
Wright, and asked for a light, the waiter 
brought two tallow candles, put them in my 
hands, and pointing to the mantel-piece, he 
said, 'There are the candle-sticks,' and left 
the room. 

"We went to the house of the Governor; 
it is small, and I soon perceived why it is not 
so comfortable as it could be. In thronged 
the society and people of Indianapolis, ladies 
and gentlemen of every description. ]\[uddy 
boots and torn clothes, and again desperate 
attemi)ts at finery: iilass jewels and French 
silk dresses, which, after having found no 
jjurchasers in .\ew York, have been sent to 
the West. Some of llie mothers had their 
babies in their arms: workmen appeared in 
their blouses oi' dusty coats, just as they came 
from the workshoii : fai-mers stepped in high 
boots. Once iri(U-e we saw tliat tlir house of 

the ( overnor is the property of the people. 
And yet this incongruous mass did not behave 
unbecomingly to a drawing-room. There was 
no rude elbowing, no unpleasant noise, or dis- 
turbing laughter. Had they but shaken hands 
less violently ! I yet feel Western cordiality 
in my stiff arm. 

■■^ladame Kossuth found the heat so op- 
I>ressive that, accompanied by Mv. Pulszky, 
s!ie went to the adjoining room. A waiter 
was there arranging the table for supper. He 
looked so different from the society in the 
drawing-room that ^Ir. Pulszky asked him 
whether he did not come from the old country. 
"Yes, sir,' said the waiter, 'I came from Wor- 
cestershire.' 'Do you like this country?' 
'Sir,' was the answer, 'how could I like it? 
1 lived in the old country and have there 
served Lords. As soon as I have made here 
so much money that I can iive ([uietly in 
Worcestershire, I shall return." 

"ilarch 2nd. — Now we are really in the 
West. It rained for one day and we are 
confined to our room : even clogs are of no 
avail in the street, they stick in the mud. The 
wind enters our room through a crevice in 
the wall, large enough to pass through my 
hand; and the fai-e! The bell was rung, we 
went down to the dark dinner-room. The 
table was covered with pies, celeiy, mashed 
potatoes, sour wheat-bi-ead, tough cow-meat, 
and cold pork. In the bottles nuiddy water. 
The bell rung again, and the gentlemen burst 
boisterously into the rooms, rushed to the 
table, and pushing aside the chairs, stormed 
the places which were left unoccupied b.y the 
ladies. When the soup was handed round — 
I think it was an infusion of hay — soleiim 
silence ensued; I almost fancied we were 
under the rule of the Auburn system; not a 
single word was spoken, but foi-ks and knives 
worked steadily. Eating, as it seems, is here 
likewise a business, which unist be dispatched 
as quickly as possible. 

"Governor Wright is ;i type of the 
Hoosiers. and justly prtnul to be one of them. 
I a.sked him wherefrom his people had got 
this name. He told me that 'Hoosa' is the 
Indian name for maize ; the principal produce 
of the State.' The Governor is plain, eor- 

' As to this eiTor. see Ind. l/ist. Soc. f'ubs.. 
Vol. 4. Xo. -'. p. 17. 



dial and practical, like a farmer, with a deep 
religious tinge. Yesterday we went with him 
to the Methodist church, and I saw that 
Methodism is the form of Protestantism that 
best suits the people of the West. No glit- 
tering formalities, no -working on the imagi- 
nation, not much of reasoning; but powerful 
accents and appeals to the conscience, with 
continuous references to the Scriptures; in- 
terwoven with frequent warnings, pointings 
to heaven and hell. The audience seemed 
deeply moved; they sang unmusically, but 
praj^ed eai-nestly. I could not doubt the 
deep religious conviction of the people. 

"After dinner the Govenior went with ^Iv. 
Pulszky to visit the Sunday schools, which 
he very often attends. They found there all 
ages assembled; children and old men in- 
structed by the clergyman and regular and 
voluntaiy teachers. They read the Scriptures 
in diti'erent groups, and the teachers took oc- 
casion to explain history, ancient and modern 
geography, and to give other useful informa- 
tion, but always in connection with the Bible. 
Mr. Pulszky had to make a speech in each 
of the .schools, and (iovernor Wright atl- 
dressed them also, explaining to them that 
religion was the basis of social order, and 
instruction the only way to preserve freedom. 
He illustrated the obligation to submit to tlie 
law of the country by several happy examples 
from I'eccnt events in America. Such con- 
stant and pers(mal intercou7-se between the 
Chief .Magistrate of the State and the people 
he governs is really patriarchal, and is in har- 
mony with the intellectual standard of an 
agriculturid population. 

"Mrs. Wright (she died sbortlx' after this 
was wi-itten) has a strongly-marked, pui'i- 
tanical eountenance. It seems as if a smile 
had hai-dly ever moved her lips, and yet there 
is such placid scrcnit.v in her features as only 
the consciousness of well-performed duty can 
impart. The sister of (Jovernoi- Wright, a 
highly accomplished lady, gave me a lively 
pictvire of Western life, ever busy and weary- 
ing for tlie ladies: she keejis a school." - 

Another foreiirn visitor to Tndiana])<ilis was 
Hon. Amelia M. IMurray. who came in ISn.'i, 
and published this account of her visit : "In- 
dianapolis, May 19.— We reached Indianap- 

-WJiite, Red, Black, Y 

pp. (i-13. 

olis soon after the evening closed in. As 
hours are early in this part of the world, I 
determined to go to an hotel for the night, 
so as not to intrude on my friends at an 
inconvenient time. This was acquiesced in 
by (iovernor Wright, who visited me soon 
after my arrival. 

"May 20.— The Governor came early, and 
took me to his house. At half-past ten o'clock 
we went to the Episcopal church, where the 
duty was admirably done by a Mr. Talbott. 
originally from Kentucky, who preached a 
sermon, good in matter as in manner. Din- 
ner was at one o'clock, and at two I aeconi- 
|)anied the Governor to visit two large Sun- 
day-schools, belonging to difHi^'cnt denomina- 
tions. There are about fifteen in this town. 
They have each a superintendent; and young 
men and women of the various churches in 
the place give them a.ssistanee. In England 
we might take exanqde by the wisdom hi>i-e 
which limits Sunday-school attendance to one 
hour, and leaves the place and period of 
Divnne worship to be regidated by the parents. 
If the teaching at school is not such as to 
induce the children to go willingly to church, 
a forced going will not benefit their relig-ious 
feelings: and too often the fatieiied. bored 
appearance of Sabbatb-sehoiil ebildi'cn in our 
churches, is a sad comirientai'v upon the want 
of judgment evinced by the British public 
in this mattei-. The Sunday is kept at In- 
dianapolis with Presbyterian sti'ictness. Xo 
trains start, letters do not go, nor are they 
received, so that a father, mother, hu.sband. 
or wife, may be in extremity, and have no 
means of communicating their farewells oi- wishes if Sunday intervenes. Surely this 
is making man suboi-diiiate to the Sabbath — 
not the Sabbath to man. 1 have been annised 
at a story tokl me of an iidiabitant of this 
place. The Millenarian doctrine has been rife 
here; all throtigh Amc-ica faimtics have lately 
spread an idea that sublunai-y nuitters w'ere 
to close yesterday, ^lay lit. .\ man not usu- 
ally inclined to int.emi)era1e habits called at 
a store as the day waned, and i'C(|uested a 
nuig of porter to sujiport his spirits throuiib 
the expected catastrophe. Time wore on — 
still the elements looked calm. 'It won't be 
over yet aw'hile ; I must have another glass. 
'Tis very depressing to have to wait so long: 
give me some drink.' This continued till 


ll!S'|(ii;V OK (iUKATKi; I X i )I AXAI'OLIS. 

the poor frightened soul became dead druuk ; 
and he was much surprised next morning to 
find the world going on nnich as usual — with 
the exception of his aching liead. 

"^lay 21. — Governor Wi-ight invited me to 
accompany him in a morning walk at sunrise 
— foiir o'clock. I had some letters to write 
previously, lint by five we perambulated parts 
of the town, which is peculiarly laid out; 
the Court, or rather Oovernment-hoase. being 
in the centre (and it is said also the centre 
of the Union ; but that can only be a tempo- 
rary centre, for this place lies eastward of 
the middle of the continent) : and all the 
streets converging towards it. I occupied 
this moi'ning in arranging my dried speci- 
mens of plants, which occasionally require 
attention. W-e dined at one o'clock, and Mrs. 
Wright, at present an invalid, was sufficiently 
recovered to .ioin ns at table. After dinner 
I was happy to see Judge ]\[aclean,-' whom 
I knew at Wa.shington; he is come to 
hold a court : and Governor Powell, of 
Kentucln-. is also expected tomorrow. The 
Governor took ^Ir. ^faclean and me for a 
drive to see the Asylums for the Deaf 
and Dumb, and for the Blind of this 
State. They are both fine institutions, paid 
for by the people through special taxes, im- 
posed for the purpose, and paid ungrudg- 
ingly. They have sufficient ground attached 
for out-of-door occupations and exercise. The 
deaf and dumb make shoes and bonnets, farm. 
&c.. so as to acquire a knowledge which en- 
ables them to gain their future livelihood: 
and the girls are tauaht to be sempstresses, 
washerwomen, cooks, &e. Such charities 
should always ))e situated in the country : 
town life cuts off the most necessary and ad- 
vantageous means of training the inmates to 
healthful and useful pursuits. 

"From the cupola of the Asylum for the 
Blind the view is wide. These extensive 
plains of the West extend one thousand miles 
in the direction of Canada, and as far towards 
the Rocla' ^Mountains. There is one height 
or bluff about fifteen miles off, which I must 
go and look at. Indiana i)rodnces freestone, 
coal and iron. The AVabash. about sixty miles 
from hence, is the most eonsidei-able river. 

■'Judge Joiui ;\IacLi':in. then Judge of the 
U. S. Sujireme Court. 

Before we left the asylum, some of the blind 
pupils sang quartettes and duets, accoinpanie 1 
by one of their ninnber on the piano. They 
sang in tune and with good taste. 

''I have heard nnich of Democracy and 
Equality since I came to the Ignited States, 
and 1 have seen more evidences of Aristoc- 
racy and Despotism than it has before been 
my fortune to meet with. The 'Knownoth- 
ings', and the 'Abolitionists', and the 'Alor- 
monites', are, in my opinion, consequent upon 
the mammonite, extravagant pretensions and 
habits which are really fashionable among 
Pseudo-Republicans. Two hundred thousand 
starving Irish have come to this countrj-, 
and in their ignorance they assume the airs 
of that equality which they have been induced 
to believe is really belonging to American 
society. They endeavor to reduce to practice 
the sentiment so popTdai- here— but no— that 
will never do. Ladies don't like their helps 
to say they 'choose to sit in the parlour, or 
they won't help them at all, for equality is 
the rule here'. Jlrs. So-and-So of the 'Cod- 
fish' aristocracy doesn't like to have Lady 
Anything to take precedence of her; but 
Betty choosing to ]ilay at equality is quite 
another thing! Xow at Indianapolis I have 
found something like consistency, for the first 
time since I came this side the Atlantic. I 
do not assert there is equality, for the simple 
reason that it is not in nature; and (as Lord 
Tavi.stock once .so well said") 'the love of lib- 
ei'fy is virtue, but the love of equality is 
pride'; but here, the (iovernoi' of the State 
is a man of small income; his salary is only 
fifteen hundred dollars: he has really put 
aside money-making, and his son, an amiable 
young man, instead of wasting his time in 
rioting and drunkenness (which, alas! is too 
nnich the case with the sons of the 'Aristoc- 
racy' in the Ignited States), keeps a store to 
make his own fortune, and. as he nobly said 
yesterday, to i)i-ovide for that fathei- who has 
tlistlained to sacrifice his country to himself. 
(Jovernor Wright did not think it a degrada- 
tion to carry a basket when I accompanied 
him to the market this morning, and his whole 
demeanour is that of a consistent Re]>ublican. 
I do not care what a man's ])olifie;d creed 
may be (thouuh I much jirefer the monarch- 
ical in-inci})les of old Englijnd). but I do 
admire consistciicv : ;ni(l 1 consider the 



















































»— ( 
























i H 




'Kiiow-nothingr' movement as a eousequence 
of Tiiieertain principles. 

"^lay 22.- This day Governor Powell of 
Kentucky came on a visit here. He was in 
Canada two years since, and he spoke with 
admiration of Lord Elgin, and of his man- 
ner of eonduetinff the affairs of that Colony. 
The heat has siidilenly become intense ; to 
my feelings as hot as any day we had in Cuba. 
At last I conclude that winter has really 
given up our company, after returning to it 
so frequently, that I feel as if I had pas.sed 
three winters and three summers in America. 

"May 2.3. — I went at five o'clock this morn- 
ing to the Eastern market-place, where I first 
saw squirrels sold like rabbits for the table 
ready skinned. When dressed they are ex- 
actly like young chickens. I believe it is the 
grey squirrel. This evening the Governor 
had what is now in the States universally 
called a levee after the same fashion as the 
President's receptions. Governors of individ- 
ual States occasionally open their doors to all 
the citizens who choose to attend, and it is 
considered a compliment to stranger guests, 
like the Governor of Kentucky and myself, 
that the attendance should be good : so the 
rooms were filled. The Governor and his lady 
do not reeeive their visitors, but we all went 
into the room after they had assembled. No 
refreshments are expected on these occasions, 
but everyone shakes hands upon being intro- 
duced. The assemblage was very respectable 
and orderly; it concluded about eleven o'clock, 
having begun at nine. 

"May 24. — I went to see a Devonshire man 
and his wife, who have a vineyard; they have 
been settled here twenty years and are natives 
of Dartmouth: they look back to the old 
country with regret, and think they might 
have done as well there as here; though they 
have a cottage with an acre of ground their 
own property, and a married son and daugh- 
ter doing well, but poor people. Their young- 
est boy is an inmate of the Indiana Lunatic 

Asylum. ]\trs. N was brouiiht uji in the 

family of the lady who nursed the Duchess 
of (Jlducester, and remembers helping to make 
a cradle for the Princess Amelia. She was 
much delighted to find that I knew ^liss 

A . We spoke nnieh of England: I told 

her she was now adopted by this country, and 
that with her familv here, it was wronu' to 

hanker so much after that of her birth. ^Ir. 

N buries his vines in the ground, as soon 

as the wood has hardened, during the cold 
months of the year. I wonder whether this 
plan would make the vine more prolific in 
the open air with us. 

"!^Irs. Wright gave an evening partj- of in- 
vited acquaintances: a great many agreeable 
people from this and the adjoining State. 
One lady sang some of ^loore's ^Melodies very 
sweetly ; but, as yet, music is not much cul- 
tivated in America : either the ladies do not 
devote sufficient attention to it, or there are 
not good masters. This is almost the first 
time I have heard an American sing with 
taste and expression. This party did not con- 
clude before midnight. * » * x am told 
the thermometer stood at ninety-two degrees 
in the shade the day before yesterday, and 
the weather continues very hot, but there is 
now rather more air. Last night a naval 
gentleman told me that part of an iron fast- 
ening belonging to a ship had been found 
lialf embedded in a mass of iron, which had 
been supposed an aerolite, lying on a prairie 
in this country. From this fact a very mod- 
ern origin for the locality is deduced, because 
it is concluded that a mass of the kind in 
question must originally have been left by 
an iceberg. I mention this as it was named 
to me without pretending to decide upon the 
truth of the matter. 

"Thursday ^Irs. Wright gave an invited 
reception, with a standing supper. All went 
oft' well, and I saw the principal people of 
Indianapolis. Next morning I drove with a 
young lady to see what are called the Bluffs 
of the AVhite River, sixteen miles distance. I 
was suiprised to find that the road there was 
l)y no means what we should call a plain, it 
was rather a series of continued low eleva- 
tions, and many shoi't but steep hills mark the 
road. It pa.sses through a pretty country, 
bordered by farms, and watered by small 
streams, making their way to the White River, 
which attended our drive within a short dis- 
tance. 'The Bluff' in'oved to l)c a rather 
highei- hill than others, overlooking the river, 
and thickly timbered, but without a I'oek 
of any kind. I found the large leaved blwd- 
wort, theMay-apple. and a pretty red colum- 
bine growing plentifTilly in .soil formed by the 
(lead leaves of a tliousaiid autumns. The in- 



mates of a im'tty farm near at hand gave us 
hospitality and a sliai-i' of their dinner, while 
our eoaelniian aeted as guide and entered into 
my botanical researches with gi'eat interest. 
We made our way over the hill down to the 
river hank, where we saw the laborious but 
useless work for the formation of a canal, en- 
tered into by the State at an outlay of hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars just before rail- 
roads were put into action, anil abandoned in The small town of Waverly is 
situated a mile beyond the hill we came to 
visit. Our drive home wa.s a chilly one. The 
thermometer has again descended below 50°. 
These sudden changes from intense heat to 
cold are nuich greater than those we have in 

Froiii these views of passing strangers let 
us tui-n to those of one who came earlier and 
remained long enough to really know the 
place— to become a feature of it. Those whose 
memories reach back as far as 1877 are im- 
pressed by the great change that has come 
since tlien ; hut here is what Henry Ward 
Beecher wrote in 1877 of the changes that 
had occurred since he first came : "I went 
to Indianapolis in the fall of 1839 with a 
sick babe in niy arms, who showed the first 
signs of recovery after eating blackberries 
whieli I gathei-ed bj^ the way. The city had 
then a population of four thousand. At no 
time during my residence did it outreach 
five thousand. Heboid it today with one hun- 
dred and ten thousand inhabitants! The 
Great National Koad, which at that time was 
of great importance, since sunk into forget- 
fulness, ran through the city and constituted 
the main street. With the exception of two 
or three street,s, there were no ways along 
which could not be seen the original stumps 
of the forest. 1 bumped against them iu a 
buggj- too often not to be assured of the 

"Here I preached my first real sermon; 
here, for the first time, I strove against death 
in behalf of a child, and was defeated; here 
I built a house and jiiiinted it with my own 
hands; here I had my first garden, and be- 
came the bishop of tlowers for this diocese; 

'Letters from the I'nited States. Cuba and 
Canada, pp. :?28-3:U. 
Vol. 1—13 

here I first .ioined the editorial fraternity and 
edited the Fanner and Gardener; hei'^ I had 
my first full taste of chills and fever; here 
for the fii-st and last time I waded to chui-cii 
ankle-deep in mud, and preached with panta- 
loons tucked into my boot-tops. All is changed 

"In searching for my obscure little ten- 
foot cottage I got lost. So changed was 
everything that I groped over familiar ter- 
ritory like a blind man in a strange city. It 
is no louger mtj Indianapolis, witli the abo- 
riginal forest fi'inging the town, with pasture- 
fields lying right across from my house; with- 
out coal, without railroads, without a stone 
big enough to throw at a cat. It was a .joyful 
day and a precious gift when Calvin Fletcher 
allowed me to take from the fragments of 
stone used to make the foundations for the 
State Bank a piece large enough to put iu 
my pork-barrel. I left Indianapolis for 
Brooklyn on the very day upon which the 
cars on the Madison Railroad for the first 
time entered the town ; and I departed on the 
first train that ever left the place. On a 
wood-('ar, rigged up with boards fi-om 
side to side, went I forth. It is now a mighty 
city, full of foundries, manufactories, whole- 
sale stores, a magnificent court-house, beauti- 
ful dwellings, noble churches, wide and fine 
streets, and railroads more than I ran name 
radiating to eveiy jioint of the compass. 

"The old academy where I preached for a 
few months is gone, but the church into which 
the congregation soon entered still is standing 
on the Governor's Circle. No one can look 
upon that building as I do. A father goes 
back to his fii-st house, though it be but a 
cal)in, where liis children were bcu'n, with feel- 
ings which can never be ti'ansfei'red to any 
other [ilace. As I looked long and yearningly 
upon that homely building the old time came 
back again. I .stood in the crowded lecture- 
room as on the night when the curi-ent of re- 
ligious feeling first was begiiniing to fiow. 
Talk of a young mother's feelings over her 
first babe— what is that compared with the 
solemnity, the enthusiasm, the imix'tuosity of 
gratitude, of luunility, of singing gladness, 
with whicli a young pastor greets the incom- 
ing of his first revival? He stands upon the 
shore to see the tide come in ! It is the move- 



iiient of the infinite, ethereal tide I It is 
from the ether world ! There is no color like 
•heart color. The homeliest thinjrs dipped in 
that forever after glow with celestial hues. 
The hymns that we sang in sorrow or in joy 
and triuniiih in that humhle basement have 
nevei- lost a feather, but tiy back and forth 
beiweeu the soul and heaven, plumed as never 
was any bird-of-paradise. 

"I stood and looked at the homely old build- 
ing, and saw a procession of forms going in 
and out that the outward eye will never see 
again — Judge ]\lorr;.s. J>amuel ]\Iei'rill. Oliver 
H. Smith. D. V. Cully. John L. Keteham. 
Coburn. Fletcher. Bates, Bullard. ^lunsei, 
Ackley. O'Xeil. and many, many morel 
There have lieen hours when there was not 
a hand-breadth between us and the saintly 
host of the invisible church ! In the heat and 
pressure of later years the memories of those 
early days have been laid aside but not ef- 
faced. They rise as I stand, and move in a 
gentle procession before me. No outward his- 
tory is comparable to the soul's inward life-, 
of the souFs inward life no part is so sub- 
lime as its eminent religious developments. 
And the pastoi'. who walks with men, deliver- 
ing them from the thrnll. aspersing their sor- 
row with ti>ars, kindling his own heart as a 
torch to light the way for those who wouhl 
see the invisible, ha.s. of all men. the most 
tran.scendent heart-histories, I have seen 
nnich of life since I trod that threshold for 
the last time: but imthinu' has dimmed my 
love, noi' has any later nr riper experience 
taken away the bloom and sanctity of my 
early love. And I can ti'uly say of hun- 
dreds: 'For though yi' have ten thousand 
instructors in riii'ist. yet have ye not many 
fathers: for in Christ Jesus I have begotten 
you through the Oospel," 

"But othei- incidents arise— the days of 
sickness, chills and fever, the gardening days, 
my first editorial experience, my luck in 
horses, and i)igs. my house-building; and not 
a few scrapes — being stalled in mud. half- 
drowned in crossing rivers, long, lonely forest 
rides, camp-meetiu'js. preachings in cabins, 
sleepings in the open air. I was reminded 
of one comical exjvM-ience as I was seeking 
im Market street In (ind tlir old swale or 
shallow I'.'iviiii' xvhicli lirtween mv cottage 

and -Mr. Bates's dwelling.' It had formerly 
been a kind of bayou in spring when the 
stream above town overflowed, but dried oft" 
in summer. To redeem it from unhealth a 
dike had been built to restrain the river and 
turn th(> superfluous freshets the other way. 
But one year the levee gave way in the night" 
and when the morning rose, behold a 
flood between me and my neighbor! There 
was sport on hand ! It wa.s too deej) for 
wading, but I could extemporize a boat. I 
brought down to the edge my wife's large 
washing-tub. and intended with a bit of 
board to paddle about. No sooner was I in 
than I was out. The tub refused to stand 
on its own bottom. Well, well, said I. two 
tubs are better than one. So I got its mate, 
and. nailing two strips across to hold thera 
fast together, I was sure that they were too 
long now to upset. So they were in the long 
line: but sideways they went over, carrying 
me with them with inci'cdible celerit.v. Tulx 
wei'e one thing, boats another— that I saw- 

"I would not be baffled. I proposed a raft. 
Getting rails from the fence. I scon had 
tacked boards across— enough of them to 
carry my weight. Then, with a long pole. I 
began my voyage, Alasl it came to a ludi- 
crous end. A rail fence ran across this ra\ine 
in the held, .just above the sti-eet. One end 
of the fence had loosened, and the water had 
floated it round enough to break its connec- 
tion with its hither side. A large but young 
dog belonging to a friend had walked along 
the fence, hoping to ci'oss dry-fouted. till he 
came to the abrupt tei'mination. and his cour- 
age failinij- him. he had crouched down and 
lay trembling and whining, afraid to go back 
or to venture the water. I poled my raft 
up to the rescue: and, getting alongside, 
coaxed him to .iiunp aboard, but his courage 
was all gone. lie looked nyi wistfidly but 

■' His cottage was where the synagogue now 
stands, and the house of ^Ir, Bates was at 
the northwest corner of ^Market and New 
Jersey streets. The "swale" was the east 
ravine or bayou that cro.ssed the cit.v from 
the northeast. It cro.ssed Wa.shington street 
.just west of \ew Jei'sey, 

'■ He means the bi'cakitig of the State Ditch 
in 1S47, 

■oiiv oi- (;i;i;.\TKi; 




stirred not. 'Well, you coward, j'ou sliall 
eoiue aboard.' Seiziug' liiiii by the skin of 
the neck, I hauled hiui onto the raft, which 
instantly began to sink. It was buoyant 
enough for a man, but not for a man and 
a lubberly dog. There was nothing for it— 
as the stupid thing would not stir, I had to; 
and with a spring I reached the fence just 
abdicated by tlie dog, while he. the raft now 
coming to the surface again, went sailing 
down the pond and was safely landed be- 
low, while I wa.s left in the crotch of the 
fence. One such experiment ought to serve 
for a life-time, but alas ! There is no end of 
things gone by. They rise at every point; 
and one walks encompassed with memories 
which accompany him through the living 
streets like invisible spirits.'"^ 

And now, to the statements of casual visi- 
tors and the ministerial so.iourner, let us add 
the view of one who grew up in these sur- 
roundings. Mr. John H. Holliday says: "It 
has always been my regret that I was not 
born three or four years sooiiei- in order that 
I might have entered more fully into the life 
and actions of each period and have arrived 
at an age where greater knowledge and ex- 
perience would have brought clearer insight. 
I would then have been better qualified to 
paint a picture of the life of the town during 
the 50 's, but as it is I must give the impres- 
sions of a boy, modified or confirmed to some 
extent by the recollections of others. Let 
it be understood that I write as an artist nuist 
paint — as I saw it. It was a great place to 
be born in and a good place to live in, after 
thirty years or more had passed over its 
head. It seems now almost ideal. Its people 
were homogeneous, holding and striving for 
high standards and exhibiting the best traits 
engendered in a simple democracy. It was a 
place that encouraged the virtues of faith, 
hope, courage, kindliness and patriotism ; that 
brought up boys and girls to real manhood 
and womanhood. The fiery ordeal of the war 
and the terrible sacrifices the people were 
called upon to make, demonstrated the power 
of its environment and many lives of fullness 
and goodness have borne testimony to the 

' Biography of Henry Ward Beeeher, by 
Beccher and" Seoville. pp. 206-209. 

value of the examples and ti-aining of their 

"To begin with, life was simple as com- 
pared with what we now have. The com- 
munity was small, but while the rule in small 
places is still towards simplicity, it is in- 
fluenced by the thoughts and customs of large 
cities, which did not obtain fifty years ago, 
for there were but few such cities. The great 
increase of wealth, fashion and luxury af- 
fects even our villages now, while in that day 
New York and Boston seemed as far apart 
from Indiana as London or 8t. Petersburgh. 
Here the life was simple because it was the 
life of a new cmnitry in which wealth was 
small, and the opportunities for its acquisi- 
tion limited. Simplicity was a necessity. Thi- 
comnuinity was largely self-de)H'ndent still, 
although it had developed fi'om the pioneer 
stage in which it had to produce everything 
for itself, except a few unusual articles. 
Thirty years had improved conditions very 
much, houses were better, more comforts wei-i' 
olitainable. markets had been opened and 
there was more money to buy with. But the 
spirit and habits of the early days remained 
in great measure, unaffected by improved 
conditions. The population was not so large 
as to crush the neighborly feeling, the demo- 
cratic idea that one man was as good as an- 
other provided he behaved himself. Thei-e 
was little dispasition to Haunt wealth when 
it existed, biit people clung to the old stan- 
dards, the old manners and the old friends. 
Wealth had nothiiig to do with social posi- 
tion. It was an accident, the worth of the 
man and the woman was the best of merit. 
The woman who kept a girl, in the phrase of 
the day, had no call to look down upon her 
neighboi's who did not, foi' these were in the 
great majority. The ta.stes of the conununity 
frowned down any attempt at ostentation and 
even the family which first ventured u|ion 
the iise of a two-horse carriage or bai'ouche 
gained nothing in the esteem of their frieiuls 
from that apiiendage. 

"Almcst every one owned their own houses 
with more or less ground in which thei-e was 
usually a garden and fruit trees that con- 
ti-ibuted to the family living, assisted often 
by the ownership of a cow, a pig and chickens. 
.\ thousand dollars a year was a large salai'y 
or income. One of our )irominent citizens 



tells how he ovei-lioard some wdl-to-do busi- 
ness men talking about the salary of the 
I)iesiclent of the State Bank, $l,oOO, and ehar- 
aeterizing it as i)rineely. and one of the boys 
of his class, sixteen or seventeen years old, 
said 'no wondei- his boys can have their 
l)oots blacked for them.' Hundreds of fam- 
ilies lived well and educated their children, 
sometimes sending them to college, where the 
income was not nearly $1,000. In 1861 the 
bookkeeper of the Journal, a thoroughly com- 
petent man, had a salary of $.")00 a year and 
supported a family of five or six persons and 
maintained a respectable position. This was 
true of many families and can l)i' (>xplained 
in comparison with our ideas by the fact that 
their extraneous wants were few. Food, shel- 
ter, clothing, taxes, something for the church 
and sometimes for the doctor, being pi-ovided, 
there was little else to call for money. People 
(lid not travel except in i-are emergencies, 
many never. Such things as vacations were 
unknciwn. There were no sti-eet cars or daily 
sddas. no niatinees. indited few amusements 
of any kind, no lunching down town, no clubs 
and dues, no secret societies except the Ma- 
sons and Odd Fellows, no array of charities 
with their insistent needs, no costly enter- 
taining, no many things we have now clamor- 
ously callintr foi- the dimes and dollai-s. Then, 
too, the necessities of life were cheap as a 
i-ule, meat, bread, vegetables, fuel. Wood 
was universally used except in stores and 
school houses where coal from Clay County 
was generally burned after 1853 or 1854. 
Clothing was probably not so cheap, but near- 
ly all clothes wei-e made at home or by women 
and the chief cost wa.s for tlie material. 

"The houses were well furnished with sub- 
stantial things, hut thei'e was a notable lack' 
of ornaments and bric-a-brac. A whatnot 
with some seashells and dagueri-eotypes on 
it, a center table with a family Bible and a 
lamp on it, an occasional candelabrum with 
plass pendants, some ar'tificial flowei-s and a 
plaster east, a vas(> oi- two perhaps, a half- 
dozen haircloth chairs, a sofa and an occa- 
sional piano, constituted the array of a well 
furnished parlor, which was a sacred place 
not to be opened every day or t^ ordinary 
pei-sons. People did not live in their par- 
loi's, but in the sitting room, which sometimes 
was the dining room as well and (let it be 

whispered low) there were some ostensibly 
reputable people who even ate in the kitchen. 
There were no bath rooms or toilet facilities. 
The first plumber came here in 1853 to work 
on the Bates House, but it was not till five 
or six years later that a bath room was in- 
stalled in a residence, that of ^Mr. Vajen on 
South ^leridian street. There were no water- 
works, \\ater had to be jjumped for such use 
and heated on a stove. Daily baths were un- 
known in practice and in theory regarded as 
the luxury of an eflfete people, while cleanli- 
ness was preserved by a weekly ablution in 
a wash-tub. Only the houses of the very 
richest were lighted by gas. which was also 
used in the larger churches and stores. The 
ordinary light was from candles and lard oil 
lamps, followed by camphene, an explosive 
distillation from turpentine that made a 
beautiful light but was dangei-ous to use. 
This was succeeded about 1856 or 57 by coal 
oil, not petroleum but an oil distilled from 
coal, which was driven out by the discovery 
and utilization of petroleum in the early 
3'ears of the war. The houses were poorly 
warmed as a rule. Furnaces were known 
but were not common. Despite the abundance 
of wood, most people heated only the living 
rooms, fires being made in bed rooms only 
for visitoi-s, sick or old peo[)le, while the halls 
were always left in riatui-al fi'igidity. Car- 
riages, buggies and spring wagons were not 
uncommon, but the man of the house or his 
boys took care of the horse. A hired man 
was a curiosity. 

"Xecessarilj- the making of the living was 
the chief thing. There wei'e not many who 
could live on aeeunuilated wealth. It was a 
woi'king community and the work was often 
hard and the hours long. Stores were opene<l 
by six o "clock generally, sometimes before. 
•Jfr. Va.ien tells of opening his hardware store 
never later than five o'clock and as a rule 
none closed before nine. Factories and nie- 
ehanies began woi'k at s(>V(>n and quit at six. 
with an hour's int(M'mission at noon. Doc- 
tors, lawyers and public officials were at work 
early and the banks ran from eight to foui'. 
Everybody ate dinner at noon and shuddered 
at the idea of kings and imblemen eating din- 
ner after dark. Dinner as a function was 
unknown. Supper was the gi-eat social mani- 
festation of liospiliility. Dinner was just foi' 



the family eating', exei'iit soiiietiuifs on a 
Sunday when there was leisure to entertain 
a i)assinjz' si'Pst. But supper was the meal 
to invite one's friends to. It was then that 
the tables jii'oaned with the "rood thini^s the 
housewife eould i)rovide. Fried ehieken, 
(|uaiis, oystei's. dueks, ham, elieese. tongue, 
jellies, preserves, piekles, custards, eakes and 
even pies enriched the larder, wath tea and 
eotfee. " Ice cream was unknown except as 
bought and eaten in the ice cream saloons 
or ])ar!ois, and at chui-ch festivals, and its 
])ui-c'hase was a sort of a wild (lissi])ation on 
siuimier nights to be eagerly anticipated and 
joyful l.v rememherctl. 

"The church social w;is a gi'eat event. 
Sometime-; the gatherings trok place at the 
church, but usually at a private house. It 
wa.s inuler the auspices of the Sewing So- 
ciety. The ladies met in the afteraoon and 
.sewed for some worthy cause. In the evening 
the men came and the young people, and a 
substantial .supper, not mere refreshments, 
was served, provided liy the hostess. Every 
two or three weeks in the winter season was 
the rule in some churches. Init it was not con- 
fined to that season, though not held so often. 
The church festival was more unconnnon and 
entirely different. That was a commercial 
enterprise for the benefit of the church itself. 
The I'efreshments were partly contributed. 
])artly bought, as when the entertainment was 
called an oyster supper and an admission fer 
charged. Sometimes this was large enough 
to include the supper and sometimes it did 
not, which was not favorably regarded by 
some of the attendants. Sometimes articles 
of fancy work were for sale, and always there 
was ice cream as an extra at 'ten cents a 
sauc.ei-. ' In some churches there were 'dona- 
tion parties' where a body of friends wouhi 
swoop down upon the home of the pastor and 
present gifts, and eat the supper they had 
brought with I hem. This f miction was the 
source of mirth to the humorist of the day, 
as well as church festivals and oyster sup- 
])ei-s. It was said that the guests freipiently 
ale ui) the presents of food they brought, 
that the minister was always the poorer, and 
that a donation party was as bad as a fire. 
This was an exatrgeration. for usually the oc- 
casion abounded in ecmd fellowsliii). kindiv 

rcmendjrance and real benefit, and enriched 
the social life of the organization. 

■'Next to making- a living the two most 
engrossing and vital things were religion and 
l)olitics. It was a day of serious things. The 
light and trifiing manner in which many 
people view the affairs and influences of life 
now was not in favor then. The town had 
been under the influence of earnest people 
from its start, peojjle who worked and suf- 
fered and to whom life was no merry jest. 
To them religion was a solemn matter and 
even those who cared little for it or made 
no professions, were bound to respect it. The 
whole tone of the place was religious. There 
were numerous churches of various sects, hut 
I)robably no ]ilace in the country ever had 
less of the bitter, sectarian feeling that ex- 
isted widely and that we wonder at now. The 
churches here, with few exceptions, were 
friendly, the ministers and members fellow- 
shipped, and united in movements for the 
common good, just as they do now. The Sab- 
bath School parade on the fourth of July, 
the event of that day for over thirty years, 
was evidence of this, possibly a contributing 
cause. The Episcopalians and Catholics were 
the exceptions, the latter naturally enough, 
for the bitterness of the reformation was still 
in evidence against Papacy and almost every 
preacher felt bound to launch a thunderbolt 
against Rome 'that terrible menace to the 
Republic' at least once a year. It was nat- 
ural then that the Catholics should assume 
the historic attitude of the church aaainst 
'heretics', but the Episcopalians had no such 
reason for exelusiveness. In the famous cele- 
brations of the Fourth the Catholic children 
actually joined once or twice, but the Epis- 
copalians never, and thereby their childi'en 
missed a lot of fun and a good lesson in 

"The thought of the day was altogether 
orthodox, and orthodox on the lines laid doxM' 
two hundred years before. The preaching to 
a considerable degree was still dixHrinal if 
not dogmatic. There was a fixity of opinion. 
Thei-e were no doubts of the fundamental 
truths of Christianity, no suspicion even that 
the Bible as a whole was not inspired in the 
fnllc-t sense. Moreovei-. ci'iticism was un- 
dreaiiii'd of in the church, though, of coui'se, 
the I pinions of Veltaire and Paine and Vol- 



ney were known, and these were resrai'ded as 
fearful examples of depravity whose punish- 
ment there eonld be no doubt of. Few dis- 
believed ill iii'll. as an aetual place of un- 
speakalih' and ineoneeivable tortni-e of lost 
souls and a depiction of its awfnl realities 
and the dan^'cr of the sinner who neglected 
or refiLsed to lie reconciled to God was a fruit- 
ful theme for many asonizing- sermons es- 
pecially at times of revival. There has been 
a.s great a change in the past forty years in 
the attitiide of jieople towards religion as in 
any other line of tlioiight, and while the old 
truths may be as true as ever, they are viewed 
from another point and often present a dif- 
ferent appearance and are better understood. 
The pendulum has swung away and diffei-ent 
doctrines or different aspects of doctrines arf 
eiii|)hasi/ed now. Keligioii has lost much of 
its somherncss. its harshness has been 
smoothed down, its more i)leasiug features 
are accentuated and it makes its most power- 
ful plea for the Christian life through love 
and aspiration for the good and not by words 
of fear or the hope of reward. It no longer 
diffei-cntiates or intimates a severance of this 
life fi-om the life to come. It is one in- 
divisible whole. 

"Keligi(m was. as said heretofore, a main 
factor in the life of Indianapolis and that 
not only as governing the eond\ict of the 
people, hut in their social relations. Church 
•.'(ling was piojier. rey)utahle and fashionable, 
whether j)co|ile wei-e members oi- not. It was 
a cusloui that must be ob.served by all who 
wished to stand well with their neighbors. 
One's chief friends and associates were usual- 
ly in the church attended and almost the first 
(luesfion about newcomers was 'what church 
will they go to?' Particular churches were 
often cho.sen of their attract iv(Miess 
in this respect. Of eoni'se the swial life was 
not confined to any one church for most 
people. There was another and jiossibly a 
larger circle outside, made up from other 
chuivhes. but om's own was the center of the 
whole fabric. 

"The ministers, too. wei'c more influential 
then than now, but no ablei- or wi.ser, though 
Indianapolis had some preachers of marked 
ability in that period. The church was more 
of an intellectual foi'ce then. Books and 
periodicals wen' comparatively fi'w. the min- 

ister was usually better educated than his 
dock aJid he spoke with more intellectual au- 
thority. Today his beai-ers are more nearly 
on a plane with him and his utterances are 
.judged more freely. The democratic spirit, 
tending often towards lack of reverence, is 
nowhere more apparent than in this. From 
this and other causes is due the passing of 
church discipline. It is obsolete. There is 
a looseness in the ties, a feeling of inde- 
l)endenee that will not brook admonition and 
is indiffei-ent to the bell, book and candle. 
In that day discipline was a powerful thing, 
linsiness differences wei-e brought before 
church tribunals. Membei-s were dealt with 
for breaches of rules an<l faithlessness to their 
vows as well as for sinfulness, and the penal- 
ties of suspension or exjiulsion were dreaded. 
They brought disgrace and shame, as well as 
spii'itual suifei'ing. Whether the change has 
been lieneficial or not, time will tell. Thei-e 
is a strong reason to believe that this relaxa- 
tion of bonds has caused deterioratien in 
Christian life. 

"Under these conditions tliere was neces- 
sarily a strict observance of Sunday, both in 
home life and business. Among the more 
rigid the line was closely drawn between 
secular and Sunday |)ursuits. Reading was 
confined to certain channels, riding or visit- 
ing were tabooed, even walking for the walk's 
sake was not regarded favorably. On Sun- 
days the business establishments wei-e shut, 
excei)t possibly some of the saloons 1h:it kejit 
a back dooi- unlocked. The ])eo]ile went to 
church morning and night, and many to Sun- 
day School besides. The latter was always 
held in the afternoon. Almost every prin- 
cipal church had a. bell to call the worshippers 
together. Those who did not go to church 
renuiined at home and the streets were al- 
most deserted except for the church-goers. 

"Roys may have had as good times in 
other places as in Indiana|>olis. but none bel- 
fei'. The town was large enough to have iul- 
vantaires over small ones or villages, but not 
large enousrh to foi-bid contact with the coun- 
try and rural life. There were plenty of 
uood swinnning holes in the riv(>r and canal, 
in Fall Ci-eek and Pogue's ]i\iu. TIkm-c were 
e(|uaily yood places for fishing. The town 
was surroiuided by words that affordiMl i)lcnty 
of (inpoi tunities for linntinLi rabbits, squirrels 



and birds. There were visits of wild pigeons, 
nialring sport and deliiihtful. The 
woods, too, were full of niit-bearing- trees, 
from which a winter's supply could be had, 
pawpaws, berries, liaws, etc. In the winter 
there was ice on the streams and as few 
streets were improved there were many ponds 
all over the town where the boys could slide 
and skate. It was not until durino: the war 
that the "iris took to skatincj. Tnere were 
so many vacant lots and commons that there 
never was a loss for a playsround at the 
proper seasons. Nowadays one must so for 
miles to meet most of these things and some 
are impossible to get at all. As fond memory 
recalls those events and scenes of boyhood's 
days it seems to have been '.just the best 
place' to have grown up in. 

"Probably there was as much regard pro- 
portionately for fashion in those days as 
there is now, but boys are not expected to 
notice such things. The headgear aud dresses 
of the day look very queerly now in old pic- 
tures, though well enough then, crinoline or 
hoops, for instance, arraying the form divine 
until it looked like a balloon. It seems to 
me that colors were worn more and were 
more striking, but that may be a fancy, or 
a difference in fabrics. Then calicoes, de- 
laines, nnislins, prints of various sorts were 
in great favor, with leghorn straw hats gaily 
beribboned. Thei'e were no uniforms except 
that of the military companies, which nnist 
seem sti-ange to this generation accustomed 
to the liveries of policemen, railway em- 
ployees, letter carriers, coaehmeu and porters. 
Some of the old fashions prevailed with both 
sexes. Some oldish men clung to the blue- 
swallow tail coat with brass buttons and butf 
vests, usually accompanied by a gold or silver 
headed cane. Tall silk hats or plugs were 
in every day use, no derby or other stiff one 
was known. The only alternative was a soft 
hat or a straw in sunnner. A few ruffled 
shirts survived and the gentleman done up 
in this fashion was a pretty sight. In win- 
ter men wore shawls almost altogether, though 
oecasionally an old-fashioned cloak appeared. 
Some more disposed tn be stylish wore a. fur 
collar and the furs of the women were long, 
reaching around the shoulders and to within 
eighteen inches of tlie ground. There was a 
coat in occasional use, called the surtout. The 

Century Dictionary says it was an overcoat. 
Every boy and man wore boots in the win- 
ter. I mean what are called long boots now 
and w-hich passed out of use hei-e over thirty 
years ago w'hen the streets had been paved 
and cleaned, so that there was no use for 
them. In the earlier times, however, there 
was deep snow sometimes and almost always 
depths of mud to be waded through so that 
their use was necessary. Consequent upon 
them was the boot.jack, an implement as 
necessary to a house as a frying pan, but 
whose use none of the moderns coiild guess 
now. Shawls, too, were worn almost uni- 
versally by the women. They were of all 
grades and price from the serviceable woolens 
to the costly crepes and Indias. 

"]\Ianners were more formal in those days. 
This was reflected among tlie young people. 
Unless they were cousins, boys of twelve oi- 
over always addressed the girls as ^liss and 
in reply were called ]\ristei'. There w'as no 
such familiarity as today when young people 
of all ages call each other by their first name, 
after they have been acquainted a month or 
even less. Neither did the young fellows take 
the girl's arm when walking. The young 
lady was set upon a pedestal, now she is on 
a level. 

"The second great interest in Indianapolis 
life was politics and to many it was the ab- 
sorbing one. Public life oft'ered prizes in 
that day of limited opportunity and scai-ce 
money, and beyond the pecuniary reward 
was the distinction achieved. Candidates 
were perhaps more numerous then than now. 
The community was pretty equally divided. 
The majority of the leading people were 
Whigs and Republicans, but a very consider- 
alile minority were Democrats, and the con- 
tests were .sharp and close with varying re- 
sults. Politics was the great subject for talk 
and was broached on all occasions. There 
was intense partisan feeling and much bitter- 
ness evolved. ]Men of one stripe would be- 
lieve anything of men on the other side. The 
Democrats having opposed prohibition— old 
Sumptuary even then was a household term 
— were denounced by their advei'saries as a 
party of whisky drinkers and the eliarge was 
lii'lieved by the makers. When the slavery 
i|uestion became prominent the Democrats 
denounced the opposition as 'nigger lovers' 



and 'Black Rt'piihlicaiis", a name eliiii^ to 
until iifter till' wai'. Everytliinu- of a ]io- 
litioal iiatni-f was foiifjlit for and over. A 
raci' for constable or councilman was con- 
tested as if it were the presidency itself. 
Wherever a chance for spoils came it was 
seized frrcedily. The Democrats were in pow- 
er at the time of the ^Mexican war and aj)- 
parcntly used all their power for party bene- 
fit, keepiny the AVhiirs out as nmcli as pos- 
sible. When the Republicans got on top they 
played much the same game. Party advan- 
lage was always looked after and party dis- 
cipline was very strict and well enforced. 
This led to a faith in parties that was al- 
most absolute and blinded men's eyes to the 
truth. It created such a conceit that men 
considered their pai-ties infallible, their wel- 
fare more impurtant than that of the govei'n- 
nient itself. Indeed myriads of Democrats 
believed that their party alone was fit to 
manage the government, and this partisan 
belief later led them into opposition to the 
war and .sympathy with the South. There 
was more or less corruption in the ele<'tions, 
chictly in crude methods of repeating and 
cheating in the vi'turns. l)ut this was done 
in party enthusiasm with the muttn "tiizlit the 

devil with fire' and whether lietter or worse 
was not on the sordid basis of buying and 
selling votes. 'Anything to best the enemy' 
was another motto, and all sorts of trickery, 
cheap debate and withering denunciation 
was indulged in on any and every oeeasion. 
■'There was, however, one good thing in 
the politics then. ]\Ien hated to be taxed, 
iloney came hardly, and representatives and 
officials were held to strict accountability for 
expenditures. Economy was universally de- 
manded and the tax-payers were a force to 
be reckoned with. Once in a long while, even 
now, you see a card in the paper signed Tax- 
payer, condemning extravagance somewhei'e 
or .somehow. This belated wanderer crying 
to a generation of which two-thirds are not 
tax-payers and gladly vote other people's 
money away, is a survival of that period and 
does not know that he is as extinct as the 
Great Auk. But once he was a live wire and 
the politicians feared and courted him 
and his words had weight. Possibly in some 
far distant future when taxation has ground 
the people down and their eyes are opened, 
the tax-payer again may have something to 



The Germans have had a lai-irer iiitiuenee 
in the development of Indianapolis than any 
other foreisii nationality, as a nationality; 
but the nature and extent of this intiuenee 
is not jienerally undei'stood by American 
citizens, chietly, no douht, on account of the 
wall the Germans have kept about them by 
the maintenance of their native lanjfuage. 
The early settlement of Indianapolis, like 
that of the rest of Indiana, was chietiy of 
native-born Americans. At the census of 
18r)0 there were only ■28.r>84 (iermans in the 
state, out of a total population of 988,416; 
and the (ierman born were over one-half of 
the total forei<in-born population, the Irish 
coming next, with 12,787. And even this 
population of (iermans was largel.v recent, 
for the revolution of 1848. with its disas- 
trous ending, and its vindictive punishments, 
had sent swarms of yoiuitr (ierman levolu- 
tionists 1o this coiinti-y. a number of whom 
located at lndianM])olis. A contemporary 
notice of this intiux is found in an article 
in the Locomotive, discu.ssing- the rapid 
growth of the "northeastern" part of the 
cit.v. especially Bates and Fletcher's Addi- 
tion, as follows : 

"This addition occupies four blocks, 
bounded iin the noi'th by New Voi-k, on the 
east by Noble, on the south by ^Market, and 
the west by East street; this addition is 
more generall.v known as Gerraantown from 
the fact that a ureat iTiany Gernums have 
bous'ht and luiilt ln-ri'. The houses are 
mostly snudl frames, suitable for one fam- 
il.y, and were l)uilt and are owned by the 

It should lie understiKid also that tliei'c 

'Locomofiri . Auuiist 18, 1849. 

was a difference between tlie (ierman imiui- 
Ui'ation of this period and that precedini; it. 
The earliei' iuimii;ratioii was chic'tiy of those 
who sought oidy to better their ]iers(inal 
condition, very largely of the farmer class, 
and who were fairly content with America 
as it was. The new imnufiration was largely 
of those who had to leave (iermany on ac- 
count of the revolution, and many if them 
were ready to return in case a new u|irisin^- 
should appear. They were people of idi'als 
— weltverbesserers, or world-reformers, as 
the (iermans ]iut it — and were (piite as ready 
for reform here as at home. An adiiiii-able 
sketch of this (ierman life and intiuenee in 
Indianapolis has been ])ublishe(l by Mr. 
Theodore Stempfel. of this cit.v. and lie ha-s 
kindly consented to let me present a trans- 
lation of a larye ])art of it here. I do this 
knowinsr that the reader will appreciate the 
advantatie of havini; it from the viewpoint of 
a (ierman closel\' connected with it, and re- 
irrettiuir oidy that my tran-^lation detracts 
somewhat from the literai'y merit of the 

"In Indianai)olis the (iernuin club-life 
( vei-einsleben ) be«;an in 1S.">1. with the 
fouiidintr of the Indiana])olis TuiMiiiemeinde, 
ri'oiii which, in the course of years, through 
■A chain of cii'cumstances. develo|)e(l the pres- 
ent Social Turnverein of Indianapolis. The 
most zealous agitator for the foundintr of the 
Turngemeinde wa.s August Tloffmeister. an 
active, energetic young man who had the 
talent of finding the rijiht word at the i-ight 
liirie. He has been a Turnei- in (iernuiny, 
and, befoi-e he came to Indianapolis, be- 
loniicd to the Gincinnati Turnverein founded 
in 1849. On Monday. July 28. 18r)l. the In- 
diana]>olis Turngemeindi> was established 



with appropriate solciimities. The founders. 
in addition to the above named Auoiist Hotl'- 
lueister, were Jaeoh Metzfjfer. Alex. ^letzjier. 
Clemens Vonncirnt. John Ott and Karl Hill. 
The furniture store of John Ott. a one-story 
frame huildinjr opposite the State ilouse. 
servetl as a inectinjj- ])lace, and the yard in 
front of it as a j)laee for <:ymnastie prHctice. 
The gymnasium outfit eonsisted of a hori- 
zojital bar, and later money wa.s eolleeted 
from the members to buy parallel bars. After 
the course of half a yeai-. the elub rented a 
hotel building' on East Washintiton street- 
partiall>' destroyed by five, through the 
damaged I'oof of whieh tlie pleasjmt sun and 
heaven's blue peei-eil in inquisitively. In 
rain or sutiw. therefore, stay in the Tnrnhall 
was little ajjreeable. A single room in the 
first story wa.s spared liy fire, and remained 
in j)assably jjood condition for lioldinji' the 
weekly liieetilifis, in \vhi<'h. with iiiisto. the 
refoi'in of the woild was f(n-w;ir(led. 

"Entirely in accord with the Oernuiii n;i- 
tiouMl character there spi-anp' up an opposi- 
sitioii club — the Socialistic Turnverein com- 
posed chiefly of older men. Dr. Ilomhury, 
who had been an established jihysieian here 
since the close of the SiVs called the club in- 
to existence. Dr. Ilomburu- had. at the time, 
taken part in the u|)risint;- of the students. 
and. like many others, was obliged to Hi'e 
from (ici-many. He was a man of great 
learning, welcomed to every home, and not- 
withstanding his brus(|ueness he acquired a 
wide circle of friends in this city. An event 
of historical significance to Indianapolis gave 
incentive to the union of the two Turuvei-- 
eins. The then sitting legislature had in- 
vited Louis Kossuth to visit oui- city. .\t 
the close of Eebi'uaiw. 1S,")"J. the distinguislu^il 
Magyar cauu- hci-e from Cinciinuiti. wai-mly 
welcomed by the city authorities and the 
people. Kossuth was escorted to the ca])i- 
tol, and our Turners, as the only existing (ier- 
Jnan organization, were not a little ])roud to 
serve its iruards for the guest of the city, in 
f\dl unifonn, i. e.. in white drilling suits, 
red cravats, and black felt hats. As the 
Oerman poet, (iottfi'ied Kinkel. (m behalf of 
a revolutionai'y coiiimitlcc in London, had 
undertaken a tour lliriiiii;li .\merica in I lie 

=225 East Wasliinutdu. 

hope of obtaining a loan for the expected re- 
vival of the (iei-man revolution, so labored 
Louis Kossuth for the Hungarian cause. 
Two days after his ai-rival he gave, in Ma- 
sonic Hall, an exposition of the Hungai'ian 
war of revolution. The great role which 
the f(n-mer dictator of Hungary had played 
for several years in the tight against Aus- 
ti'ian rule, his passionate nature, his radical 
ideas to which he gave utterance with all 
the tire of his eloquence, his living picture 
of the existing .struggle, secured for him a 
sympathetic audience, and reminded oiu" 
Tui'ners of the old truth, 'In union there is 
strength". In a short time thereafter the 
two Turnvereins united under the name of 
the Socialistic Turngemeiude. 

"iythouirh the Turners, like most of the 
Gei'man innnigrants of that time, were with 
their thoughts and feelings in the old fathei-- 
land, awaiting a call for assistance from the 
revolutionary pal'ty there, they nevertheless 
gave their attention to the political move- 
ments of their adopted fatherland. The 
I'hiladelphia convention of the North Ameri- 
can Turnerbuiul. of which this club was a 
mendier. in 18.")1 ado|)ted this resolution : 
The Turnerbuiul fav(U's in sicneral the plat- 
form of the radical l-'reesoil Party, and 
pledges itself to support it with all its |)ower. 
Scarcely were 'the (ireenies' — as the new 
immigi-ants were called — warm in their nest, 
when they dai-ed tn preach emancipation 
from both of the existing tireat parties, to 
the horror and' astonishment of the earlier 
settled Oermans. to whom the then Demo- 
cratic ]>ai-ty was the aljdia aiul omega of 
their political faith. For .-i numb(>r of years 
both the Democrats and the Whius cai-efully 
avoided the sci'c spot of the natiotud oi-gan- 
ism. the slavery (|uestion. Both sides wei-e 
always striving to britlge over by compromises 
the whirl|)ools that showed themselves, often 
in thi'eatening nuunier. through the conflicts 
of the interests of the fi-ee states and the 
slave states. Fillecl with rid'orm ideas of all 
kinds, for whicii the revoln1i<inarv soil of 
(iermany had offered a fertile field, the new- 
comers pressed forwni'd: while for the old, 
who foi- the most part had become recoiu'iled 
to the conditions of their adopted land, or at 
least accustomed to them, the <rravest jirob- 
lem of the time was a imh im liniiim. 



"The slavery question formed the foeus 
of political agitation. The ideas of the two 
generations lay in opposition. Here the en- 
thusiasm of youth, there the sedateness of 
a,s:e; here the boimdless pushing forward, 
there the sober holding to the present; here 
the carelessness for the future, there the ap- 
jirehension for the consequences of the force- 
ful, progressive ideas of the young. Natur- 
ally the pushers and stormers achieved no 
practical results in the beginning, but they 
proved themselves to be a powerful leaven to 
bring the masses into ferment. Here in In- 
dianapolis they even succeeded as early as 
the year 1850, in establishing a weekly Ger- 
man paper, the Free Press, which, wholly in- 
dependent of Ijoth existing parties, repre- 
sented the radical ideas of the 'Greenies', 
and therefore soon came to be called an Abo- 
lition sheet. The Free Press was the coun- 
terbalance of the Democratic Indiana Yolks- 
hlatt, which, founded in 1848. had a large 
cireulation am(tng the Germans of the city 
and state. The following extract from an 
editorial article in the Yolkshlatf of ]March 
81, 1855, entitled 'The German Innnigration,' 
gives an excellent picture of the principal 
differences between the older settlers and the 
new immigrants in Indianapolis, differences 
which drew a dividing line during the entire 
later history of our (Germans. 

"Says the Volhshhift : '"With .ioy were 
the newcomers received by the earlier arrived 
Germans. « * * They .saw in the new- 
comers the energies, which the German popu- 
lation of this country still lacked, to make 
its influence more felt in all directions upon 
the development of the new home. For this 
purpose a niunber of as.sociations were quick- 
ly formed foi- the promotion of Gennan arts 
and German life, and everywhere all seemed 
to be shaping itself for our welfare. But 
only too soon did a bitter disillusion follow 
this .iubilation. The revolution had brought 
its leaders over from Germany; and with 
these a string of cliques and factions which 
could not possibly for any length of time be 
of good inflnence. Since the agitators had 
not succce<led in getting power over there, 
they expected to be leaders here in public 
opinion on all questions, even those which 
must have been beyond their comprehension 
on accoimt of thoii- being in this countrv so 

short a time ; they looked upon themselves as 
the exclusive representatives of the light of 
the world, which until their coming had 
shone but feebly on America and its Ger- 
mans. These world-reformers, and the blind 
crowd which followed them, we have to thank 
for the failure of the hopes which at that 
time were awakened in all Germans. A large 
part of the German inmiigrants followed 
principles that were diametrically opposed 
to the .spirit of the American people, and de- 
cidedly contrary to their character. No 
idea was too insane not to find fervent fol- 
lowers among them. The "young Germans" 
danced around the tree of freedom of the 
Abolitionists, for which they had already 
been disciplined on the school bench and 
from the pulpit in the old home ; many be- 
came apostles of Kabet and other world- 
blessing communists: women's rights found 
able advocates in Heinzen and his school ; the 
new freedom had already become too old for 
these heroes ; according to them it should be 
dumped head over heels or at least law and 
human rights should be remodeled to suit 
their own heads. For all these lunacies they 
soon found worthy organs in the German 
Press, which through their clamor contrib- 
uted not a little to turn the attention of the 
Nativistic Party to their obnoxious princi- 
ples, and in its hands they become weapons us all.' 

"The Socialistic Turngemeinde had in the 
meantime established itself firmly and even 
became a landed proprietor. Through volun- 
tary contributions and the surplus receipts 
from festivities the club had accumulated a 
small capital that had been applied to the 
purchase of a building site on Noble street' 
and the Turners 'had built a stately man- 
sion', which in January, 1850, was dedicated 
with festivities. At the opening of this fii^st 
home of a Gennan club in Indianapolis, 
Clemens Yonnegut made the address. * * * 
It may well be believed that the members 
of the Turngemeinde made the fullest use 
of their hall. "Whether the beautiful song, 
'We won't go home till morning,' was often 
sung at that time is unknown to the writer, 
but from the tales of the elders it might 
often have been sung with propriety. The 

■^No. 117 North Noble. 

HISTORY OF (ii;F.A'l'i:i; l\|)| WAI'ol.lS. 


larger festal gatherings were held in Wash- 
ington Hall (later Lyra Hall, and now the 
hall of the Cleveland Club). To these festivi- 
ties attach many happy memories of the 
older Germans of our city. * * * 

"The great eelehiation in the histoi-y of 
the Tiirngemeinde, almost epueh-makiug, was 
the banner consecration, held in April, 185-i. 
On April 29, 1854. the Indiana Volksblatt 
said: 'From far and near were the Turner 
brethren gathered to help in the celebration 
of the consecration of the banner of local 
Turners. Cincinnati, with its Turngesang- 
verein, and Louisville had sent full delega- 
tions, and Terre Haute, Lafayette, Madison. 
New Albany, Logansport and Shelbyville 
sent representatives or full delegations. On 
Wednesday the various trains of incoming 
Turners were greeted at the L^nion Depot by 
the resident Turners. They marched in pro- 
cession throngli the sti'eets, were welcomed 
at the Turnhall. and then taken to their 
lodgings. On Thursday morning the exei'- 
cises were to have taken place in the open 
air, but fickle April willed otherwise. Just 
at the time of the display, the rain poured 
down in streams, and it became so cold ant! 
unpleasant that the celebration had to be 
adjourned. The paraders fled before the 
streaming rain into the Court House, and 
waited there an hour for it to clear u|i. 
Finally it was seen necessary to change the 
program, and to have the presentation of the 
banner in Washington Hall, during the fes- 
tival ball, instead of in the open, as origi- 
nally intended. Wa.shington Hall could 
scarcely hold the visitoi's and resident mem- 
bers and friends of the Tui-ngemcinde.' Savs 
the Volhsblatl, 'The ball was brilliant. Early 
in the evening a large company was a.s.seni- 
bled. The banners of the Cincinnati, Loui.s- 
ville and ^Madison societies hung from the 
galleries. Finally the ladies came into the 
hall in charming array. The banner was 
brought from the gallery and a thundering, 
thrice repeated (iut Tleil greeted it. When 
all were seated, Fraulein IVFetzger (later 
Mrs. Hermann Lieber) pi-esented the banner 
in a brief, well-turned speech. Messrs. 
Voniiegiit and Wenderoth responded for the 
Turners. The hand.some banner was then 
unfolded and borne throuuh the hall. Soon 
after, the dance was opened with a Polonaise, 

and till eai'ly moi-ning the couples joined in 
the happy whirl." Among the Cincinnati 
guests was Hermann Lieber. who found In- ■ 
dianapolis so T)leasant that be decided to re- 
main and settle here. 

"The inspiration of the war of emancipa- 
tion had awakened in the youth of Germany 
the love of song. Everywhere arose societies 
for the cultivation of song ( Liedertaf ebi in 
the north— Liederkraenze in the south and 
in Middle Germany). ]Music became the 
social art of the new century, an indispensa- 
ble ornament of every Gennan celebration, 
and truly a pride of the nation. In every 
|ii'ovince awoke the passion for song as never 
since the days of the bards. One soon saw 
that with this nobler sociability a freer at- 
mosphere came into the folk-life, and gladly 
boasted that before the ])ower of song the 
I'idieulous barriers of rank fell away.'' The 
songs of Karl Maria von Weber, Konradin 
Krentzer, Methfessel, Silchei-, Mar.schner. 
Zoellner, Yon Kucken, Abt, Schumann and 
others pressed into tlie folk life; the mighty 
current of the time, the democratic spirit 
of the new century found a strong echo in 
nuisie, and free as the eagle's mighty i)in- 
ion.s, song arose to the sun. It is hardly 
necessary to say that the Forty-eighters, 
wherever, through choice or the spite of fate, 
they made their residences in America, took 
rare to make a home for song, the fairest 
jewel of German soul-life. The organization 
of song-vereins went hand in hand with the 
Founding of turn-vereins. In the third story 
of a brick building, No. 75 East Washington 
street, which a few years ago gave i)lace to 
the Pend)roke arcade, resided at the begin- 
ning of the fifties a (juartet of young immi- 
iirants, whom a freak of destiny had brought 
together in Indiana|)olis. An inexhaustible 
humor and the light heart of youth helped 
them over the unpleasant period of newness, 
and they made ac(|uaintanee of other eoun- 
ti-ymen and fellow-sufferers; and it was not 
long till the den in the third story became 
the tratherinir place of nuiiiiTous young im- 

"Though inhosiiitable the room mikdit ap- 
pear, with its bare walls, giant bed, and 

^Ileinrich von Ti-ietschke, German Tlisturif 
of the Nineteenth Centura. Vol. '2, p. 3. 



ivorni-eaten furniture, yet its occupants 
passed many happy hours therein, of which 
the elders to-day have many droll stories. 
The room and all that pertained to it was 
considered the national property of the 
yoxinu; Germans, and — in ciMifidence — there 
often ruled within its four walls a spirit of 
bachelorship of most darinsi- significance. 
Edward Lonoerich. Gottfried and Hubert 
Recker and A. Schellschmidt were the legiti- 
mate rent-payino- occupants of the room; 
constant visitors and occasional fellow-lod?- 
ers were Nicholas Jose. Fi'iedrich Kusch. 
Karl Freese, August Viehwesi'. H. Krebs. G. 
Bauer, H. Schindler and othei-s. They came 
togrether, discussed the news of the day, 
reminisced of home, or listened to the de- 
scriptions of August Viehweg. who as sailor 
on a Prussian wai-ship had sei'ved in the war 
of the allies against Denmark. Naturally, 
by this assendilage, an effoi-t was also made 
to accustom the (ierman stomach to Ameri- 
can beer, through frequent practice. No 
one of the regular or occasional occupants 
of the room dreamed that their congregation 
would attain a historical significance for the 
Germans of Indianapolis. f^dward Longe- 
rich, a song-ioving youth, was the lucky 
owner of a guitar, and under his direction 
songs were practised. Out of the original 
unconstrained a.ssemblages came rehearsal 
evenings, for practicing vocal and instru- 
mental nrasic. and. in June. IS")-!, our 
brotherhood of the chamber adopted the 
name Indianajiolis ^laennerchoi'. New re- 
cruits were enlisted and Gernutn song was 
rendered in symjiathetic tones. 

'"In the merry month of ^lay. 1S55, ap- 
peared the following notice in the German 
newspapers of Indianapolis: 'First Concert 
and Ball of the ]\Iaetinerchor, on ^londav. 
May 28, 1855, in Washington Hall. The 
members of the above song-verein invite all 
friends of song and dance to visit the ar- 
ranged concert and ball. They will endeavor 
to give their visitoi-s a pleasant and en.ioy- 
able evening. Admi.ssion slil. Tickets at A. 
Ha.streiter's. Buehrig's Hotel, oi' from the 

Longerich. Jese. Baiu'r. Coiimiittee. ' 

"The modesty of the sinsers conceals the 
gross results of this first concert, and in- 
quisitive posterity must lie content with the 

following brief account in the Yolksbhift : 
'The German Maennerchor on Monda.v held 
a concert and danc' at Washington Hall. We 
were unfortunately |)revented fi'om being 
witnesses of this Whitsuntide celebration, 
but we hear from all sides that German 
spirit and German nnrth prevailed, and 
that all visitors had a pleasant and enjoy- 
able evening. In place of Edward 
Longerich, who in the same .vear i-e- 
tui'ned to Gernuiny. on account of his 
health, E. Desjia became director, and the 
i-ehearsals wei'e held at his shop. No. 23 E. 
Washington street. .\s there was no electric 
light, and they could not afl'ord the luxury 
of gaslight, each singer brought his light 
with him. One pictures to himself how the 
Turners held their a.ssemblies weekly in the 
half-fallen hotel building on East Washing- 
ton street: how the singers met regularly in 
the paint-shop of their director Despa, and. 
with notes in one hand and tallow-candle in 
the other, leai-ned songs: and compare those 
times with today, when the Tiirners and 
siiigers have sumptuous quarters for prac- 
tice at their disposal; and then realize how 
far in the course of past .veai-s we have ad- 
vanced, and how nnich — we have lest. 

'"In the year 185(j the ]\Iaennerchor, which 
in the meantime had formally organized with 
constitution and by-laws, decided to admit 
passive members. In the same year they took 
part in the Saengerfest at Cincinnati. A 
year later they were able, througli the kind- 
ness of the ladies, to celebi-ate a banner con- 
secration. The year 1838 was notable for 
the holding of the Saengerfest of the In- 
diana Saengerbund at Indiauajjolis, in which 
the entire German population participated. 
The director of this celebration was Carl 
Barns, the leader of the song-verein of Cin- 
cinnati. The fest began on June 14. 1858; 
delegations from the societies of Louisville. 
Cincinnati. Da.vton. Lafa.vette. Terre Haute 
and other cities being in attendance. On 
the opening evening there was a great con- 
cert in ]\Iasonic Hall ; the Fest-president 
Clemen.s Vonnegut delivered an address, and 
Miss Henningei-. on behalf of the German 
ladies of Indianapolis, presented the Singers 
a, handsomely embr(}idered baniuM-. which 
liore the inscri|)tion. in u-oklen lettei's. 'The 
honor of i!iaidi(>od is given into voui' hands: 

( ir. //, lldds I'holo (11.) 


HISTORY OF (;i;i:a'I'Ki; 


preserve it.' On the next day was a ureal 
parade; the pi'dccssion halteil at the C'irele 
and the unitetl siii>;ers saui;' several (ieriiiaii 
sonf.'.s amid a stoi-iii of apjilause from a 
thickly |)aeked crowd. In the afternoon the 
fest-participants aninsed themselves on the 
sumptuoasly ai'rani;ed Fail- Ground (Mili- 
tary Park), and in the evenintr thei-e was a 
fri-ciil hall at Washinjrton Hall. 

■"Of the g'reatest InHiience on the (ipiiiimi 
of the immiirrants of "4S who had made their 
homes in Indianapolis, was, and remained, 
the radical oiator and writer Karl Ilein/.en. 
He was a man ')f iron logic. His whole life 
was an unending battle for freedom and 
trutli. Kevolutionist from ci-own to sole, he 
lashetl unmercifidly with tongue and pen 
the faults of liis enemies ;ind the wi-aknesses 
of his friends. lie luid. as Wendell Phillins 
said of him, 'the coui-age to dare to be 
wholly consistejit.' The (Jermaiis of In- 
dianapolis of tliat time found tlicmselves in 
the happy stage of develo[)ment : business 
caivs. social duties, conventional C(!n.sidera- 
tions and aristocratic iiai'oxysms were then 
unknown bacilli: the word 'so<nety' diil 
not exist in tlio dictionai-y of the pe 
riod. The nncorru|)ted (Jennan uoi d 
nature, with its great excellences, and 
possible impei'tincnces, bloonu'd in the 
elui) life, and the multifariousness of 
(iei'iiian aspii'ations declared itself through 
the founding of organizations of all kinds. 
So there arose here, as in othei- cities of the 
Union, at the beginnint;' of the fifties an Anti- 
monarchy society, tlie leading pi-inciple of 
whicli was that it plcdued the ii(>ople of this 
re|)ublic to supi)oi't tlie people of Eui'ope in 
their sti'usigle foi' free govei'innent. 

"Ijatei' through the active agitation of the 
editor of the Ciiu-innati fToiInrai i/itrr. Fi'ed- 
erick Ilassaurek. the I''reeineirs League was 
organized. This organization had foi- its 
aim "to oppose In- toniiue and iien all pi'e.ju- 
dices iif political, social and relitiious Lrovern- 
nient. and llu'outrh schools. i)ublic addi-r^sses 
and debates Id be active for the iMlucation 
of free men." .Mex. Met/wer. John V. Mayer. 
George Fehrlinir. Th. 1 liilsehei'. Jos. Lanir- 
hein and others were amoUL;- the most zeal- 
ous meudiers of thi' lea-jue. In ls.">4 \ho first 
state convention of the Freemen was held in 
this city. The frankness with which this 

convention spoke out on the subject of slav- 
ery wa.s indeed refreshing when compared 
with the caution with which statesmen ami 
politicians avoided it. To the Fivemen's 
League is credited the service of founding 
the first (lernian school in this city. Karl 
Beysehla^, editor of the Firir Prrssr, was 
the teacher. Moreover fortnightly plays 
were given in the league hall (south- corner of Washington and Alabama). 
The ilramatic section of the Freemen reached 
the climax in the production of Schiller's 
"Robbei's". A further undertaking was the 
Tract Society of the ^len of Progress, the 
soul of which was the then editor of the Frer 
Press, Th. Ilielsehei-. The literatui'e which 
the society circulated in tract form was di- 
voted to religious freedom and was directed 
chiefly against Puritanism and its cherished 
sister-. Prohibition. The idea of diffusing 
s[)iritual noui-isbment among the masses was 
in fact borrowed from the Bible societies and 
Methodist organizations of the East, which 
were pledged to welcome each innnigrant 
with numberless soul-saving tracts. 

'"The Turngcmeinde took great care for 
the intellectual uplift of (!ei-man life 
through the arrangement of lectures which 
accoi-diug to newspaper i-epoi-ts were enjoyed 
by vei-y large audiences. Frederick ^fuench, 
known under the name of 'l-'ar West'. 
Samuel Ludvigh — the ' Fackel Ludvigh', 
Schuenemann-Pott, Richard Solger, Judge 
Stallo aiul others gave addresses in the Tui-n- 
hall. With great satisfaction. Schuem'mann- 
Pott sjxike of the activity of the lii)eral 
minded (iermans here, in a letter by the Kx- 
ecutive Conuinttee of the Turnerbnnd, id' 
which the following- is an extract: 'in In- 
dianapolis there is a livini; intei-est, a.s I have 
found for m>'self. Hoth a.s.sociations wei-e 
visited, and if I ni:iy judge from lunMci-ous 
assurances, uttei'anccs, hand-claspings and 
serenades, the reception of it was as sin- 
cere and heai-ty as I could have wished." 
Historic memorial da,\'s like the Four-th of 
July, Washington's birthday, the aniuver- 
sary of the ileath of Kobei-t Blum, (>tc., were 
always fittingly celebrate<l. in fact, an op- 
poi'tunitv to celebi-ate verv seldom slipped 

".Xi'Xl to the clubs which wci-e devoted to 
earnest etl'ort. the .Maetuierchor gave its best 



atteution to musical eutertaininents, and the 
Thalia-verein to draiuatie presentations. Both 
societies recruited their members from the 
same circles, and the zeal with which in- 
dividuals took part in the efforts of the dif- 
ferent societies is quite astounding- to us 
children of the new period. From the Thalia 
arose another dramatic association, the Con- 
cordia, which every Sunday evening gave an 
entertainrnent at the Athenaeum (northwest 
corner of ]\Ieridian and Marjland) under 
the discTiise of a. 'sacred concert', and on 
Monday evening presented more extensive 
plaj's. The Concordia appears to have gone 
out of business after a short time, and the 
Thalia-verein, of which Gottfried Recker, Alb. 
Hoening, Nicholas Jose, Charles Whitten- 
berg and othei-s were the high trumps, took 
its place. A visit to the presentations, how- 
ever, left something to be desired, and this 
hampered it somewhat from the beginning. 
The newspaper's were rather severe in their 
criticisms of the theatricals, but were more 
kintUy to the attractions of the Turner Hall. 
"The Turngemeinde had in the meantime 
given up its property on Noble street, and 
moved to the Apollo Garden (on the south- 
west corner of Capitol and Kentucky ave- 
nues). The condition of Noble street was 
such that the unsuspecting traveler, in wet 
weather, would often leave his shoes sticking 
in the unfathomable mire, and nuist hastily 
abandon his socks lest he sink full length in 
the bottomless. The dear days of Kentucky 
avenue ! How long past they seem ! If one 
listens to our older Germans talk of the 
happy hours in the Turnhall on Kentucky 
avenue, he can almost wish that he were old. 
and might have lived at that time. There 
gathered the German life and aspiration of 
Indianapolis. There were turning, singing, 
theatricals, music, debates, as well as politi- 
cal and philosophical discussions. In Apollo 
Garden He1ie busily administered her govern- 
ment, and I'oguisli Eros played his tricks 
with the hai>py youth. Turner exhibitions, 
dramatic presentations, concerts, dances, 
balls, and patriotic celebrations, with hair- 
raising fireworks, alternated in brilliant ar- 
ray. But also niaiiy a serious word was ut- 
tered there, for the Turnhall was the head- 
quarters of the anti-slavery agitation, and 
the political barometci' indicated a storm. 

■'The most meritorious work that the cn- 
tei-prising energy of our liberal minded Ger- 
mans brought to consununation, and which 
proved to be of lasting benefit thereafter, 
was the founding of the German-Enulish 
school. AVe cannot today judge what fdrin 
the development of the German life of our 
city would have taken without this influence, 
but we know that the first German-American 
generation has taken up the ideal efforts of 
the older ones with zeal and intelligence, and 
has contributed much to their accomplish- 
ment. If it be a fact, as is often told us by 
outside acquaintances, that Indianapolis, in 
comparison with other cities of the country, 
has excellent material in its Gennan- Ameri- 
can citizens, then we will make no mistake in 
seeking the reason in the beneficial influence 
of the German-English school. It took to 
itself, in large part, the difficult task of keep- 
ing the growing youth (icrman in thought 
and sympathy, a which today falls al- 
most wholly on the parents, and to which, 
if it be successful, constant perseverance, 
steady attention, and indefatigable effort are 

"The public schools in Indianapolis in the 
fifties were in poor condition ; the entire 
tuition extended only over three or four 
months in -the year, and had in consequence 
to be restricted to instruction in the more 
essential rudiments. In addition there were 
Gei-raan private schools, for example in the 
Scotch church, corner of Delaware and Ohio 
streets, in Zion's church, in the so-called 
Second Ward school on Delaware street be- 
tween Vermont and Alichigan streets, like- 
wise the Freemen's verein had a school, and 
also Theodore Hielscher. the place of instruc- 
tion being on Washington street opposite 
the Court House. Praiseworthy as these 
were, there was still need for a school in 
which the instruction should be in English 
as well as in German. The practicability of 
this idea was often considered, especially by 
the members of a secret society which bore 
the oracular name of 'B. d. T.'.^ and definc<l 
the rights and duties of its membei-s in a con- 
stitution composed of 19 articles and 121 
sections. The B. d. T. will be remembered 

^Binid der 


Tugendhaf ten— union of the 

lii.SToitY OV (iKKATEJt l.NDl A.N Al'Ul.lS. 


as the secret soeiety of tlie students, in vopiie 
in Jletteriiieh's time, ti-ausplaiited to Aiiieri- 
can soil: aiul toda.v, after more than -tO yeai's. 
it wouUl jx-rhaps not be dangerous to brinij 
one of the seerets of tliat eirele out of the 
night of ot)liviou into the light of the sun. 
And so nia.v he revealed the names of those 
who in 'Ziska Zelt No. 1,' i. e., in the 
oflRce of the 'Z. H.'," Dr- Hombiirg, came 
together weekly for advising as to the pres- 
ent and forminir jilans for the future, viz. : 
Dr. llomburir. Jolin K. .NFaver, (leoi'se iMann- 
feld, Jacob Heeker, :\lnth. ".Aloeseh, Th. lliel- 
scher, Ferd AYieser, ('harles John, Herm. 
Weinberger. Fraz Damme, and Giistav 
Zscheck. The members of this secret 
society deluded themselves with pi'o- 
digious plans and liuilt the most gorgeous 
air turn-and-music halls, compared with 
which the pi-esent (iermaii House is a mere 
bagatelle. Nevertheless one I)eautiful dream 
was realized after the lapse of a few years 
—the founding of an independent German- 
English school. Opportunely, at a Thomas 
Paine celebration, on January 29, 1859, was 
pointed ont for the first time in official man- 
ner the need of owneishi]) of a place for a 
school; roiisinir communications to the news- 
papei's set the hall iu motion, and a week 
later a provisional assembly named ;in agi- 
tation committee composed of V, Hutsch, 
Alex, ^fetzger, F, (loepper, Wenderoth, Im- 
berey. Klotz and Th. ITielscher. At a later 
meeting was oi-ganiz(>d the German-English 
School Society h.v the election of V. Butsch 
as i>resident and Hermann Lieber as secre- 
tary. The meeting deci-eed the founding of 
a school which 'independent of all sectarian 
influences should secure the education of 
free, moral men, in tlie principles of human- 
ity.' At the same time $000 was appro()riated 
to a fund for building a seliool house. The 
pro,jeet met such universal favor that within 
the course of three months a site was bouglit 
and a two stor.v building was begun. To- 
ward the end of 1859 the school was opened, 
under the management of the teachers Th. 
Hielscher and Julius Schunun with a moder- 
ate number of pupils at the start. Soon 
such favorable results appeared that with 
each tei-m uinrc pupils were enrollrd. Addi 

''•Zelt-Tlau|itiiianu— 'r<'ut captain. 
Vol. 1—14 

tional teachers were engaged aiul the c(mrse 
of stud.v broadened. Thereliy the cost of 
management increa.sed. The unavoidable 
deficit was nuide up by voluntary contribu- 
tions and by entertainments, picnics, fairs, 
theatricals, concerts and balls, in which the 
whole German population took part, filled 
with couuiiendable enthusiasm. 

"The AVbig parl.v had in the course of 
.vi>ars surrendei-ed one position after an- 
other, but the palliative of compromise failed 
of effect and the presidential election of 
1852 bi"oke the decadent jiart.v to pieces. 
New parties appeared. The universal clamor 
over the political distress raised, among 
others, a secret organization, which for its 
jilatform adopted the restriction of immigi'a- 
tion, the i)urification of the ballot, and the 
inti-oduction and maintenance of Ibe bible in 
the publif schools. The aim of this agitation 
was directed espeeiall.v against the Germans, 
nuui.v of whom had .ioined the Democratic 
|)art.v, attracted perhaps more by predilec- 
tion for the name than for the principal ten- 
dencies of the partv. This secret organiza- 
tion called itself the American Party, and 
the .iokers gave it the name Know-Nothing 
I'ai'Vy because its mendiers to all questions 
as to tlu>ir allegiance answered with a stereo- 
typed 'T don't know.' After a short period 
of existence the American Part.v had attained 
success in manj^ states of the TTnion, .vet its 
methods of agitation ripened characteristic 
fruit; the native and foreign 'Kowdies' 
clasped hands, and under the firm name of 
.\merican Party, these dirty confederates 
committed outrages. On election days it 
often came to euttine and stabbing afl'i-ays 
between the Know-Nothings and the Ger- 
mans. In neighboring Cincinnati there raged 
a .street fight for several da.ys in the be- 
uinning of April, 1855, in which Turners 
and Singers had opportiinit.y to show their 
readiness in barricade building. 

"The German societ.v halls bad to be 
guai'ded with saber and jiistol ; even at the 
peaceful beer-table our coiuitr,vnien were 
constantl.v expecting the signal 'to arms', and 
the skatplayers looked uji man,v times from 
their cards to inquii-e with a|)prehension 
whetbei- th(\v might pla,v another roun<l lic- 
forc the Rowdies came. In |ieaceablc In- 
dianapolis the loinv.'-nolhinL:' rcnneni did imt 



>>rl ill action. 'I'liere was a skirmish now 
and then with some son of the Einerald Isle, 
especially as introduction to or wind-up of a 
picnic, and the votinir in elections was often 
associated with dano:er, but in comparison 
with Cincinnati. Louisville. Columbus and 
others. Little ]\Iadam Iiidiana]iolis beliaved 
hei-self very well. The entire Know-Xotliing 
movement wrecked finally on the sound sense 
of the Anglo-American. 

"A new party had for some time been 
groping into life, the Republican Party. 
Under its banner collected all those who had 
realized the danger of the supremacy of the 
Democratic Party. A motley assembly in- 
deed found itself gathered together at the 
beginnino- of this new party. The Demo- 
cratic Indiana Volksblaft described a con- 
vention of the Republican Party held in In- 
dianapolis as follows: 'This motliest of all 
motley conventions of fusionists was com- 
posed of Know-Xothiiigs, Americans, patented 
progressionists and aliolitionists, noi'thern 
secessionists and renegade Democrats, of 
Catholic-eaters and Temperance hypocrites, 
of Mainiacs' and political priests.' Out of 
the conglomerate of political reform ideas 
and opinions crystallized the firm i-esoliition. 
regardless of the threats of the 'fire-eaters' of 
the South, to call a halt on the further 
spread of slavery. The day for decision ap- 
proached. The most exciting campaign in 
the history of the republic raged through the 
countiy. Mass meetings, parades, torch-light 
processions and demonstrations of all kinds 
increased the deep stirring-up; all other in- 
terests disappeared under the weight of the 
event. The (Jth of Xovember, 1860, holds a 
world 's-historic significance through the elec- 
tion of the candidate of the young Republi- 
can Party, Abraham Lincoln. 

"With the vietoiy of the Republican 
Party the conflict was here; the slave states 
made good their threat and seceded from the 
Union before Lincoln entered his office. With 
apprehensive anxiety all eyes turned to Fort 
Sumter. On the morning of April 12, 18(11, 
the hot-blooded Virginian, Edward Rutliii, 
fired the first shot at the T^nion fort ; the 
garrison returned the early morning greet- 
ing, and the bloody drama of the Civil War 

"Play on the .Maine lii|U(ir law. 

had begun. On the 15tli President Lincoln 
issued the first call for 75,000 volunteers; 
on the 18th the Inrlianapolis Journal con- 
tained the following: 'The Turners marched 
to Camp Morton yesterday morning, accom- 
panied by their own band, and .joined the 
several companies with which they have iden- 
tified themselves. Passing up Delaware 
street they stopped in front of the residence 
of Hon. A. G. Porter and gave him three 
hearty cheers, and then passed on to the resi- 
dence of William Wallace, where Adjutant 
General Wallace is temporarily residing, and 
cheered the general with loud hurrah. The 
Turners are aroused and ready for action. 
All unmarried Turnei-s answered the first 
call of Lincoln. The Turngemeinde was 
broken up. The Turnhall on Xoble street 
was turned over to one of the creditoi-s for 
the settlement of the more impoi"tant debts 
of the society. The remaining ett'ects of the 
Turners, consisting of banner, gymna.stic 
apparatus and library were turned over to 
Hermann Lieber for pi'eservation. 

"The ^laenuerchor. which under the di- 
rection of E. Despa had made rapid prog- 
ress, also went down from the beginning of 
the Civil War. Several of the active mem- 
bers had gone into the army, and moreover 
the harmony among the membei-s had been 
tottering for some time. The interests of 
the whole country concentrated on the battle 
field. The cheerfulness of the German club 
life was silenced. Times had come that tried 
men's souls. That the Germans brilliantJy 
stood the test is written in the book of his- 
tory in indelible letters. In unmeasurable 
higher percentage than others the German 
immigrants fought under the starry banner 
for the preservation of the Union. Of the 
self-sacrificing devotion to the new home, 
and the patriotic inspiration of the Germans 
of Indianapolis, the following extract from 
the Journal of April KJ. 1861. gives informa- 
tion : 'Our (Jerman fellow citizens held a 
meeting yesterday morning for the purpose 
of considering the jiropriety of offering their 
services to the (lovernor during the f)rescnt 
emergency. They announced their firm and 
undying devotion to the land of their adop- 
tion and resolved to offer their services to 
the Governor with the understanding that 
thev will not all be coiitinued in the same 



company, as they eonsiiU'i- that all nation- 
ality should be sunk now. save that of the 
American. Long live our brave axlopted 
citizens! They have felt and known the 
oppression of an aristocracy, and will never 
consent to ayain how theii' necks to the yoke. 
nor sacrifice tlieir love of liberty to save thcii- 
lives. ■ 

■"As the 'i'ui'Hi'i's rrtiiriii'd at the close of 
their thi-ee months' service, a desire was 
urgent among them to organize a whollj' 
German regiment. They were inspired to 
this l>y the service of the (Jerman regiment 
from thi' East under Ludwig Blenker. and 
the (iermans of St.. Louis under Franz Sigel. 
The ulea was tiiutlly taken up actively at a 
roundtable which met every morning at 11 
o'clock at Washington Hall, composed of Val 
Butsch. Dr. lIond)urg. Adolph Seidensticker, 
Th. Ilielscher, and August Ritzinger, and 
with the approval of (lovernor Morton was 
brought to accomplisbiiH'iit. The first com- 
paii\' was fi'om Indianapolis. The I'emainiiig 
9 com|)anics wei'i' I'ccruited at .Madison, 
Auroi-a. La\vii'nc(»bui-g. 'I'erre Haute, Cincin- 
nati. Lafayette. Laporte and Evansvillc. The 
command of the regiment was given to Au- 
gust Willich. then :\rajor of the 9th Ohio 
regiment. His staff officers were, Lieut(>nant 
Col. IL von Trebra. .Ma.j. Wm. Hchnacken- 
burir. Adjutiint Karl Schmitt aiul (Quarter 
.Masti'r Edward .Mueller. The n'giin<'iit was 
enrolled as th(" ■■{2nd Lidiana Regiment, and 
fh parted on September (i, IStJl, for Louis- 
ville, whei'c the regimental colors were pre- 
sented to it by Jlrs. Seidensticker in the 
name of the German ladies. After a short 
stay in L(uiisville. the :V2nd mai'chcil to \cw- 
havcn. Ky.. and from there into the field at 
'Camp Nevin'." The further history of llh' 
32nd is thus continued by the ('a|)taiti of the 
first company, and later Lieutenant Colonel, 
Frank Erdelmeyer: 

"Under the command of AVillieh. tiie regi- 
ment became one of the best di-illed bodies of 
soldiers. We drilled undei' (Jerman eom- 
ina)id and siu'uals. and thi'i'c devel- 
oped a spirit of fellowship, a genuine soldier 
spii'il. that biouiiht us victory in many a 
hitter fiL'liI, Durinir the latter i)art of the 
year our regiment was added to General R. 
W. .(ohnsiiti's (Ith Hi-ii;ade, of McCook's Di- 
vision. < )ii the advanee I here a()peared need 

for forming a pioneer division, which Colonel 
Willich forthwith organized carefully, and 
it w-as put xnider the capable command of 
Lieutenant Joseph Peitzuch. These wise pre- 
cautions pi'oved their benefit in a short 
time. On the 12th of December (1861) 
Johnson's Brigade advanced to the village' 
of .Munfordsville on (ireen River. The 
only bridge over the river was partially de- 
stroyed, and to cover its repair Willich thi-ew 
two companies as pickets on the south side 
of the river, and our pioneers worked night 
antl day to repair the structure. On the 
17th the bi-idge was ready. It was high time, 
for shortly after noon the enemy's cavalry 
and infanti-y appeared. Our pickets gave 
the alarm: our com[)anics f(U'med (juiekly 
and went over the bridge at double (juick. 
Colonel Willich was absent at the tinu% and 
the conunand devolved on von Trebra. With 
a precision as on parade our companies fell 
into line of battle. The rebel infantiy could 
not withstand our well-directed fin', aiul 
were hurled back in wild confusion. Then 
the enemy advanced his cavali'y, the dreaded 
Te.xas l?angers. With a wild cheer they 
rushed from behind a hill on our extended 
firing line, and individual fighting com- 
I)anies. But we received the impact steadily; 
the companies formed scpiares. and let the 
Texas Rangei's come within a short distance; 
then sounded one volley after aru)ther; the 
wild riders were thrown back and numy a 
one renuuned on the field. Hut again and 
again they retui'ued I On the left wing 
Lieutenant INIax Sachs, with a i)art of the 
Third Company, on the open field, groui>ed 
about two haystacks, was suri'ounded. He 
i-efused to surrender-, and fought bravely till 
a bulli't brought his end. llel|i came (juiekly, 
but uiduil)l)ily too late for Sachs. The Texas 
Rangers now formed feu- a final charge, and 
oui- men hekl tlieir position. Meanwhile 1 
had taken possession of a little hill on our 
left flank to bar the way of the cavalrj-. 
Coming then we saw thick before us the 
enemy's infantry and artillery. 1 waited 
now till the infantry advaneed to attack our 
right wing, and then advanced slowly with 
my com|)aiiy. Tiie enemy imagined the whole 
division behind us, and. fearini: <i tiaiik at- 
tack, turneil back in hasty HiLdit. The bat- 
tle was over. Cn our side we had in 



and '2\1 wouiuUhI. Tlie vietorv belonged to 
the (ieinian Indiana Regiment." 

"The troops engaged were higldy conipli- 
niented in the general orders of December 27, 
1861, by General Fry, who commended the 
regiment as 'a study and example to all 
troo])s nnder his command, and enjoins them 
to emulate the discipline and instniction 
which insure such results. The name of Row- 
lett Station will be inscribed on the regi- 
mental Colors of the Thirty-second Indiana 
Volunteei-s. ' The following spring the legis- 
lature of Kentucky passed an act to purchase 
the field and notified the regiment of this 
recognition of its German defendants. In the 
further course of the war the regiment took 
part in the battles of Shiloh. Stone River, 
Chicknmauga, ^Missionary Ridge and the 
niarel) to .\tlanta, and maintained the good 
reputation it had earned in its first baptism 
of fire. It was AYillich's regiment that at-^ 
traeted wide attention by a notable perform- 
ance on the second day at Shiloh. It was ad- 
vancing on 'the Hornet's Nest' when Willich 
noticed the lines of a new company wavering 
under the awful fire. He at once halted the 
regiment, and (tut them through the manual 
of arms in that rain of death; then, steadied 
once more, sent them on with the charge.* 
There wa.s also a German battery in the 6th 
Indiana that was raised at Evansville. Its 
captain was Fredrich Behr, and after his 
death at Shiloh, Wm. :\Iueller. The other 
officers of the battery were Louis Kei'u, Wm. 
^Lissman, Ed. Janke. and Peter Butsch, of 

■'After the close of the Civil War a new 
s])irit made itself noticeable among the Ger- 
mans of Ameriea, perhaps this change took 
place unknown tn themselves. During the 
war, and fre(|uently on account of the war, 
many had worked their way up to a comfort- 
able condition in life. The improvement of 
their financial condition called for increased 
energy, and soon increased both their social 
obligations and their circumspection. Their 
active participation in club affaii's natin-ally 
lessened in proportion as their commercial 
interests increased. Others mav have neg- 

' Lew Wallace's Auhilnnr/niiiln/, pj). r)()l-2; 
Willich 's modest i-eport of the occui'rence is 
in the Journnl of .\pril 23, 1862. 

lected the chance of the moment to take time 
liy the forelock, or have lacked energy ; be 
that as it may, the social relations of the Ger- 
mans among themselves lost their former 
level, and the former lack of constraint of 
German club life began to lose its original 
naturalness. ^Moreover after the war the 
principal differences of opinion heightened. 
From social and political conditions arose ani- 
mosities and enmities, which in turn spread 
in wide circles. The personal quarrels of 
some were carried into club life, and attained 
there the ruling influence. Factions were 
formed which finally broke out in long bick- 
erings, and shivered the club in pieces. Their 
energies were broken in fragments. Some, 
weary of the unending scpiabbles, drew away 
entirely and threw themselves into the arms 
of the Aniilo- America II life. New societies, 
new cliques and clubs were formed. The his- 
toric weakness of the German people, par- 
ticularism, broke out disastrously, also in far 
Amei-ica. Another influence which reacted 
on the German club life was the readier di- 
vision of the Germans in party polities. It 
is indeed not mere chance that in so many 
cities the leading spirits of two clubs, oro-an- 
ized for the same purposes, are in public life, 
known as representatives of opposing political 

"But the chief influence in this process of 
transformation which slowly but irresistibly 
proceeded in all (ierman clubs of the country, 
was the meanwhile i-ipening youth. A new 
generation had matured. Grown up in other 
surroundings it brought in a different thought 
and feeling. The revolutionary .spirit of "48 
which thrilled the fathers was strange and 
incompi-ehensible to the children. In the as- 
semblages and entertainments of the German 
clubs, English convei'sation. which came so 
much easier, attained precedence. The Ger- 
man club life received a different chai-acter. 
The process of Americanization also overtook 
our forty-eighters, for the events of the jiast 
were too powerful to pass over them without 
leaving traces. The affectionate care for the 
family, the free intercourse and expression 
of opinion, the business and the dollar, the 
social and material advantages which the new 
home offered so profusely frightened away 
the homesickness, the u'enfle longing for the 
old fatherland, to a hidden corner of the 








heart. The iioble American knew liow to ap- 
I)reciate the noble spirit of self-sacrifice which 
the Germans showed in the sore crisis of the 
Civil War. Business, social and political points 
of contact in cnnse(|uence liecaiiie fre(inent, 
and the mutual knowledue dawned u]ion both 
of them that each could learn much from the 
other. Out of the German in America de- 
veloped the German American. 

"A stronfj bond for the liberal element 
was found for a number of years in the Ger- 
man-Eno-lish school, the hlessiuffs of which 
were not obstructed through the years of 
war. Durin>:- the war the Schulverein had 
bought the ad.ioiniui; lot. and doubled tlie 
size of the school tiuildinj;- '216 East ^lai'v- 
land street). The school itself, under the 
management of Johann Reitz and his son 
Heinrich Reitz ( 18t52-18().5) made excellent 
]iro^ress. It reached its bloom in the years 
1865 to 1871. Ry the care of the principal 
a fine corps of teachers was secured, viz. : 
Th. Dinsledey, "\Vm. ^Mueller. L. Klenuii. Miss 
^late, ]Mrs. Wynn, ^liss Beman. and later 
Ernst Knodel and Christian Bopp. The 
studies tauorht were reading, writing-, gram- 
mar, composition, arithmetic, geometry, geog- 
raphy, history, nature study in both lan- 
guages, perspective drawing, nnisic and gym- 
na.stics. The snpjunt of the school re(|uired 
considerable money annually, and it often re- 
quired extraordinary effort to avoid a threat- 
ened deficit. Small as the tuition charge was, 
it exceeded the ability of many German fam- 
ilies. There was. therefore, general satisfac- 
tion when Representative J. T. Coft'roth, of 
Huntington, introduced a bill in the legisla- 
ture of 1869 to have (German included in the 
course of study of the public schools if the 
parents of twenty-five children in a school 
district petitioned for it. In recognition of 
the services of the Germans the House passed 
this bill on February 17, 1869, by a vote of 
77 to 7, and the Senate declared itself for 
the same favor on April "27 by a vote of 37 
to 3. Moved by an unselfish purpose to pro- 
mote the general welfare, the nunnbei's of the 
(ierman-English society were the most zeal- 
ous supporters of this law, though as before 
mentioned, the introduction of German in the 
public schools was the death blow to their 
own school. 

"The attendant' diniiiiislicd vcarlv; the 

money for the suppt)rt of the management, 
which amounted to $6,000 to $7,000 an- 
nually, grew harder to raise. Xevertheles.? 
the leading members of the Schulverein did 
not abandon agitation for the support of the 
school, and thanks to the devoted activity of 
some the school was able to keep alMve water 
for a decade longer. It is due first to men- 
tion the capable teachers who, during this 
time, labored in the school, among whom were 
G. (Jramlich, Hy. Koessly, P. Berwig, and 
especially R. C. Tschentcher, who was prin- 
cipal from 1872 to 1879, and Karl Pingpang, 
who served as teacher for ten .years, until 
1882. During the years 1865 to 1882, the 
names of the following members were most 
frequent in the Schulverein records: Val 
Butseh, A. Seidensticker, C. Vonnegut. H, 
Lieber, Ed. Mueller, F. Schmidt, Wm. Kothe, 
Alex. Metzger, Louis Lang, Jacob Metzger 
and \Ym. Haueisen. In the early part of 
1882 the society found it necessary to give 
up the school altogether, as all attempts to 
find a teacher who was willing, according to 
the wishes of the society, to carry it on on 
his own account, were unsuccessful. All of 
the pupils went into the public schools, where 
they entered older classes without difficulty. 
In further evidence of the thoroughness of 
the German-English school may be mentioned 
the fact that pupils of former years, after 
finishing the German-English school, were ad- 
mitted to the cit.v high school without fur- 
ther examination, and, moreover, were re- 
garded by the teachers there as model pupils. 
Thereby is answered the oft-repeated argu- 
ment that a course in two languages is of 
no advantage to the intellectual development 
of the pupil." 

Leaving Mr. Stempfel's account at this 
point, it may be ad<led tliat the (ierman move- 
ment from this time forward was devoted 
chiefiy to eharitflble undertakings and musical 
cidture, which will be considered elsewhere, 
and to the develn])ment ( f club interests. On 
January 1, 1865. former members of the 
Turngemeindc reorganized as the Indianap- 
olis Turnverein, which met for eighteen 
months at Mueller's Hall, 27 South Delaware 
street, a.s did also the ^laiMinerchor. The Tur- 
ners then built, at 280 East Maryland street, 
the hall being dedicated on Jlay 7, 1867. In 
1868 the Boston cotivcntion of the Turner- 



bund indorsed the Republican platfoitn 
adopted at Chicajru. and the Indianapolis so- 
ciety decided to expel those nieiiibers who 
did not indorse the Boston action. On .Inly 
17, 1868, sixty-eiiiht members were cxjtelli'd. 
The "free thinkers" were puttini; freedom 
of thoujjht behind the bars. Two years later 
there was another split over woman's rights, 
and other niembei-s withdrew. The expelled 
members of 1868 formed an independent or- 
tranization called the Social Tnrnverein. and 
put up a bnildinu- at 218 Kast ^laryland 
street, which was dedicated in May. 1872. 
Meanwhile the Indianapolis Tnrnverein, weak- 
ened by the loss of members, and embarrassed 
by the of the Turn-fest of Septem- 
ber, 1870, had to give up its building to its 
creditors. Various efforts to unite the two 
failed until the national Turnerbund ordered 
them to unite within three months. The 
union was effected on -Inly 16. 1872. luulci- 
the name, Indianapolis Socialer Turnvercin. 

On April 10, 1870, the Friedenkerverein 
was organized to combat the pernicious teach- 
ings of Christianity, which it did by lec- 
tures, newspaper articles and tracts. .More 
important, as a result of a meeting on De- 
cember 7. 1884. it established a (lewerbe- 
schnle, or industi'inl training school, in which 
numbers of young people received instruction, 
and which was a large factor in the develop- 
ment of the ^lanual Training High School. 
In 1876 the "Zukunft". the organ of the 
Turnerbund at this point, supported Tilden 

I and Hendricks, which caused a pi'otest fioTu 
the local society, and on account of which 
the Turnerlnuid in 1878 cancelled its contracl 

i with the i)ai)er. This brought llu' politii-al 
controversy to a head, and on Jannaiy 1. 
1879. a iiiinority of thirt.v-three membei-s I'c- 
signed and founded the Fnabhaengiger or 
Independent Turnvercin. This society made 
its (|uarters in Mozart Hall for six years. 
On July 2it. 1884, a Turidiall Stock ('omi>any 
was formed, which boii-jlit the old Third 
Presbyterian Church pmixTt.v, at the north- 
east cornel- of Ohio and Illinois street, for 
$12.r)((0. Alterations were made in the build- 
ing, and on February '■]. 1885, the Society 
moved into the new home, which was dedi- 
cated on March 30. Soon after it bought, for 
$4.r>00, the lot to the north, which was occu- 
pied for several years as a summer garden; 

anil in 18!)7 the pi-cscnt two-story luiilding 
was erected. ^Meanwhile a new front was 
put on the building and an addition at the 
I'car, the total of the remodeling, additions 
and new building costing .'f^4o,()(l(). The so- 
ciety took over the property from the stock 
company, and has refused to consider an 
otter of "$150,000 for it. 

In October, 1891, the Soeialer Turnvercin 
decided to erect a building, not for itself 
;done, but for the entire liberal-minded (icr- 
nian clement in the city, A stock company 
was formed that winter, and a site was jiiU'- 
chascd for $20,000 at the southeast corner 
of Michigaji and .New Jei'se.v streets. The 
work of building was pushed forward, and 
February 22, 1894, the east wing of the build- 
ing was occupied with api)ropriate festiv- 
ities. The remainder of the building was 
four years in completion, and on June 15. 
1898, Das Deutsche Ilaus was dedicated, with 
music, addresses, and a pla,v; followed by 
other festivities on the 16th and 18th. The 
total cost of this tine building was $175,000. 
In addition to the Soeialer Turnvercin, it 
is occupied by Der Deutsche Klub, which in- 
cludes all stockholders in the house; the (Jer- 
mau-Atnerican Veterans Club, oi-ganized in 
1S7M; the ^lusikverein, founded in 1897. Tln' 
hall and jxii-tions o|)encd to rent ai-e much 
used by outsiders for balls, plays, and gath- 
erings of various kinds. When the Soeialer 
Tnrnverein decided to move farther north, 
about a third ot its nu'mbers lived on the 
South Sitlc. and a movement arose for a new 
society, the most active jii'omotei- being H. 
W'iddekind. As a result the South Side Turn- 
vercin cclebrateti its foundation on Novem- 
ber 5. 189:5. Fiietional troubles soon came 
near disruf)tiiig it. but in Septendier. 1894. 
Henry V^ictor took charge of it. and somi 
brought it into prosperous condition. Its 
first meeting place was the Phoenix (iai-den. 
Iiiit a buildinu' societ.v was oi'ganized and on 
.ianuary 18, 1901. the handsome turnhall. on 
l*r<is|)eet street lu'ar iNladison avenue, was 
dedicated. The cost of Mic liuildini!' and 
grounds was .$45,000. 

In 1878 the J[a''nncrehor rented the old 
City Hall. 3:17 F^ast Washington .street; and 
it was dedicated to its new occupation on 
March 26. 27. In 1897 a fund of $10,000 
was raised, and the Imildint: was renovated 



and aruamentt.Hl, making a hautlsoiue resi- 
dence for the society for the next ten years. 
But it aspired to something- better, and by 
the accession of passive members the society 
had taken on hirtrely the character of a gen- 
eral purpose elub. and also acquired power 
to spread out. Accordingly it purchased a 
.site at the northwest corner of Jlichigau and 
Illinois streets, for $30,000, and erected its 
imposing hall at a cost of $126,000. On Feb- 
ruary 17. 1907, the ^Maennerchor bade fare- 

well to its old hall with due ceremony, and a 
month later dedicated its new building with 
a series of services beginning on March 21, 
on which occasion the opening address was 
made by Mrs. Fernanda Richter (Edna Fern) 
of St. Louis, on "German Song". This is the 
latest of the German building enterprises, of 
a quasi-public character, and is a gratifying 
addition to the ornamental structures that 
thev have contributed to the citv. 




The election of Lincoln had been preeeded 
by threats of seeession, but these met witli 
utter iucredidity. They wei-e considered as 
ante-election bliilTs. Every one believi>d the 
South would aeee|)t the situation after a little 
blustering-. The ]\r'pulil leans were not abo- 
litionists. Their content i(jn was that slavery 
should not be extended, and the far-seeinjr 
ones who agreed with Lincoln, that the gov- 
ernment could not exist half slave and half 
free, were few indeed in comparison with 
the mass who were contented to let slavery 
keej) what it had. The Republicans had con- 
demned lirown's i-aid the year befoi-e and 
they had no symiiathy with (iarri.son, Phil- 
lips and abolitionists generally. In these later 
days it has been claimed in many obituary 
notices that their subjects wei'e original abo- 
litionists. If they had been the South would 
have l)een correct in the ehariie that the Re- 
publican party was an abolition ])arty, but 
the fact is that most of the abolitionists wei-i' 
made such bv the necessities of the wai-. Weu- 
dt-11 Phillips was egged in Cincinnati in 18(i2 
foi- an abolition speech. After the election 
the "fire-eaters", as they were called, pro- 
ceeded to carry their thi-eats into speedy op- 
eration. South Carolina s(>ceded, followed bv 

' ^Ir. llolliday has kindly consented to the 
use of this hitherto unpublished .irticle here. 
Living here dui-iug the wai', and soon after 
its close founding the Indianapolis Ncivs, of 
which for many years he was editor, his per- 
sonal familiarity with th(» suli.ject, coupled 
with the extensive I'csearch given in the pi-ep- 
aration of tliis article, make it a contribu- 
tion to local liistory especially- worthy of 

other states. The national forts and i)r(ipi'i-ty 
were seized when possible and the administra- 
tion otl'ercd no hindrances, if it did not abet 
the movement. Even when the Confedei-acy 
was organized and the country was rushing 
on to wai', the northern people believed it 
would be averted and did nothing but talk 
and agree to certain peace conferences that 
, might hit upon a compromise. 

Still there was some war talk in Indianap- 
olis that winter. One faction of the Repub- 
licans, headed by Governor ]\Iorton, spoke for 
coercion, another, led by the Journal, thought 
it unnecessary and was almost i-eady for 
■'peace at any price". On January 7, 1861, 
the Zouave Guards, a recently organized mil- 
itary company, offered its services to the Gov- 
ernor in case of war. On the 22nd the flag 
was publicly raised on the State House dome 
after a procession of the military and fire 
department in the jii-esence of a vast con- 
coui-se; a salute was fired and Cai'oline 
Richings, a jxtimlar actress, sang the Star 
Spangled Banner and aroused great enthu- 
siasm. P''ebruary 12 Mr. Lincoln came on 
his way to Washington, the first president- 
elect to visit here, and that was one of the 
great days of th(^ town. What he said was 
not much l)ut it ins(Mre(l confidence that there 
would be no yieldinii- without .a struggle. He 
was inaugui-ated. but the rush of onice-seek- 
ers almost obscured the condition of the coun- 
try and the rising Confederacy. 

Within two months, Api-il P2th, the blow 
fell with the attack on Ft. Sumter. Senti- 
ment ci-ystallized in a flash. War had com(> 
unprovoked. Thi> flair had been fired on and 
humiliated by defeat. There was l)ut one 
voice — sustain the goverunieiit and i)ut down 


21. S 


thr rebellion. The l'M\ day of April was 
another o;reat day in Indianapolis, the i;reat- 
est it had yet seen : and probably it has never 
been surpassed in the intense interest, anxiety 
and enthusiasm exhibited. Never were its 
people so aroused. It was Saturday. Busi- 
ness was praetically forgotten ; the streets 
were crowded ; the newspaper nei<;Iiborhoods 
were thi-onged: a deep solemnity was over 
all as they waited to hear the news, or dis- 
eus.sed in low tones the crisis that was upon 
them. In the afternoon dodgers were issued 
calling for a public meeting at the Coui't 
House at seven o'clock. Before the time the 
little room was packed. Ebenezer DuiiKint. a 
Democrat who had been an officer in the 
ilexican AVar, was made chairman, and im- 
mediately a juotion was made to adjourn to 
the Metropolitan theatre. The crowd, con- 
stantly aug-menting. hurried down Washing- 
ton street to the theatre, which was soon 
tilled and overflowing. Then iNFasonic Hall, 
acr(.ss the street, was opened and filled, with ^ 
hundreds standing in the streets. The meet- 
ings were full of the war spirit. Governor 
IMorton and othei-s .spoke. Patriotic resolu- 
tions M'ere adopted declaring in favor of 
armed resistance. ^Nfajor Gordon announced 
that he would organize a flying artillery com- 
pany, for which Governor Morton had al- 
ready secured six guns, and forty-five men 
enrolled their names for the war. At the 
close the surrender of Ft. Sitmter was an- 
nounced, and the meetings disper.sed in deep 
gloom but with finu purpose. 

Sunday was little observed in tlie usual 
way. There was no demonstration of excite- 
ment but great seriousness, fur hundreds were 
pondering over the future and their po.ssible 
part in it. The Journal published an extra 
with an account of the meetings Saturday 
night. The next day recruiting offices were 
oi)ened, the military com])anies volunteered 
in large part; volunteers were offered from 
many other places; and on Wednesday, the 
17th, the first troops went into Camp ^lorton, 
then the new fair gi'oimds. covering the site 
of AForton Place. Then they poured in by 
thousands from town and country, some with 
flags, some with fife aiul driuns or brass band ; 
the streets were alive with them. It is l)e- 
yond my power to give any adequate idea 
of those davs with the buri-v and bustle. 

the innumerable details of the swift prepa- 
rations, the deepening feeling and the con- 
tinued excitement. 

The Journal of the 16th reports it in a way 
as follows: "There is but one feeling in Indi- 
ana. We are no longei- Republicans or Demo- 
crats. Never did party names lose their signif- 
icance so rapidly or completely as since the 
news of Saturday. Parties are forgotten and 
only our common danger is remembered. Here 
and there inveterate sympathizers with South- 
ei'u institutions and feelings scowl and curse 
the mighty tempest of patriotism they dare 
not encounter: but they are few, as pitiful in 
strength as in spirit. Even the Scntiiirl now 
avows its devotion to the stars and stripes, 
and gives ns some cause to modify if not 
recall the harsh censures we expressed yes- 
terday. Our streets are blazing with Na- 
tional flaws. Huge banners wave from the 
tops of houses and hundred of flags flutter 
in windows and along the walks. The drum 
and fife are sounding the whole day long at 
Military Hall, where volunteers are pouring 
ill to record their names and enter the sennce 
(if their country: and crowds are gathered 
constantly around the doors of Colonel Du- 
mont's station, whei-e he is enlisting volun- 
teers for a regiment of picked men. Though 
the news of the fight has as yet only reached 
towns along the lines of railroads, and no 
(ifficial or other notice has been published 
that the services of volunteers would be 
needed, 2,000 men, regularly organized and 
ready to start at the word, have already been 
tendered to (Jovernor Morton, and more than 
l'0,000 are forming with eager haste to be in 
time for acceiitance. By the time the news 
can be thoroughly circulated throut;h the 
state that men are needed, there will be more 
than 50,000 officered and ready. In the full 
spirit of the times Governor iMorton has sunk 
party distinctions and yesterday appointed 
to the important post of Adjutant General of 
the State, Cajit. Lewis Wallace of .Montgom- 
ery County, a prominent Democrat and wide- 
ly known for his military zeal and skill. 
Lewis H. Sands, of Putnam, another Demo- 
crat devoted to his country, has been ap- 
pointed colonel. There will be no more Re- 
publicans or Democrats hereafter till the 
countiy is at peace." A vain ])rediction was 
this. The S()ilin(1. thouuli f(ir the iiidiiient 



cowod iiiln liiilf-heartcd :i|i|iriival of llii- \v;ir, 
soon ri'vcrtcil to tho tk'iiuiiciatidii of the ;ui- 
iiiiiiistratioii and th(^ battles of op|)osini> pol- 
itits were as many and as fierce as those of 
the armies. i)efore tlie country was at peace. 

There had iieeti a lull in military spirit 
after the ^Fexican War. and Indianapolis 
had no permanent eomi)any for a decade. 
The City Guards were organized in 1S.")2. 
with (lovernor Wallace a.s captain, and the 
Mechanic Rifles in 1858. but botii spcmi went 
lo pieces. A visit of the St. Louis (luards 
to the city in 1856 aroused the dormant sen- 
timent, and the National (iuai'ds were oriran- 
ized. with Oen. W. J. Elliott as captain. They 
were uniformed in bhie, with cai)s bearing' 
white plumes. Some di.ssensions aro e, and in 
1857 (ieneral Elliott or^ranized the City Greys, 
who woi-e frrcy unifoi-ms and bear-skin 
shakos. 'I'hesp were the only i)ei-manent 
companies until 18()(). when a visit from Lew 
Wallace's !\Iontiromery (iuards, who wei-e 
Zouaves, and drilled by drum beat, wakened 
new and)itions. The Inde|>endent Zouaves 
were then ortranized, on the same basis, with 
Francis A. Shoup as captain: and these three 
Indianapolis companies, with the Montgomery 
Gnai'ds and two Tei-re Haute companies, held 
a state encami)m('nt at the fair L'ronnds ( .Mili- 
tary Park") the week befrinniuf;- Sei)tembei- 19. 
In October. 18fi(l. the Zouave (iuards wei-e 
ortranized. with John Fahnestock as cajytain. 
They were {jorfjeous, in ))lue .iaekets with 
pold lace, basrpy scarlet trousers to the knee. 
orange lejrfring.s and shirts, white belts, and 
rimless scarlet ca()s with tassels. They also 
made the i-ecord of beinjr the first comi)any 
to tender services to the (iovei-noi- for any 
duty that mipht a rise. - 

These four companies went out in the Elev- 
enth regriinent in the three months' service. 
The Greys were Co. A., with R. S. Foster, 
captain; George Butler, 1st lieutenant, and 
Jos. H. Livesey, 2nd lieutenant. The Zouave 
Guards were Co. B, with John Fahnestock, 
captain; Orin S. Fahnestock. 1st lieutenant. 

and Darnel B. Cullev. 

lieutenant. Tin 

Independent Zouaves were Co. E. with l)e- 
witt C. Rupfr. captain; Henry Tindall. 1st 
lieutenant, and Nicholas Ruckle. "Jnd lii-n- 
tenant. The National (iuards wrrr Co. K'.. 

with Wni. Darnall. (■a|)Iiiin ; .biliii .McLaui:li- 
liii. 1st lieutenant, and Wm. Uawson. 2nd 
lieutenant. There was niie othei' Indianapolis 
company in the p]leventli. Co. H, which was 
organized in the spring of 1861. with W. J. 
11. Robinsen. captain; Fred Knetlei-, 1st lieu- 
tenant, and Wallace Foster, 2nd lieutenant. 
The Eleventh was a Zouave regiment, but 
with very mild uniforms of a irreyish cloth 
i-esendiling blue .jeans, not made very full. 
and with very little color in the trinnnings. 

The Indejiendent Zouaves went out a tritlc 
warmer tlian the othei-s. Their original caj)- 
tain. Francis A. Shouj), was a West Pointer 
who had sen-ed in the artillery in the regu- 
lar army, and held the raid< of second lieu- 
tenant when he resigned, on Januai'.v 10. 
1860. and located at Indianapolis. He was 
a good-looking fellow, ijuite talented, and a 
fine drill-master. The boys e.steemed him 
highly, and at a eoin])any meeting in the 
winter of 1860-1, at which patriotic si)eeches 
were made by several, including Shoui), they 
[•resented him a pair of revolvers with 
holsters and trappings, being under the im- 
[)ression that the officers would ride, in the 
event of war. That night he went South, 
and it was scon rumored that he had gone 
to stay. There was a meeting of the com- 
pany, and V^olney 'i'. ;\Ialott was delegated to 
correspond with him and lea)-n his intentions. 
Shoup, who was then visiting Cai)tain 
Hood— later General Hood— at Charleston, 
promptly replied that he had decided to cast 
his fortrrnes with the South in tlu' event of 
war-. The meeting at which this answer- was 
r-ead wa.s an occasion for- "thoughts that 
br-eathe and wor-ds that burn''. The idea that 
a native Iloosier-. educated by the gover'u- 
ment. and sent to West Point, fr-orn Wa.\rie 
County at that, shoidd go over to the South, 
was .simply appalling. However, there was 
irothing in the pai)er-s about it except nren- 
tiorr that Shoup had r-esigned. and Lieut. 
Dewitt C. Rugg had been elected (•a|)tain irr 
his place.'' 

Shoup far-ed ver-y well with his Soirlheirr 
frieirds. lie was a ma.i(U' in 1861, coirrmarrd- 
ing three batteries of artillery, and was made 
br-igadier-general April 11, 1868. He was in 
(•(inimand of the artiller-\- at Mobile, chief of 

'Journal, Jauuar-v 8. 1S61. 

'■'Joiiniiil . Jariiiai'V 80, IStil. 



artillery of Jolinstpn's army in the Dalton 
campaign, and chief of staff under General 
Hood at Atlanta. When Vieksbiirg- was cap- 
tured he was commanding a Louisiana brigade 
there, under Peniberton. Just after the capit- 
ulation, a private of tlie Eleventh Indiana 
saw a gorgeously attired Confederate officer 
approaching our lines on horseback, and rec- 
ognized Shoup. With a yell of, "Get off 
that horse, Frank Shoup, you — — — !" he 
made for a stand of arms near by, but was 
stopped by an officer before anything serious 
occurred. In reply to the officer's question as 
to what he wanted, Shoup explained that he 
understood that the Eleventh Indiana was in 
his front, and he had come out to see some 
of his old friends. "Well'", replied the offi- 
cer, "you have seen a specimen of what the 
Eleventh Indiana thinks of you. You had 
better get back to your quarters at once ; and 
I woidd advise you to dispose of those side- 
arms at your earliest convenience." Shoup 
was paroled, with Pembertou and others, and 
a few weeks latei- the Confederate exchange 
agent announced them as "exchanged", au- 
thorizing an equal exchange of paroled Union 
men ; they then resumed their sei'vice. After 
the war Shoup entered the ministry of the 
Episcopal Church. 

Human nature soon adjusts itself to ex- 
traordinary conditions. The town settled 
down and resumed its life, with the great 
new interest of the war. The six regiments 
that were called for to serve three months 
were quickly filled to overflowing. The Elev- 
enth wa.s the pride of Indianapolis. This 
was the Zouave regiment, organized and com- 
manded by Lew Wallace, into which went the 
four militia companies of Indianapolis and 
one other. It not only wore the zouave uni- 
form, and had guns with sword bayonets, but 
the drill was the zouave system, introduced 
into this country from Prance by Colonel 
Ellsworth of Chicago. It was a picturesque 
body, and its colonel was a picturesque figure. 
Who that witnessed it can ever forget how, 
when the regiment was gathered in the State 
House yard to receive a stand of coloi-s from 
the ladies of Iiuliana, he made the men kneel 
and with uplifted hands swear to remember 
Buena Vista and the stigma put upon In- 
diana valor on that field by Jefferson Davis? 
What liojies animated and followed these de- 

parting troops! How hearts were sorely 
tried and bereft as their boys marched away 
to face the unknown and perilous future! 
For tliey were but boys in the main, as we 
realize now, but they were men in purpose, 
and courage, and deeds. 

Six regiments of state troops were called 
for by the Governor aud these were soon filled 
and accepted by the general government for 
twelve months and three years. The whole 
state was awake. Governor Morton called a 
special session of the legislature to provide 
means for the war. The ladies met and 
formed an aid society com]>osed of branches 
from each ward to make shirts and other 
garments and havelocks, a head protection 
modeled on the sun-bonnet and borrowed 
from the British Indian army — an article in 
great request at first, but it was never liked 
by the soldiers, and soon disappeared from 
public mention. The Journal issued an extra 
every afternoon. The City Council voted 
•$10,000 for the soldiers' families. Some rail- 
roads offered to carry troops free. Banks 
gave money. Gifts were showered on sol- 
diers. There was eagerness to get into the 
service before the war covdd be finished. A 
man 92 years old enlisted : another shaved 
his beard and dyed his hair to pass muster 
Home guards were organized in the wards, 
among them the Silver Grays, comjiosed of 
men above militai-y age, captained by James 
Blake, seventy years j'oung, and with Caleb 
Seudder as president. 

Illustrative of journalism was this item in 
the Journal on April 23rd: "p]rratum. In 
Mr. Hyde's sermon as printed in our extra 
of yesterday there were two mis-prints which 
eveiy intelligent reader corrected for himself. 
In the first sentence Kingdom of Israel should 
read Kingdojn of Saul ; and in the seventh 
paragraph peaceable resistance should read 
forcible resistance". 

The legislature met on the 24th and all 
was amity. It organized by a unanimous elec- 
tion of officers, the only instance in the state's 
history probably, and then adjourned to visit 
Camp ^Vlorton and hear Stephen A. Douglass 
speak, which he liid not; but he did speak 
that night from the Bates House veranda, of 
which no mention was made by the papers, 
when he again took his stand on the side of 
the Union and in su]ipoj-t of the administra- 










2 1 

O «5 

K! 9 

X 2 

H - 




iiisT()i;v OF (;i!i:atj:i; ixdiaxapolts. 

tion, an act of inestiiiiablf valiu' to the cause. 
Within a few days he was dead. 

The Eleventh was sent to Evausviiie to 
quell possible disturbances on the border, but 
the remaining regiments were reviewed by 
General jMcClellan. Governor Yates of Illi- 
nois, Denuison of Ohio, and [\Iorton and Sen- 
ator Trumbull on ^lay 24th. on the conunons 
northwest of ^Military Park, then Camp Sul- 
livan. Three regiments were in full uniform, 
one had ever\'thing but hats and one had 
nothing military, but all made a gallant ap- 
pearance. It was the first time that Indian- 
apolis had seen so many soldiers together and 
it was witnessed with great enthusiasm. It 
was the first of many such displays. The 
•work of equipping these men was necessarily 
slow. It took time to make uniforms, and 
longer time to procure arms and ammunition. 
much of which was imported. It may be of 
interest to know what the uniforms cost. Two 
regiments were clothed in cadet satinet, cost- 
ing .$7.90 each, one in jeans at $6.50 and an- 
other at $7.50: the fifth of gray satinet at 
$6.75 and the Zouaves at $10 each. Flannel 
shirts cost $1.40, hats $1.'25, and shoes $1.15. 
While waiting, the troops were drilled con- 
stantly, but it was not until June 19th that 
the of the three months' regiments left 
for the seat of war. After this more regi- 
ments were called for, recruited and mus- 
tered, with two Of three independent cavalry 
companies and a number of artillery com- 
panies, and later full cavalry regiments. A 
number of these never came here, but some 
passed through or camped here for a few 
days. There was a German regiment, an 
Irish regiment formed and a .second projected, 
a railroad regiment, a mechanics' regiment, 
and a preachers' I'egiment, the field officers 
and captains of which were to be ministei-s, 
a scheme not fully carried out. Altogether 
hfty-eight regiments were authorized during 
1861, although about half a dozen were never 
completed. Besides these many Indianians 
had gone into the regular army and into out- 
side companies tliat recruited hei-e, until the 
state authorities put a stop to it. It was a 
tremendous achievement to raise an army of 
over 50,000 men in less than nine months. 
Indianapolis contributed a number of com- 
panies to various regiments; and in alnmst 
every regiment thei'e was some repi-esenta- 

tive of the town. It was also true that many 
citizens of other places came here and en- 

A very important event was the return of 
the three months' troops in August. They 
had not had nuich war, as war appeared later; 
but they had done all that was in their power 
to do, and had borne themselves gallantly. 
Each regiment received an ovation of sahttes, 
speeches, feasting at the west market house, 
and a heart-felt welcome. Each man was 
a hero, and nothing was too good for him. 
All these regiments reorganized for three 
years. ]\Iany of the men became officers in 
the new regiments, many new men were re- 
cruited, and before sixty days they were off 
to the war again. 

The raising and drilling of troops was no 
more important than e(|uipping them, for 
there was difficulty in obtaining arms, ammu- 
nition or accoutrements. On February 1, 
1861. the state's supply of arms in possession 
of the state's quartermaster were "505 mus- 
kets, worthless and incapable of being re- 
paired; 54 flint lock Yager rifles, which could 
be altered at $2 each to percu.ssion locks ; 40 
serviceable nuiskets in the hands of military 
companies at Indianapolis, which could be re- 
turned at once; 80 muskets with accouti-e- 
ments in store; 1:3 artillery musketoons; 75 
holster pistols; 26 Sharpe's rifles; 20 Colt's 
navy pistols; 2 boxes of cavalry sabres; 1 
box powder flasks; 3 boxes accoutrements."' 

There were also estimated to be 600 mus- 
kets in fair condition, distributed among 15 
militia companies in the state. The state was 
entitled to 488 muskets from the natioiuil gov- 
ernment on its 1861 quota, and (iovernor 
Morton took in place of them a 6-pounder 
cannon and 350 minie rifles with bayonets. 
On April 27 Calvin- Fletcher was commis- 
sioned to learn what could be obtained from 
manufactories of arms in the United States, 
and later jMiles J. Fletcher was sent on the 
same mission, but they found practically 
nothing available. On May 80 Robert Dale 
Owen was conunissioned to purchase arms to 
the extent of 6,000 rifles and 1,000 carbines 
in this country or in Europe, and this order 
was from time to time eidarged. To the close 
of his service on February 6, 1863, he pur- 

^ Terrell's Report. Vol. 1, p. 428. 



chased 80.000 Enfiold i-iHes, 2,731 carbines, 
751 revolvers, and 797 sabres, at a cost of 
$752,694.75; besides e-xijendin-r $3,905 for 
cavalry e(|uipiiients. $50,407 for blankets, and 
$84,829 for o\-ereoats. His total bill for serv- 
ices and e.xpenses for twenty iiiontiis einployed 
in this service was $3,452.'' 

Animunition was also almost impossible to 
obtain, and .Morton, who balked at no ob- 
stacle, determined to try making it. Captain 
Herman Sturm, wlio had learned the l)usi- 
uess in Europe, was put in charge of the ex- 
periment in rented quarters on the square 
south of the state house, with a blacksmith's 
foige for melting lead, a room for making 
cartridges, and a detail of men from the 
Eleventh regiment to do the work. The work 
wa.s a success, and oui' first troops were fur- 
nished with anununition from this source. 
The work was started on April 27: and a 
month later (Tovei'uor ]\Iorton ordered the 
construction of buildings for the work ou 
the square north of the state house— now the 
north half of the state house grounds. On 
June 15 the Jouriidl i-eported the buildings 
about completed. On the north side of the 
enclosure was a small brick building with 
furnaces for melting lead, and room for eight 
men to work at molding bullets, as well as 
benches for swedging and perfeetiiiir the bul- 
lets. Ad.joining this was a room for tilling 
shells and prepariuLr fuzes. On the east and 
west sides of the enclosure were frame build- 
ings for making cartridiics and storing am- 
munition. There were soon about 100 women 
and girls employed in making cartridges, and 
the institution grew steadily. In October. 
1861. Secretary of War Cameron and (Jen- 
eral Thomas visited this arsenal and iiispeete(l 
the work. They recommended its continu- 
ance; and it not only supplied most of the 
Indiana troops but vrry lartrely others. The 
transactions of the ai'senal to its close on 
April 18, 1864, amounted to $788,838.45. Mud 
the state made a clear profit from its opera- 
tion of $77,457.32. .\s high as 700 jiersons 
were cmi)loycd iu it at one time. In the win- 
ier of 1861. the furniture factory of John Ott. 
on West WashinLitdU street, was rented for 
tile work, and eannister-sbot and siirnal liirhls 
were added to the jirodnets. In ]xi;-2. pai-tly 

■•Terrell. V,,l. 1. pp. 433-5. 

for safety and partly foi' economy, the ar- 
senal was moved about a mile and a half 
of the state on Washington street. In 
1863 the United States purchased the tract 
now known as the Winona Technical insti- 
tute grounds, and be^an the ei'cction of an 
arsenal there. 

In all this time the town was feeling an 
acceleration of blood in every vein. .Military 
careers opened up to many ; other service to 
some; and business opportunities to those 
who remained. Money was more plentiful 
than ever before, and ])opulation was increas- 
ing. p]ven polities was not foi'gotten. Can- 
didates at the election of city officers on ^lay 
3 had been nominated before the war began. 
.V few days later '"C. A. R." in a communi- 
cation to the Jounuil advises that "the Re- 
publican candidates should resign in favor of 
a patriotic ticket or a new party", "embrac- 
ing all its country's friends". "Let \\s all 
unite now and forget party till the war is 
over." Soiuid advice, that if heeded and fol- 
lowed up woulil have been of untold value, 
but the selfish desire for office was too great 
and the election was held on pai'ty lines with 
Repidjiican success. Soon after two new 
wards were organized but the councilmen 
were Democrats and they were kept out of 
office by the Republican ma.i'oi-ity until their 
terms were almost otit. Such peanut |)olitics 
boi'c bitter fruit in increasing partisan hos- 
tility. The Sfntliirl. though professing ex- 
treme loyalty, soon began a course of cen- 
sorious criticism and opposition to the State 
and Federal administi'ation that grew fiercer 
as the war progressed, and was terribly ef- 
fective for harm to the National cause. Pos- 
sibly a different attitude ou the part of the 
Republicans niiyht have pi-eviMited this, or at 
least modified it. Tjater in the sununei- the 
Democrats offci'cd to withdi'aw theii- candi- 
dates for county and township officers and 
unite with the Republicans ou a union ticket, 
but the offer was treated with contempt and 
another oiiportunity for conciliation lost. 

Tlere are some interesting facts from the 
pa]icrs cover! nu' several months: .\ self- 
appointed viuilance connnittee was foi-med. 
and as earl\' as May 4th bcL'^an stopping the 
pa.ssage of arms to the South. There was a 
good rleal of talk about diseiplining "Seces- 
sionists". On Ma\' 3r(l tlie Jminnil said: 

00 A 


''Spot llim — That Secessionist who was 
chased out of liewisville, Indiana, a few days 
since, who had been eorresponding: from that 
place with Southern traitors, was seen in our 
city yesterday. He should be attended to. 
Later — At a citizens' meeting he was ordered 
to leave instanter. " It was about this time 
that a mob called on some well known Demo- 
crats and made them take the oath of al- 
legiance. It is interesting to note that among 
the first to advertise for recruits was H. II. 
Dodd. His company of "Marion Dragoons"' 
■was never formed, and later he became the 
head of the Sons of Liberty. Within three 
months men began to be discharged from 
service for disability: officers resigned, some 
under comiiulsion -. and on November 15th 
deserters are first mentioned, mainly from 
one regiment that had lost 150 men by dis- 
ease in four months— a horrible commentary 
on the lack of camp sanitation and care_ of 
men. Regiments scarcely got to the field be- 
fore they sent back recruiting officers to fill 
depleted ranks. An entertainment given in 
the fall by the Sons of ]\Ialta. exhibitinir the 
burlesque i-itual of that order, netted 5^(582 
for soldiers' families. The City Mar.shal gave 
notice that he would take up all hogs that did 
not have rings in their noses; and every man 
that planted a shade tree was commended by 
the papers. October 10th, Governor ^Forton 
appealed to the women to furnish blankets, 
socks, gloves, mittens, woollen shirts and 
drawers, and on November 23rd it was an- 
nounced that tons had been received and that 
nothing more was wanted, except gloves and 
mittens. This indicates something of what 
the women did. But for their sacrifices and 
support, the war would not have succeeded. 
They were useful in a hundred wars and at 
all times. In November the Ladies' Patriotic 
Association was organized, with ]\li-s. ^Forton 
as pi'csident. and glorious work it did. 

In this same month the Journal says : "Two 
men refusinc: to take the oath miistering thein 
into the U. S. service were yesterday drummed 
out of one of the camps near the city. One 
side of their heads was shaved, bundles of 
straw tied to their backs, they were moved 
on double quick in fr'ont of the line to 1hi< 
lively tune styled the Rogue's ]\Farch.'" .V 
notable reception was given to ex-Govemor 
"Wright on his return from Prussia. He had 

been the great Democratic leader of the 
Douglass wing, as opposed to Jesse D. Bri^lit; 
but from that time forward was an anient 
l^uion man for whom his former party had 
no use. It is noted that fall that many riot- 
ous acts ai'e being committed in saloons and 
evil resorts by soldieis. ;\Fueh more of this 
is heard later on. 

Indianapolis miglit be called the birthplace 
(if machine guns. On November 7th a ;\Fr. 
Hatch, of Sprinsrfield. Ohio, exhibited a model 
of a breech-loading cannon, made like a re- 
volver, with percussion caps, and firing 25 
shots per minute. It is noted that Dr. Rich- 
ard J. Gatling, the inventor of the wheat- 
drill and other things, was present at the 
trial, and later he produced the celebi'ated 
"(fatling eun", exhibiting it first on ^Fay 30, 
1862. The po.stoffice was moved on the ISth 
of November from South ]\Feridian street to 
the new Federal building at Pennsylvania 
and Market streets. A national loan was of- 
fered, interest, 7.3%, for popular subscrip- 
tion, which realized after several weeks 
.$31,235; Hum])hi-ey (iriflith. the largest suli- 
scril^er, takinc $3,000. A review was held 
November 21st of 1,000 cavalry, 4,n00 in- 
fantry and two batteries. The theatre went 
on steadily at the .Metropolitan with such 
actors as Felix Vincent and Marian I\Fac- 
cai'thv, Sallie St. Claii'. Adah Isaacs 3Fenken, 

C. W'. Couldock. J. Wilkes Booth, with a daily 
change of bill. Prices, reduced, were 75 cents 
for a oentleman and lady to the dress circle, 
each additional lady 25 cents. Those to the 
pit, or parquet as now kno\\ai, and the gallery 
were not given. The Seiiiiiirl continued its 
nagging opposition. It had much to say 
about "nisre'ers". Witness the following: 
"The Rev. Dr. Weaver. This divine, late 
])astor of the African chiirch opposite the 
Terre Haute depot, arrived in the city a day 
or two ago, and, we noticed, was very cor- 
dially greeted on the' street by Mr. Barton 

D. Jones, of the Journal, the nigger's hand 
being grasped warmly by the latter." 

The progress of the war was not smooth 
in 1861. The principal battle fought. Bull 
Run, was a defeat, and phuiged the Noi-th 
into ylooiii : but it had a vahiable result in 
demonstrating that the war was not to be an 
easy task, and convincing the people of the 
need of thorough preparation and larger ef- 


fort. In West Virgiuia and Missouri tlu' 
Union ti'oops met with decided success, but 
the confliots were small. In October, Novem- 
ber and December an advance was made int;i 
Kentucky with s-ratifyinji' results, but no seri- 
ous fif-'hting- took place. This is not the iilace 
in which to follow the general course of the 
war, the aim beins to allude only to incidents 
that directly affected Indianapolis, or to those 
great events that stirred it as well as the 
whole country to either gloom or rejoicin"!:. 
The next year, 1862, was tilled with biij mili- 
tary events, and ureat campaiirns and huui' 
battles, with varying- fortunes, but as a rule 
the Federal troops were snccessfid in the 
West and tlie Confederates in the East. The 
story of the year can best be <>iven in a run- 
ning recital covering all matters of interest, 
rather than in a consecutive narrative. 

Gold had gone to a slight premium in Au- 
gust or September, that had riui by .Januaiy 
to a point of alarm, and a nund)er of eastei-n 
banks had sus]>ended si)ecie i)ayments with 
the almost certainty that all would have to 
do so. Hugh ^M^Culloch. jjrcsident of tln' 
bank of the State of Indiana, that had not 
suspended during the panic of '57, wrote a 
card to the Journal early in January in 
which he said: "Tender no conceivable cir- 
cumstances will the Bank of the State of In- 
diana suspend specie payments." By the last 
of February nearly all the branches had voted 
to make redemptions in legal tender notes in- 
stead of gold. Another instance of Tloiace 
Greeley's wisdom when he said "it is hard 
enough to tell the truth about what has been, 
without trying to tell what is going to be."" 

The Indianapolis Horticultural Society was 
one of the institutions of the town. It met 
bi-weekly, and. as gardens were ])lentiful. had 
a good membership in which j)rof('ssioiial grn- 
tlemen were pi'ominent. Apiiarently it ncvei- 
suspended meetings but kept right along dur- 

" The bank did not suspend specie pay- 
ments, however, until after the Sui)reme 
Court had dreidcd. at the :\ray term. 18(i-_', 
that it co\ild legally do so. Its charter re- 
(|uii'ed the redemption of its notes "in gold 
or silver", but the court said: "The fi-ue 
interpretation of the section must be that the 
bank shall not refuse to redeem her bills in 
what Congress shall constitutionally make 
Vol. 1—13 

ing the whole war, discussing topics of im- 
l)ortance. It is intei-esting to see that the 
sub.ject in January was shade-trees; and that 
the silver leaf poplar wa.s decided to be a 
business ti-ee, suitable for Washington street. 
Complaints were made of the Circle that it 
was used for beating carpets and littered with 
straw, probabl.y the refuse of beds or straw 
ticks. It had a dilapidated fence around it, 
but University Square, wliich wa.s used by the 
19th Regulars as a drill ground, had none, 
and the aesthetic ideas of some of our aspir- 
ing citizens begpn to be offended. 

On January 8th there was a gi-and review 
of all the troops, but singularly the S( iilinci 
did not mention it. A public meeting to eulo- 
gize Douglass, seven months dead, was held. 
Robert Heller, illusionist, composer and ])ian- 
ist, gave an entertainment; Bayard Taylor 
lectured; Charles Bass played Falstaff, and 
Annette Ince Jennie Deans. The rnderhill 
lilock, being three-quarters of the square on 
which Shortridge Iligh School stands, was 
jilatted into lots and offered for sale at $45 
per foot on Penn.sylvania street, except the 
northwest comer, which was $46.50. The 
southwestern quarter was occupied by the 
Baptist Female Seminary. The Delaware 
street lots were offered at $35 for inside ones, 
.$87.50 f(n' the northern and $45 for the 
southern corners. The next month ;i lot 30 
feet front centrally located within two and a 
half S(piares of Odd Fellows Hall was ad- 
vertised at $25 per foot. A Sentinel etlitorial 
February 6 gives the Democratic opposition 
in a nutshell: "He who loves abolitionism 
hates the Constitution and the Union. There 
is no friend of that pernicious hei'esy but who 
is for the vigorous prosecution of the war, 
I)rovided it is for the enianeipation of the 
negro, but not to preserve the Constitution 
and maintain the Union as framed by the 
patriots of the Revolution." 

The donations of clothiui: and bedding for 

legal tender money. The bank eonnot be 
compelled to receive treasury notes from the 
citizen, in one hand, and pay to the {-itizen 
gold and silver in the other. I'udei- this con- 
struction of the charter, the act of Congress 
in question does not impair its obligation re- 
garded a.s a contract. (Revnolds vs. The 
Bank, 18 Ind., p. 467.)" 



the trooi)S were so great that Quarter-Master 
General \ajen liad to advertise for appliea- 
tioiis for them from regiments, and this 
seemed to be unsuccessful ; so, late in ^lareh 
they were turned over 'to the Sanitary Com- 
mission, 'this was an orgauization formed 
to look after the health and comfort of the 
soldiers m the tiekl. It was a national so- 
ciety with a branch in each state. The one 
in Indiana was established in January, and 
of course James Blake was president and 
James .M. Kay, secretary. There was also a 
Christian Commission later, on the same basis. 
It furnished material comforts as well as 
religious literature and evangelistic laborers. 
When the emancipated slaves became numer- 
ous the Freedmen"s Aid Society was also or- 
ganized on the same plan, to look after their 
needs. These various societies collected large 
sums of money and (juantities of supplies, 
and were of great usefulness. Indiana, how- 
ever, became noted for the care taken of its 
soldiers. This was Governor Morton's woi'k 
and embraced not only the meeting of sud- 
den demands after a battle, when he would 
secure surgeons and nurses with medicines 
and supplies as quickly as they could be 
transported, but also an unremitting atten- 
tion to their health and comfort. When pos- 
sible the siek and wounded were brought 
home or to hospitals in the North, at Evans- 
ville and iliidison foi- instance, where lai-ge 
ones had been built. PeniiMuent agents were 
maintained in cities near the front and others 
visited troops in the fields. It was the duty 
of some of these to receive the soldiers' 
mone}% when desired, and bring it safelj' 
home to their families. The system was ex- 
ecuted carefully and Indiana gained the repu- 
tation (if kxiking after its men more thor- 
oughly than any other state, the credit for 
which was due to Governm- .Morton, who was 
ju-stly named "The Soldiers' Friend'". 

In February the i-ealization of what war 
was came near. Ft. Donaldson had been 
taken with many thousand prisoners. On the 
I22nd and 23rd, 2,398 of them arrived here, 
all from Kentucky, Tennessee and Missi.ssipjii 
regiments. They were taken to Camp ilortoii 
and in a few days the inimbei- inerea.sed to 
4,000. From that time on. Camp Morton was 
a prison. This great victoi-y gave rise to high 
hopes. It was fi'eely asserted that the back- 

bone of the rebellion was broken. The 
weathei- was seseiv and the prisoners were 
thinly clad, and many became sick. The town 
rallied to their aid. Hospitals were impro- 
vised, one in the old Athenaeum building at 
^Maryland and ^Meridian streets, another in 
the old pastoffice buildiiig on South ^Meridian 
and in other places. The laciies turned out 
as nurses, and the best possible care was 
given them, as much as if they had been 
Union men. Humanity knew no distinction. 
at least not much, for it was asserted that 
certain Democratic ladies who had never been 
Icnown to help before, were very active at 
this time. The arrival of the prisoners cre- 
ated great interest. The Jouruul advised that 
"no rudeness be allowed or taunting ex|)res 
sions. Let us do as we would be done li.v". 
Later it reported that the conduct of the peo- 
ple was perfectly exemplary. One young 
man was said to be so anxious to "see the 
Secesh" that he followed them to Camp Mor- 
ton, and getting mixed with them was taken 
in and held as one till the next morning. Thi- 
Sd'iitinel called them "Secession prisoners", 
never rebels. A public subscription for the 
wounded Federals reached $5,400 in three 
days. On February 28th men were urged to 
join a new battery as it was probably the one that would be organized in the state 
The price for the daily paper then was 
1214 cents a week. There were no Sunday 
issues. All holidays were oliserved and there 
was no issue the next day. Train service was 
bad. The time to Chicago was eight hours 
and considered fast. News came slowly. It 
took ten days to find out that Pittsburgh 
Landing was not a great victory. The Jour- 
nal published many letters from regiments 
and was beginning to discover what news was. 
After the battle of Shiloh. Berry Sulgrove. 
the editoi- of the JoKnnil. ])aid a visit to the 
front there, and on the 29th of April wrote. 
among other things, this paragraph, which 
has more than passing interest: "Of Gen- 
era] Grant I heard much and little to his 
credit. The army may know nothing of the 
real guilt of the late sacrifice and the real 
cause of the confusion tiiat was left to ar- 
range itself in a storm of bullets and fire, 
but they believe that (irant is at fault. No 
respect is felt foi' him and no confidence felt 
in him. I heard nobody attempt to excul- 



piiti* him, ami liis cdiRhict was the oiic to])ic 
of disciissiou ai'ouiul t-aiiip fires (luriiiji my 
stay. ' ■ 

The Scvfiiul manifested some cotu'et-n 
about piiblie morals tliat savoi'ed more ol' a 
desire to carp and sneer than of sincere re- 
gret, for instance the folhnvint; : "The Holy 
Sabhatii — There is no Sabbatii now. This is 
a time of war. It pains us, as indeed it must 
pain evei-y othei- C'hi'istian gentleman, to see 
sueh open desecration of the holy day. al- 
thoujrh we supjiose it is ab.solutely necessary 
now. Yesterday thiwighout our streets, sol- 
diers were marching' and countermareliiui;' 
contiinially. The drum and fife everywhere 
were heard. Companies iuid i)attidions with 
{lliltei'iny: bayonets and tlauntinir flays parad- 
ed under the (iood (iod's jiloi'ious sun which 
lie Himself with His own liand jilaeed in the 
firmament all for His own honor and oflory 
and not all for man's. President Ijineoln's 
administration nnist ])e sustained, if we do 
smash the saei'ed day. which as innocent little 
boys we were tauulit to leverenee, all to 
pieces. This mi'jht just as well be under- 
stood at once in lieaven as it is on earth." 

Keal estate bey:an to show activity. March 
14th the Maxwell pni|)erty ( now the Fitz- 
gerald), three lots and a iiootl brick house. 
at the northeast corner of ^Meridian and St. 
Clair sti'cets. was sold for $9,000 and consid- 
ered a jrood sale, as showin*;' that real estate 
had not depreciated much on accomit of the 
war. Vacant uround within one and a half 
squares of the Circle was offered at $()0 per 
foot in 50 or 100 foot lots. The i)a|)ers bei^an 
to talk of contemplated buildinfrs and prob- 
able lar<re improvements. In April John C. 
New boutrht Xos. 10 and VI East Washiui;- 
ton stivet of S. A. Fletcher, Sr., for .$2.'),000, 
with the buiUlinu:s that ai'e still thci'c. The 
Stewart corner at Vermont and New Jer.sey 
streets sold for $45 a foot. The council or- 
dered some street imi)rovemenfs, mainly down 
town, which means between ]\lai'yland and 
Ohio streets. The houses were I'cnumbered 
to make room for more, what was 102 North 
Alabama street, foi- examiile, became No. '24'1. 
The low Court Ilmise grounds were filled up 
in .lune and so much buildinjr was done that 
till sui)ply of bi-ick ran out in th(> summer. 
Oil -huie '25th the S()ili}i(I said: "'liusiness 
in till' citv is bi-isk. Hdusi's ai-c mil td be 

had. 'I he war so fai' has added to our popu- 
lation and the business of our city." The 
police were first uniformed in July. Before 
that the only mark of their business was a 
silver star. The coat was dark blue with 
brass buttons, the trou.ser.s a liy:ht blue with 
a small cord alony the seam, and the caps 
were blue, a i);d])alile imitation of army uni- 

At this time we catch the last effort to en- 
force the fugitive slave law. Two Kentuek- 
ians found a runaway slave here, who agreed 
to return with them to Kentucky, Ki-iends 
intervened and he was taken to a lawyer's 
oOice, where he escai)ed oi- walked off. I'l-os- 
ecutor Fishback airested the men on a charge 
of kidnaping. They were bi-ought before 
Judge Perkins of the Supreme Court on a 
writ of habeas eor[)us, who releasetl them as 
having done nothing contrary to law, saying 
that while the fugitive slave law exi.sted it 
must be enforced, no matter how repugnant 
it might be to the people of this Nation. 

On July 7th Governoi- Morton i.ssued a 
pi-oclamation under the President's call f(n- 
:500.000 more men. Recruiting had practie.-dly 
ceaseil for some time. A dangerous apathy 
wa.s growing. He urged every man "to put 
aside his business and come to the rescue of 
his country", adding, "And to the women 
of Indiana, let me especially apiieal. * * * 
Kmuhde the virtues of the Romaii mothers; 
ui'ge your husbands and bi-othei-s to the field. 
Your influence is all-pervading and powei-ful. 
And to the lovely maiden let me say, beware 
of that lover who. full of health and vigor, 
lingers at home in inglorious ease when his 
country calls him to arms". In spite of this 
ap])eal enlistments were few. On Saturday, 
July I'ith, a "grand rally" to (>i-omote them 
was held. (iovernor .Moi-fon presided and 
spoke, as did ('olonel Duniont. W'm. Wallace 
and Benjamin Harrison, the latter empha- 
si/.ing his call by saying he would go him.sclf. 
]\lotiey and land to be sold foi- money was 
offered by citizens to those who would volun- 
teer in the 70th regiment, the one assigTied to 
this district, and the meetinir adjourn<'d luitil 
Tuesday, On .Monday Mr. Harrison was com- 
missioned a second lieuteimnt and emi>owei-ed 
to raise a company, which was the method 
used. The City Coinieil voted to pay fen 
dollars per man to the first tiftv and tn make 



no more street iinproveinents this year ex- 
cept those that were actually necessary for 
the safety of the city. The County Connnis- 
sioners voted .$10 each to the first 500 men. 
This stinnilated the work and the response 
was such that the camp of the regiment wa.s 
established on the 22nd. It was in that 
month that the Soldiers' Home was con- 
structed. So many soldiers wei-e continu- 
ally passing through the city or remaining 
for a short time, both in bodies and individ- 
ually, and for whom camps were not suitable, 
that it was absolutely necessary to provide a 
place for them. It was located on AVest 
street, south of ^laryland. where there was 
open ground and a fine grove. IMr. George 
Jlerritt was the superintendent. At first it 
aceonnnodated 100, but was enlarged from 
time to time until it could care for many 
more. All re-enlisting or retui-ning regiments 
were fed there, and a hospital with forty beds 
was established. The maintenance came from 
the allowance for rations of the soldiers and 
the Home more than paid its way. Some- 
what later a house was rented near the depot 
that was u.sed for the same purpose by the 
wives and children of soldiers who had to re- 
main overnight. The provost guard had its 
headquarters at the Home and several hun- 
dred men were in a permanent camp there 
for many months. 

Recruiting became quite active, but it was 
greatly accelerated by the President's call on 
August 4th for 300.000 more men, to be 
taken by draft. ]\Ien fairly fell over each 
other to get into the army, rather than stand 
the draft, and what was considered the dis- 
grace of being drawn. The regiments filled 
at once for both calls, and the scenes of the 
fall before were re-enacted all over the state, 
in this, the second great enlistment period 
of the war. The state's quota of the 300,000 
was 21,2.50. In the end it was filled without 
the draft. In August, Kentucky was invaded 
in great force and our troops driven back. 
All available forces were sent forward at 
once, often unequipped and all green, ifany 
battles were fought, both east and west, and 
for weeks the Journal was filled with lists of 
casualties at Richmond, Perryville, luka, Cor- 
inth, ]Manassas and Antietam. A list of 
deaths of Indiana soldiers in hosjiitals had 
long before become an almost daily publica- 

tion. ]Many prisoners were released in Au- 
gust, 500 taking the oath of allegiance at 
one time, but the most being exchanged. 

In the last half of 1862 the more interest- 
ing facts noted are as follows: There was 
such a dearth of change, all silver having 
disappeared by reason of the premium, that 
various merchants issued tickets for 5, 10 
and 25 cents, payable in goods. The govern- 
ment then issued fractional currency, or 
" shinpla.sters " as they were called, in de- 
nominations from 3 to 50 cents and these re- 
mained in circulation for years. They were 
counterfeited extensively even down to the 
ten-cent ones, and were a necessary nuisance. 
By this time taxes had been levied on almost 
everything, it seemed, but they were to be 
more and higher before the end. There were 
stamp duties, income tax, business licenses, 
taxes on manufactures, etc. Besides this was 
the tariff law, designated "an act increasing 
temporarily the duties on imports and for 
other purposes", and which filled six or seven 
columns of the Journal's smallest type. It 
was considered a terrible taxation on business 
and a prominent merchant said. "If that tax 
is levied it will make me disloyal". But that 
"temporary tariff" would be considered a 
light affair now. Shipments to Europe of 
Pennsylvania rock oil or petroleum to the 
extent of a million gallons during the first 
six months of 1862 caused the Journal to say: 
"This for a trade that is in its infancy is 
a large business." An event of more than 
usual interest was the resignation in July of 
Rev. Horace Stringfellow, rector of Christ 
Church. He was a Southei-n man and his 
sympathies were ill-concealed. Soon after the 
war began he was waited upon by a commit- 
tee and firmly requested to pray for the ad- 
ministration, which he had not done before. 
and from time to time there were reports that 
he would leave. It was currently reported 
that his resignation was not voluntary, and 
that he was given a certain number of days 
in which to get out of town : but this was un- 
true, according to the statement of one of his 
warm friends, a lady still living here, who 
could not have been mistaken. He left be- 
cause the situation had become unpleasant to 
him. He made his way to Virginia and re- 
mained there until the war was over. Fre- 
i|nc'iit T'nion meetings were held to keep up 



the spirit. "In all directions new buildings 
are sroinp: up. eonvincinn; proof of the prosper- 
ity of the i)lace." The custom of rin5i:inf!: the 
fire bells when a member of the department 
died was inaugurated and only dropped in 
recent years. When the man who eai'ried the 
mails between the postottiee and the dejiot was 
buried, the postoftiee was closed for two hours. 
Xothinp less than the President's death would 
do that now. While the draft was pendiup 
men leavin»' the county or state had to <;et 
pa.sses from the military authorities. The 
Ladies' Protective Association reported that 
10.8.58 articles, clothinfr, bedding, lint, ban- 
dages, compresses, etc., had been made since 
October. 18«1, The State Fair was held that 
year at the old Military orounds. but did not 
prove very attractive. 

October first there was the finest review 
yet seen, 10,(100 men of all branches of service 
en<raKin<i: in a sham battle afterwards. Christ 
Church was deilicated XovcMuber "ilst, thouirh 
I finished some years beftn-e. It had been 
! planned to cost $15,000, but ran much over. 
Deserters be^an to be very uumei'ous and re- 
wards were offered for their arrest, eighty-si.K 
from the 51st bein? missing. Criuje had be- 
come so prevalent, and disorder of all sorts, 
that the streets were not safe A i)ermanent 
[irovost guai'd was establishi'd, that patnillcd 
the streets, watched the T^nion Station and 
other places. Somewhat later guards were 
placed on every train when in the station 
and no soldier could enter unless he had a 
pass. Annoyances to citizens occurred some- 
times and ))('oi)le began to realize what mili- 
tary rule meant. The Council was i)etitioned 
to remove Foot's dairy on Michigan street 
west of Pennsylvania, and refcri'i'd the re- 
quest with instructions to report an ordinance 
forbidding dairies in the city limits. Ap- 
parently this never was done. Thanksgiving 
day then- was another review. Tln're wei'e 
then 12,000 men in the various camps, prob- 
ably the laiucst nund)er at any one time. 
D. J. ('Mllinan's store, next to Fletcher's 
liank, was robbed of ijiS.OOO worth of goods, 
the record haul to that date. The court of 
imiuiry into the conduct of General Buell 
began liere. Tfie owners of pi'ominent news- 
pa[)ers met here and organized the Westei'ii 
Associated Press,'s for the army cost 
$04 each for a lot of :{,0()0. The largest ta.x- 

payers in the county were Calvin Fletcher, 
assessed for $137,155; S. A. Fletcher, 
$132,824; N. MeCartv's heirs. $132,670; 
James U. Ray. $135,772. The SchnuU Pros. 
bought the Baptist Church lot, southwest cor- 
nel' of ^leridian and Maryland streets (the 
building had burned), 55 .x 94iA feet, for 
$5. 000, also the Hasselman house ad.joining 
(built by Mr. Vajen), for $13,700. The house 
and lot on West Maryland on the west side 
of the alley back of these properties sold for 
.$5,400, the lot being 67i/o feet front by 195 
deep, and the house a good two-stoi-y one 
of ten or twelve rooms. 

The JoHrnal was an ardent admii-(>r of (ien- 
ei'al AVallace. He had been oi-dered to take 
the field in General Grant's department of 
Corinth, but General Grant immediately or- 
dered him back to Cincinnati, whereupon the 
Journal said on Xovendier 13th: "General 
Grant has been living a good while on whis- 
key and the re])utatioii he iiuule without any 
effort of his own at Ft. Doneison. and if he 
has taken on himself to defy his superiors 
and flout his equals, he has about exhausted 
the patience that his factitious honoi-s entitle 
him to." 

Probably few know that on aeeouiit of the 
scarcity of cotton, an effort was m;ide to en- 
coui'age its growth in the Xoi-th. The govern- 
ment advertised that it would furnish free 
seed and instruction and appointed agents 
who traveled through the counti'y to pei-suade 
farmei's to plant it. nuiking all sorts of plaus- 
ible statements. So far as newspaper ac- 
counts show nobody took it up seriously. Cap- 
tain Oglesbey raised some in his yard, which 
caused the Jouniul to make the following ex- 
traoi'dinary statement that pi-obably could not 
be vei'ified: "Cotton was oiu'c grown in con- 
siderable quantities in this place. When Cal- 
vin Fletcher came here { that was in 1S21 1 
there was a large field of cotton full grown 
on Pennsylvania street, a little south of where 
the Blind Asylum now staiuls."' 

'The Journal's statement is broader than 
the evidence, but Kev. .1. C. Fletcher gives 
his father as authority for the assertion that 
James Mcllvain raised ;i [)atch of cotton, in 
1821, on I'ennsylvania street, where the Sec- 
ond Pi-esbyterian Church now stands. (A>(/'.?, 
April 12," 1879.) It was used for eandle 



'J'hc liciicTMl coiulitidii of the I'diintry as 
well as the (icpreciation in the value of the 
currency had by now vastly increased the 
cost of livings. Prices had risen to unheard 
of fiirures and the ((uestion of livin<;- had be- 
come a very serious matter to the most of the 
people. Business men who were makini;' 
more money than ever before mit;ht stand it, 
but there were scores and hundreds whose 
means had not increased much or were fixed. 
On these fell a burden that could not be 
lisjhtened and they were forced to economies 
that often amounted to privation. Hundreds 
had to abandon tea and coft'ee and use 
parched rye or wheat as a substit\ite, and to 
exist (Ui as little as possible. This was one 
of the uncounted sacrifices of the war. The 
high prices of the last few yeai-s, though bad 
enough, bear no comparison. On November 
29, 1862, Governor Morton sent a connnuni- 
eation to Senators and Representatives in 
Congress urg:ing increased pay for the sol- 
diers on the groun-d that the cost of living 
had vastly increased and the price of labor 
as well. He embodied in this a comparison 
of prices in August. 1861. and Novembei- 21, 
1862, showing an increased cost in percentage 
as follows: Brown nuislins, 190 : bleached 
muslins, 175: Amei'ican ])i-ints, 95: blue 
checks. 100: hickoiy checks. 100; canton flan- 
nel, 150: drillings. 170: cassinetts. 100; jeans, 
100: bcots, 33: shoes, 56; browTi sugar, 62; 
Rio coffee, 150: tea, 50; rice, 25; molasses, 
40; flour, 44; salt, 180: meal, 75; fish, 33; 
potatoes, 130; candles, 50; wood, 100. 

"It will be entirely safe," said he. ''to say 
that the co-^t of living on the most economical 
scale tin-oiighout the northern states has in- 
creased at least 75 per cent within the last 
fifteen months and prices are still advancing. 
Thus !|;8.00 j)er month in August, 1861. would 
have been a better compensation and gone 
fai-tliiT in maintaining a family than !}!l3.00 
per month in November, 1862. Soldiers are 
paiil in treasury notes at par and as these 
notes have depreciat(>d thirty pi-r cent, as 
shown by the price of gold, their pay from 
this fact nlon<' is substantially reduced to 
$9.00 per month"'. This appeal bore no fruit 
and the soldiers' pay was unchanged. Think 
what penury it meant to thousands of fami- 
lies whose bi-ead-winnei-s eai-ned so little, or 
perluips were cut off' I'utii-ely. Wi' lie;ir much 

of late yeai-s of the fortitude of the Southern 
people under iirivation, but it seems to be 
unknown or forgotten that distress was 
widely spread in the North, in spite of nioi(> 
fav(a-able conditions. 

The October election liad been carried hy 
the Democrats, who claimed to stand for 
constitutional liberty, the freedom of opin- 
ion, of speech and of the press, which had 
been trodden under foot. In realit.v they 
were opposed to the war. The vote was a, showing a ma.iority of 9,391 with 
seven out of eleven Congressmen and both 
houses of the legislature by good ma.iorities. 
The Denuierats claimed that the election here 
was unfair and probably they were right, as 
any soldier who chose to could vote without 
(|uestions. The total vote of this state was 
246,163, a decrease of 25,980 over 1860. 
Counting out the natural increase of 20.000 
this showed a decrease of about 45,000. The 
Hepublieans clainied fraxids in numerous 
co;inties and jjrobably they were right too, 
as there were extraordinary gains in some 
whose i)opulation had not increased and 
many had gone to the war. Only three 
comities increased Republican nia.iorities, 
two on account of Democratic splits and 
Marion, but 57 counties gave a larger Demo- 
cratic vote than in 1860. Undoubtedly there 
was a reaction against the war; the repeated 
assertions of "abolition war" had been con- 
firmed to many by the announcement of 
speedy emancipation. Many people were not 
educated to the point of seeing its necessity 
as a war measure and were full of the old 
]>re.iiulices and dislike of the negro and the 
"Black Kepublieans", who now openly con- 
fessed to be hated abolitionists; they voted 
the old way. Even in the army there was 
considerable of this sentiment and it took 
time to correct it. It is likely, however, that 
many who voted the ticket had no idea that 
the jiarty when once in jiower would ]iroceed 
to the lengths that it did. 

I close the yeai' with an anecdote of Lin- 
coln that seems to have been lost sight of: 
A gentleman after jiourinu out his vials of 
wrath upon a prominent officer was surprised 
to hear the President (piietly remark: "Now 
you are .just the man I have been looking for. 
I want you to give me your advice and tell 
ine if vou wei-e in iii\' place and had learned 



all you've been tellinjr and didn't believe a 
word of it. what would vou do.'" 

The Will' liiirinfT 1863 was a yi^antie stnitr- 
{fle marked by <rreat battles with varyiii<r 
fortunes. MeC'lellan was sueeeeded after 
Antietaiii by Biirnside who lost the terriliie 
battle of Frederieksburir in Deeeiiiber. 
Cirant's operations ajrainst VieUsburj^' that 
month were met by defeat and Kosenerans's 
battle of Stone Kiver was praetieally a drawn 
one. Hooker sueeeeded Hnrnsidi' and was 
whipped at ('haneellorsville in May. .Meade 
sueeeeded liini. and Lee broke for the North 
to be whipped at (iettysbur^^ in July. (Irant 
kept at Vicksburfj and captured it at the 
same time. Rosenerans moved to Chatta- 
iioofra and lost the battle of Chiekamaujra. 
In Xoveinber the disaster was retrieved by 
Lookout -Mountain and Mission HidLre. On 
the whole tile advaiita>;e was with the .\orth, 
but Hiehiiioncrs eaptuie seemed as far otf as 
ever. At homo the wai' eaiiie nearer in a 
form of aetual peril for a few days durinj,' 
the Morfran raid, days that were full of ex- 
citement and apprehension to the town. 

The Lesrisjature held its session clurintr the 
winter and the iiiajdiity tried to obstruct 
Ciovernor Morton in every way tluit it eould. 
Daily the oiiposition of that faetion beeaiiie 
more violent and jiroiionneed, and while that 
is another story it is well to know what the 
Snitincl said about President Lineoln's eman- 
cipation proclamation in January: "The 
policy of the party now in power is devel- 
oped. It is the abolition of slavery. It is 
the sub.ju<ration of the slave states— the de- 
struction of the white race, where slavery 
exists, by servile insurrections. It is to make 
one half the country a howling' wilderness 
and to elevate to the status of eitizen.shi|) a 
worthless and improvident I'aee. The two 
races cannot live ujion terms of er|uality. 
The atteiiii)t will result in the extei'iiiination 
of one of them. Tlii> Administration has de- 
liberately chosen to invite such a contest mid 
aid the nesroes in the destructinn nf the 
white race. The present condition ol' public 
at^'airs is partly attributalile U< the folly. 
fanaticism and iiiibecilit.\' of the party in 
power. The sectional dilTiculties of the coun- 
try would have been amicably ad.iu.sted. Iiul 
the Republican leaders refusi'd all overtures 
to that end. They prefiTred war to peace — 

tliey chose war rather than union, and what 
is the result of their iiolicy*! An luiited South 
williniL' to make any saci'itice, warrinj; to se- 
cure their independence, and a divided 
North. • * * If tiijj, a(.f „f usurpati(jii 
passes unrebuked, then we may bill farewell 
to constitutional libei'ty. The constitutional 
iruarantees of personal rights and personal 
liberty will not be worth the iiarchment upon 
which they are written." 

.Notable incidents are as follows: Caleb B. 
Smith w;is appointed Judtie of the U. S. Dis- 
trict Court. Emerson lectured to a small 
audience, sub,ieet not i,nven. Butternuts 
were worn as jewelry and caused numerous 
outbursts. Real estate went higher. W. C. 
Holmes paid .$4,000 for the lot where Judge 
Martindale lived, 41*9 X. Meridian street. A 
room on W. AVashington sti'eet, Xo. 9, where 
Bobbs-Merrill Co. are, sold for $450 per foot, 
and the lot where Somiiiers"s store is, 11-13 
K. Washington street, wint at tli'e same price 
to Robert Browning. The Farniei's Hotel, 
northeast corner of Illinois and Geoi-gia 
streets, now the Stubbins Hotel, sold for 
$14,500 in specie, gold being worth IGO. Xo. 
15 \V. Washington street sold f(U- $9,05(1 to 
J. A. Ileidlinger. In March gold drojiped to 
3S and for some time fluctuated between that 
and 5iS. There began to be much speculation 
ill that article with a wide range of jji-ices. 
The sale of arms was forbidden. Dr. Bul- 
lard declined to meet Dr. J. F. Johnston, the 
dentist, in consultation because he was a Se- 
cessionist and a subscriber to the SiiiliiKi. 
Crime was rife and li(|iior dealers were for- 
bidden to .sell to soldiers, but apparently did 
not obey. Laborers got $1.50 a day and car- 
penters and uiasons .$2.50, and wi'iv scarce 
at that. 

City Hospital, so called, 
by the (Joveriiment, Dr. 
had treated 6,114 cases, 
lirisoneis of war. 277 of 
citv election in Mav the 

In two years the 
though maintained 
Kitchen in charge, 
.S47 of which were 
whom died. At the 

Democrats withdrew their ticket on Ww. 
ground that the election would be unfair, 
aiul only 14 Democratic votes were f<u" 
councilmen in nine wards. Revenue stamps 
were sold at a discount of 2 per cent on $50, 
3 per cent on .$100 and 4 per cent on $500 
worth. A full company of negroes was en- 
li.sted for (be 54fb Mass;icliiisetts Ketiiineiit. 



In ]May the famous battle of "Pogue's Run" 
occurred and 1.500 pistols were taken from 
delegates to a Democratic convention, by sol- 
diers who searched the outiroing- trains, in 
addition to which many were thrown into 
Pogue's Run, as the trains passed aionji it. 
W. S. Hubbard paid $10,(526 for four acres 
of sround on N. Meridian street, just above 
11th street and running through to Illinois. 

The tirst military execution took place on 
]\rarch 27th. Robert Gray being the victim. 
He was a Parke or Clay county school teacher 
who enlisted in the 71st and a few days 
later was captured at Richmond, Kentucky. 
Thinking he could escape military sen'ice he 
took the oath of allegiance to the Confeder- 
acy. General Carrington said he became a spy 
for them in Indiana, but the newspapers make 
no mention of that charge. He was convicted 
of treason and the sentence approved after 
sevei-al months delay. The execution took 
place in the rear of Burnside Barracks, be- 
tween ISth and 19th streets. He was quite 
cool, and made a confession that he had acted 
wrongly through a desire to get out of the 

On July 7th the town turned itself loose in 
re.joicing over Vicksburg and Gettysburg. 
There were fire works, bonfires and speeches. 
The next day word came that John ^Morgan 
had crossed the Ohio, heading for Indian- 
apolis, and the scene shifted. His purpose 
was said to be the capture of the city, the and arming of the rebel prisoners, the 
destruction of railroads, and the bringing of 
the horroi's of war to the state. The excite- 
ment was indescribable. The bells rang 
alarms and a great crowd gathered at the 
Bates House. Governor Morton read the 
dispatches and urged the people to fill up 
companies in eveiy ward, meeting places be- 
ing designated. The next morning Governor 
Morton issued a proclamation asking business 
houses to close at 8 P. M., and calling on 
every able-bodied citizen to bring whatever 
arms he had and nuister. Almost instantly 
the City Regiment was organized with one 
or more companies from every w'ard to the 
number of 12. Eight additional companies 
were also nuistcred in the city. Morgan 
moved more rai)id]y than the news about 
him and there wa.s nnich ignorance and un- 
certainty. 'I'he Citv Regiment drilled on 

University Square and the signaling for its 
assembling was the fire alarm bell. This 
rang several times but each time it was found 
the exigency was not great and the men were 
dismissed. The railroads and telegraph lines 
were taken possession of by the military and 
public use was excluded. Louisville sent $1.- 
500,000 of specie north for safety and the 
Indianapolis banks did the same with theirs. 
Morgan had crossed at Brandenburg. Ken- 
tucky, and moved north to Paoli. thence 
through Salem and Xorth Vernon, b\it his 
course was uncertain for several days during 
which time the armed popidace of the state 
poured into Indianapolis to the extent of 60.- 
000. By Monday the 13th more troops had ar- 
rived than could be used. All saloons were 
closed and biisiness almost suspended. On 
Sunday afternoon the bell was sounded and in 
forty-five minutes all the troops in tbe city 
were in line. Five regiments slept in the State 
House yard that night. During this time 
many troops had been sent to the supposed 
field of action, but none came in contact 
with the enemy. None of the city companies 
left to\\"n, though twice they were marched 
to the trains and then ordered back. On the 
14th it was announced with authority that 
^lorgan had passed into Ohio and the raid 
was over so far as Indiana was concerned. 
Then came the natural re%-iilsion of feeling 
and there was much .ioking over the events 
of the week: and as usual what was so 
threatening before was lightly spoken of. 
Even to this day some men will smile when 
they say they were veterans of the Morgan 
Raid, but no one who went through it would 
care to repeat the experience. An unusual 
accident took place on the 13th, when the 
12th Michigan battery, then located here, was 
ordered away. As it came da.shing down In- 
diana avenue from the camp, in the north- 
west part of the town, ammunition in a 
caisson exploded killing three soldiers, a boy 
and two horses, and breaking all the 
within some distance. Disorder almost 
cea.sed during the excitement, and be it re- 
membered the saloons were closed. 

That month Kingan & Co. located here 
and began building a mammoth packing 
house and flour mill. Dwellings were 
reported scarce and not a single busi- 
ness room to be had. The list of income-tax 



< c 



[Jiiyers for 1S62 was publisln'il. Only two 
exceeded $10,000— Calvin Fletcher and' J. A. 
Crossland. In August gold fell to 26 and 
in September the first mention of a bath-room 
in a contemplated house was made. Agita- 
tion for street cars began. The Crown Hill 
Cemetei'v corporation was organized and 
bought .Martin Williams' fruit and iiursci'v 
farm. Fish and game were abundant and a 
wild turkey weighing 27 pounds was said to 
have been shot in the vicinity of Broad Kip- 
pic. The Young ]\Ien's Library Association 
was organized. On October 22. 2.000 prison- 
ers were in Camp ^Morton. Judge Koache 
bought the tine Bishop Ames residence on 
Nortli Pennsylvania street, now No. 1029, 
with four acres of ground, for .'^20.000. In 
May a day of fasting and prayer was pro- 
claimed by the President, and on August 6 
a day of thanksgiving for the recent vic- 
tories. Both were well observed. 

Prices continued to soar. At the first of 
the year the newspapers had advanced their 
price to 15 cents a week. Paper had i-isen 
from 8 and 9 cents to 16 cents per pound, be- 
sides which an excise tax was put on adver- 
tisements. The Journal had prospered with 
other business. It was crowded with adver- 
tising so nuu'h that it had to eidarge twice. 
and its circulation grew so that it had to 
buy a faster press twice, in three years. The 
Snitiiid shared little of the prosperity, such 
wa.s the antagonism to it. Before the war 
ceased the prices of both papers was 25 cents 
per week, or double the original. The Ladies 
Fair in October netted .$7,000 from the raf- 
fling of various donated ai-ticles alone. 
Bisho)) I'pfold. Episcopalian, condennied the 
use of tlowers in churches, and declared that 
he would not visit or officiate in any church 
on Eastei- Sunday where a floral display was 

The year 1S()4 opened with the cold New 
Years day. probably the coldest day on rec- 
ord the world over. The day bcfoie was 
warm and rainy, temperature above 60. By 
three o'clock the next morniny it had 
drop])etl to 28 degrees by the then ther- 
mometers. A great social event, the bouse 
warming of John ^\. Lord 's new residence on 
the southeast coriuM- of Xortli and Pennsyl- 
vania streets, took jilace on the 31st. ^lany 
of the guests were lightly clad and it is a 

story to this day how they suffered in get- 
ting home. The suffering in the camps every- 
where, north and .south, was territtc and 
many persons were frozen to death. Cold 
closed Decendier 81st at 52 and reached 75 
in April. Wheat in New York was worth 
from $1.44 to .$1.61 and corn $1.80. The 
chui'ches were reported as prospering. I'm- 
tracted meetings were held in several with 
.scmie additions. A daily prayer meeting was 
maintained at the Soldiers' Tlome under the 
auspices of the Indianajiolis Bi-anch of the 
I'. S. Christian Association. The Scottish 
Rite of ]\Iasons was established. Judt:e Caleb 
B. Smith died. Butchers began to agitate for 
stock yards. 

JIditary funerals were (|uite common and 
the circumstances of death were sometimes 
grievous beyond description. Adjutant 
Jfar-shall Hayden was wouiuled at the attack 
on Vieksburg and captured in December, 
1862. For months his parents lived in hope 
under the belief that he had been taken 
prisoner merely, when he had died in a few 
days. After that was known, his body could 
not be secured for nmnths more and in Feb- 
ruary he was bui-ied here, having been dead 
thirteen months. The town was becoming 
useil to horrors. Every day corpses were 
transported through; the express com|ianic3 
left them on the pavements ovei- night, and 
the I'nion Depot authorities refused to allow 
them to remain there UHU'e than an hour. 
Death was so conunon as to cause little com- 
ment. A Pennsylvania ofticer sto])ped over 
here and was found dead on the street, mur- 
dered. His father came soon to invcstiuatc 
and after a few days went away with no suc- 
cess, but complaining Ihat he got no sym- 
pathy or aid aiul that the peoiile seemed sn 
inui-ed to murder and death that they were 
indifferent. This was an exaggeration. Imt 
there was some foundation for it. 

In February a draft f(U- 500.00(1 men was 
(U'dered. The portimis of reuiments that bad 
veteranized or reeidisted f(U- three yeai"S 
more liegan to retui-n on fiu'louirh and were 
publicly received and feasted. The ChamlK'r 
of Commerce, or ^Merchants Exchange, was or- 
ganized and gave daily market rep(u-ts, an 
evidence of business progress. A great change 
was made in the theatre. AVbat was known 
as the pit or panpict which was always oc- 

IIISTOl.'V OF (IKKAIKi; l\l)l.\.\A]'()l,IS. 


tci Indies and 
'I'licse sold t'of 
fifty that Im.iiirht 
^fciicral admission 
.Many of the lead- 
tlic li(iusc>s wcri' 
union inrctini; was 

cupied by men, was opeiiec 
calletl "orchestra chaii's". 
fifty eents excejit abcnit 
seventy-five cents. The 
was raised to fifty cents. 
iiifr stars jterforined am 
packed nijrhtly. A lireat 
held February "J'ind. with a parade of troops 
and speeches. Andrew Johnson of Tennessee 
beinjr the stai-. Two arches were built on 
Washinfrton street, one at Pennsylvania, the 
other at Illinois. Within these two scpiares 
there was a "scarlet fever'' of tiafrs. The 
Journal said the city nevei- before "was so 
gallantly and profusely illustrated with our 
national coloi-s". "At nifrht."" it yoes on to 
say, "an niuniiiiation bui'st out ainn^- tlie 
streets tliat borrowed little splendor from the 
bonfires below. The .Juiinuil office was also 
brilliantl.v ali^rht, and was probably the finest 
siirht that any sinjrle buildinsr nutde. From 
floor to roof and from the roof to the up|)er 
lights of the tower it filittered with a splen- 
dor that nusjht have recalled to travellers in 
Euroi)e the irreat illumination of St. Peter's. 
In the lowei- windows blazed every admissa- 
ble row of candles, while alonir the Circle 
street and .Meridian street sides with theii- 
profuseiicss of window service, litrhts flamed 
and sparkled upon rows of Union fiajrs that 
plowed almost as brilliantly as duiMiifr the 
day in Iheii- m-w I'adiance." "At one time 
there were si.x bonfires <roinfr on AVashinirttm 
street." Tliis showed a proiiei' self a|)i)i'e- 
ciatioii, but as the lights were candles and 
probably not moT'e than si.xteen could be 
placed in a window, the modern sceptic will 
scoff at the brilliancv and be reminded of 
"Little Pedliufrton"." 

The street railroad system was bcfrun that 
sprinfr on a charter driven to some Xew Yoi-k- 
people who associated some home ])eople with 
them. The first line was i)uilt on Illinois 
street from the depot to Washington, thence 
to AVest, thence to the .Military iri'ounds and 
opened on the week of State nnd Sanitary 
P'airs in October. It was finished that year 
on Xorth Illinois street to St. Clair. On May 
3rd it was said that 1,400 pieces of real estate 
had chaniTcd hands since Jainiary 1st. John 
Morris sold his lot on th(> southwest cornei' 
of Meridian and r; streets, fKix'JO") feet, 
for $200 per foot. The First Presbyterian 

Church boiiuht 12") feet of the Daniel Yandes 
home, at Pennsylvania and Xew York streets 
for .$22.0(10, and projierty across the street 
was valued at $80 per foot — now held at 
$1,250 or $1,500. The Second Presbytei-ian 
Church on the Circle was offered for $14,000. 
Joseph E. McDonald boufrht 32 ft. on Xorth 
Penn.sylvania street next Wood & Foudray's 
livery stable for $375 per foot, and E. S. 
.VIvoi'd i-efused $3(1.000 foi- his house and lot. 
on which the Newton Claypool block stands. 
Forty thousand dollars was offered for the 
old Athenaeum or (iymnasium buildini; at 
the northwest corner of ^Meridian and ]\Iary- 
land streets. The Fii-st Xational Bank, 
opened in the Dccembei- before, was the (mly 
incor|)orated one here except the Branch 
Hnnk of tlie State. House board was not less 
than $5.00 per week. The retail grocers com- 
bined to sell for cash only, as wholesalers had 
ajri-eed to credit no one. The school enumera- 
tion was 11,907, a sain in one year of 5.044. 
Baled hay was worth $29.00 per ton and the 
iroveriuncnt was payint; $156 for horses. 
.Marion County had thiis far spent $120.90(1 
fill- Iwiunties and relief for soldiers. 'Vhv 
Chand)er of Conniierce reported sales of 
Lidods in one year- $15.29S.()00, manufactures 
$5,O(i9,00(l, provisions $77().524. total business 
$23.()2(),524. It enumerated among the in- 
dustries two woolen factories, one saw, one 
hub and spoke, two ayricultural implements, 
seven flouring' mills, six foundries and ma- 
chine shops, two harness and two cooi)er 
shops, one I'ollinir mill makinu 10.000 tons of 
rails, furuitui'c. bakei-ies. eonfectioners. three 
raili-oad shops and packing houses. Else- 
where It was told, thiit there wei-c 700 li(|uor 
sellers in the city. 

The City Heyimeut had maintained an 
oi'fj'ani/ation since th<- Moruan Kaid. In 
.\|)ril it was believed that tin- eomiufj' sum- 
mer would eiul the war and (iovernor 
Morton |)roposed that certain states should 
furnish 100,000 uien for one hundred days 
who would miard tlii> transixu-tation lines and 
release that many seasoned troops for active 
operations at the front, which was adopted 
and a call made. On April 2(i the City \ii'>/\- 
ment was called to meet that afternoon to 
decide whether it shoidd tendei" its servi<-es 
for that period. I''cw appejii-ed, howi'ver. 
.\n enthusiastie war nieelini;- was held at 



Masouic Hall and every kuowu iiitiueuee to 
till the call was brought to bear. Employers 
paid the salary of clerks who would go. Ad- 
ditional bounties were offered, young ladies 
volunteered to take the places of clerks while 
they were gone and iu due time the regiment 
was filled, together with others from the state. 
Six and a half companies of the City Regi- 
ment were from Indianapolis, the remainder 
from adjoining counties. Probably this regi- 
ment was the most beloved of all that the 
town was interested in. The greatest pride 
and admiration was lavished on the 11th, for 
that was the tirst-boru, next to that probably 
ciuue the 70th and then the 79th, though the 
2tith and 33rd were highly esteemed. But the 
City or 132nd was the youngest born, the 
Benjamin, and the town's affection was lav- 
ished on it. ]\Iany of its members were 
really boys and many were older men, who 
were prominent and gave up much in order 
to help in the emergency. It was raised too 
by hard work, and the zeal and enthusiasm 
of the war seemed to culminate in the effort. 
It could not vie with the others iu point of 
sei-vice for its life was short and its field 
narrow, but it did the work laid out for it, 
and who could do more? The Journal said 
that more people gathered to see it go than 
any other. 

In ^lay, with gold at 70, beef sirloin was 
worth 20 cts. ; veal 15 or 20, mutton 15, pork 
12 and 15, eggs 18, chickens $3.00 and .$3.25 
per dozen, potatoes $1.50, butter -40 cts., 
canned tomatoes 25 cts., turnips 60 cts. and 
wood $7.50 a cord— unheard of prices. On 
May 17th a meeting of ladies was held at 
iMasonic Hall and addressed by Hon. Albert 
G. Porter who asserted that the country was 
being ruined by buying for gold $500,000,000 
w'orth of foreign products annually and re- 
ducing the value of greenbacks. A platform 
was adopted as follows: "To promote econ- 
omy, to show our sympathy with the great 
hardships and sufferings of our brave .sol- 
diers and to aid the finances of the Govern- 
ment, we the undersigned ladies pledge our- 
selves not to purchase during the war any 
imported article of dress or house furnishing. 
We also pledge ourselves to lay aside during 
the war silk antl other expensive dresses and 
mantillas, all laces, velvets and jewels, and 
appear as soon as practicable only in clothes 

of American manufacture." The merchants 
were not pleased with this action and al- 
though some 800 or 1,000 signers wei-e pro- 
cured, exceptions began to be called for and 
the whole movement seems to have died a 

Gold soared that summer, getting way 
over 200, where it stayed until the fall elec- 
tions and victories caused a reduction below 
that figure. Its highest price as noted here 
was 280. The University Square was im- 
proved by a public subscription of $2,100. 
The first street car arrived in August "with 
cushioned seats affording ample room for 
sixteen passengers". A Sanitary fair was 
projected and later held successfully in con- 
junction with the State Fair. On June 1st 
Crown Hill Cemetery was dedicated. Judge 
Albert S. Wliite being the orator. The first 
interment took place on the second— Mrs. 
Lucy Ann Scaton, of Paducah, Kentucky. 

As anticipated there was fearful fighting 
all along the line with I'nion gains. Politics 
warmed up, and just before the October elec- 
tion came the sensational and effective ex- 
pose of the Sons of Liberty or Knights of the 
Golden Circle that had much to do with 
Democratic defeat, but which cannot be de- 
scribed hei'e, though an interesting chapter 
in city history. On the 18th of October the 
Sentiucl prophesied as follows: "If IMr. Lin- 
coln is reelected the man is not now living 
who will see peace and prosperity in the 
Union. It is certain that future generations 
will never see that result if the radical policy 
prevails. It is hopeless of good." Within 
six months it welcomed the advent of peace. 
The theatre that fall introduced reserved 
seats, to be held until the end of the first act. 
Bandmann, Laura Keene, Lawrence Barrett 
and others played. A tabernacle for union 
meetings was built on the Washington street 
front of the Court House square. It was 
afterwards turned into an amusement hall 
and was not torn down until 1866. The as- 
sessments for the income tax were iiublished 
officially in order to encourage informei-s. 
Bounty jumpers were paraded through the 
streets tied by ropes and preceded by a huge 
negro ringing a bell, and then sent to punish- 
ment. Live hogs were worth 14 cts. An era 
of oil speculation began that la.sted a year 
or two and cost much money. Numerous 


companies were foniied to bore for oil in t)liio, 
Indiana, West Virginia, and Kentucky. D. 
Jf. Hoyd sold 21 feet on the east side of 
Jleridian just below ^Maryland street to .Mur- 
phy and ilolliday for ^'.i-il per foot. I'p to 
January 31st there had been 1,307 rebel 
prisoners buried in (ireenlawn Cemetery. 

The year should not close without report- 
mg this from the Journal, thouuh oceui'rin>;- 
in .\u<rust. It was written in the style of 
Berry Sulfrrove that pervaded the Jdiinml, 
thou^'h scarcely by him. Col. James Hlake's 
old bay horse and low seated old rockaway 
had been stolen; after reeountiu)sr the inci- 
dent it then says: "The miscreant who would 
steal Colonel Ulake's bugjjy from the (jirele 
fence while the Colonel is presiding' over a 
Union nieetinir, would sneak into lieaven and 
steal the supper of the Angel (labriel". 
About New Years it was reputed that some 
friends had presented the good old nuin with 
a new vehicle. 

The New Year 18fi5 opened with confident 
expectation tluit the war would soon end. 
Another draft was ordered and many citi- 
zens still living were among the chosen, but 
by great effoi-t and cxjieuditure of money the 
quota was filled. The last i-egiments. includ- 
ing the 156th, a half regiment, were raised 
for one year. The Journal declared that 
"Rebel prayers were a mockery to the Al- 
mighty". The Governor's "mansion" wa.s 
sold for ■'f!4'2,;'J00. The era of combiiuition 
among grocers, ice d(>alers. etc., began. An 
Opera House and ^lasonic Temple were pro- 
jected; idso water works, with a stand-])i|)i' 
on Sliortridge High School site — said to be 
the highest point in the city. Grant moved 
to tlie finish. Richmond fell on April 3rd. 
Lee surrendered on the 9th. Thr news was 
received at 11 P. IVI. but the town rose and 
as the expres.sion was "whooped it up" all 
night. "Indiana]iolis never before was so 
thoroughly demented," said the Journal. Gold 
dropped from 111! to 144. Governor Morton 
appointed the 20th as a day of thanksgiving, 
but changed it to "a day of mourning, hu- 
miliation and prayer", when on the ir)1h 
news eanu> of the a.ssa-ssinatiou of President 
Lincoln. That day is described as "the most 
exciting one ever known in Indiaiuipolis". 
The whole town was in mourning gai'b and 
all business susi)en(led. Even the sun ri'- 

fused to shine. Hut time fcu'hids the recital 
ol' that awful and never-to-be-foi-gotten ex- 
perience, followed by the pi-otracled mourn- 
ing and the funeral march from Wa.sliiugton 
to Springfield, during whicli the body of the 
martyred president rested in the State House 
for eighteen hours of the gloomiest Suiulay 
ever known and was viewed by thousands of 
weejiing mourners. That is a stoi-y to itself. 
It was the of the five greatest days of 
the struggle: Lincoln's visit, the day Sumter 
fell, the opening of the ^lorgan Raid, the fall 
of Richmond and this one. ^lay their like 
never be seen again. 

The incidents of the closing up must he 
jia.ssed over lightly. Troo])s were soon dis- 
charged and sent home. All were ])idilicly 
welcomed as they deserved, and while most 
came within a few months it was more than 
a year before the Indiana soldiers were 
discharged. The great armies vanished into 
private life as easily as they came from it 
and all the apprehensions of trouble were 

Indianapolis kept on her course of material 
progress that year. Prices contiiuied high, 
building iiu'i'eased, rents were at uidieai'd of 
figures. $0,000 being paid for one single room 
by the Eirst National Bank the s(uitheast cor- 
ner of AVa.shington and i\reri(lian streets, 
^lore banks and insurance companies were 
organized, railroads wei'c projected, a steam- 
boat built on the river, i-eal estate boomed, 
aiul expansion was everywhei-e. In July there 
were 34 wholesale houses running with five 
more to o])en up as soon as buildings coidd 
be finished. The largest income ta.x i>avers 
were: Calvin Fletcher. .+31.043: S. " A. 
Fletcher, s|;.30,960: Thos. II. Shan)e, !i;27,847, 
and Oliver Tousey, $28,530. Wa.shingtou 
street property between ^leridian and Illi- 
nois streets sold at $800 ])er foot. The lot 
at the southeast corner of ^leridian and 
.Maryland, 25x130, was sold for .$400 |)er foot. 
Ill l'\'l)ruary. 1909, with a building on it, it 
brought $(i0,000. Grant and Sherman vis- 
ited the city and had rousing receptions, 
liaseball was started. The last rebel left 
Camp Morton June 12th. A jMiblic bath house 
was erected. On July 25, Sherman's wagon 
train twenty-eight miles long en route from 
Washington to Louisville jiassed through, 
ami that fall witnessed the closing of the 



Soldiers' Home, the Ladies' Home antl all the 

A crop of oats was cut from University 
Square, probably the only cereal ever raised 
there, having: been sown as a cover for gettinij 
grass established tiiere. A ijovernment mili- 
tary hospital was ordered, and the selection 
of a site developed irreat hostility from every 
locality suggested, but the close of the war 
caused the abandoiuiient of the proposition, 
and gave wide-spread relief. In November 
the Blake orchard, a tract lying between 
Tennessee and ^lississippi streets, extending 
from the alley below Walnut to St. Clair 
street, wa.s sold at auction, realizing an aver- 
age pi'ice of $70 per font, and attracting "the 
biggest crowd ever at ;i ri'al estate sale in In- 

The cost of the war to the town may be 
fancied by a brief statement of some of the 
taxation. For the year ending June 30, 1865, 
the internal revenue tax on Clarion County 
was .$.517,742, the income tax $l(il,8(il on a 
total of $2,618,007. In the year ending ilay 
12th the city's inennie was $597,831 of which 
about only $170,000 was from taxes, licenses 
and fines, the rest was from loans and con- 
tributions to the draft fund. The expenses 
were $854,391, a deficit of $301,707 and $775.- 
000 went for the war fund. The estinmted 
expenses for the next year were $137,000. 
In addition to this the county had also in- 
curred a war debt. The contribution of life 
can not be estimated, bi;t it was large, many 
hundreds. Possibly as many as 4,000 men 
from this town went into the army first and, and many never returned. 

The war was ovei' but its gi-ini ei-a closed 
upon a new Indiaiuipolis. The quiet town 
with its simple lifi' was srone forever and in 
its place was the bustling city with new ideas, 
new aspirations, new ways. Much more than 
half the i)opulation were new-comers. As it 

had changed materially, it had changed in 
other respects. Its life was difl'erent. The 
war had brought sorrow to many households 
and broken up many. In four ordinary years 
there are likely to be many changes, but how 
much more in these four years of awful 
havoc and heart-breaking experience. Old 
friendships and social relations had been 
severed by death and by estrangement 
throuffh differing opinions. The alteration 
in circumstances made a difference for many 
large fortunes had been made and many fam- 
ilies had been impoverished or had gained 
nothing. There Mas more luxurious living 
and ostentation. The inevitable demoraliza- 
tion of war was to l)e reckoned with, and 
both morality and religion were affected. 
Hundreds of young men had become addicted 
to intemperance and the general moral tone 
had been lowered. Extravagance had in- 
creased in many things and was driving out 
the former simplicity. Change was over all. 
"The old order changeth." That is the 
rule of life. "Without the war Indianapolis 
would have changed at some time but it 
would have taken a generation for it instead 
of being hannnei-ed out in the white heat of 
the four years' confliet, and the slow trans- 
formation, almost imperceptible, would have 
been natural. But with all the changes 
something, yes much, was left. The impress 
of the early .settlers could not be eil'aced. The 
influences that made for civic righteousness, 
for public spirit, for education, for cleanly 
living, for kindliness, for general well being 
and progress, were not destroyed and thiw 
abide with us yet. However feeble their 
force has seemed at times, at othei-s it has 
burst out in unrestrained volume, showing 
that it had not lost its power and that while 
material environment may alter, the spirit 



The negro wa.* willi Indianapolis from the 
beginning. General Tipton brought a negro 
boy with him when he came for selecting of 
the .*itc of tlie capital, but his stay was only 
transient. When Alexander Ralston came here 
to live, he brought a colored housekeeptT, 
Cheney Lively, who ])a*sed the rest of her life 
here and is remembered by old residents as 
"Aunt Cheney". Jlr. Ralston left her some 
property : and some years after his death she 
married John Britton, a very reputable colored 
man. who kept a barber-shop, and accumu- 
lated some property. On June lit, 18'i."), two 
colored men, brothers, named Knight, wcm- 
drowned in White River, at the mouth of Fall 
Creek.' This was the second instance of 
drowning in the I'iver since the beginning of 
the .-ett lenient. The negroes came in with 
the other i)opulation, and the census of the 
town taken in 1827 showed 58 colored resi- 
dents. ;U males, and •?-! females. In 18;i.j the 
total colored |)opulatioii had reached 73, of 
whom .34 were males and ;5!) females; alnnit 
one-half of all being adults. 

The attitude to the negro was what it was 
generally in the free states at that time — one 
of tolerance to an inferior race. It is illus- 
trated in the following advertisement, which 
appeared in \\k' Joiinial oi December 11. is:!;i: 
".\ Card. Thomas Chubb (colored man). Bar- 
ber and Hair Dresser. With all that humility 
that becomes gentlemen of colour, very respect- 
fully tenders his services to the good ])eople 
of Indianapolis. His Magnum Bonum and 
Ratlers are of the first grit, and his Cologne 
Water and perfumery of the very best quality. 
He is no politician, and the (listincticuis of 
party are entirely unknown in the grand lioiir- 

ish of taking oil a gentleman's beard. His 
shop is at the Washington Hall, where he will 
be extremely happy to administer to the com- 
fort and gratification of all those gentlemen 
who may be incommoded by that troublesome 
appendage, a long beard. Gentlemen who from 
sickness are unable to call at his shop will be 
promptly waited on at their rooms, at any 
hour either day or night. In short, he does 
not ask a monopoly but only solicits a share 
of the public patronage." 

There was a firm maintenance of the fact 
that Indiana was free soil, and a protection 
id' negroes in the legal rights that this im- 
plied. The earliest case involving this sub- 
ject arose in 1829. In the fall of that year 
Wm. Sewall, who had emigrated from \'ii-- 
ginia, was passing through Indianapolis with 
four slaves — two women, Nelly and Mary, and 
two daughters of Nelly. They were detained 
for several days by high water, and, someone 
having told tbe women that they were free, 
they left Sewall and took refuge? with one of 
the overseers of the poor. Sewall retook them, 
and on their behalf they w'ere brought before 
Judge Betbuel F. JMorris, on writ of habeas 
corpus. The evidence was conflicting as to 
whether Sewall intended to settle in Hlinois 
or Missoxiri ; but was unquestioned that be had 
left Virginia, and that ho had voluntarily 
brought them into this state. They could 
not be said to have "escaped into" free terri- 
tory. On this basis Judge ilorris held that 
the negroes were free, filing a very elaborate 
opinion in support of his decision.'-' Decisions 
to the same ett'ect luui already been made in 
several of the southern states, and it bad long 
been a prinei])le o{ the common law in Eng- 

'Jiiiiniiil and ilnzrtti 

•l\, 182.1. 

-Jountal, December ol, 1829. 




laud,, where it had taken the poetical form — 
"A slave caunot breathe the air of England."' 

Of course the negro had no political rights, 
but there was one who exercised them for some 
time. This was Cader Carter, a quadroon, 
who passed himself off for a white man. But 
he was not content with voting, and took an 
active and aggressive part in street-corner and 
other debates. In 1S3(j he was a pronounced 
"Jackson" man and some of the Whigs who 
became acquainted with his secret, de- 
cided to put him out of business. They chal- 
lenged his right to vote, and proved that he 
was within the prohibited degree of African 
blood, whereupon he voted no more. The first 
recorded manifestation of race hostility oc- 
curred in 1838, when some of the ''chain gang" 
began annoying colored residents, and were 
resisted by a plucky negro, named Overall, 
with a shot gun. As related elsewhere, Over- 
all instituted surety-of-peace proceedings 
against Daniel Burke, one of the leaders of 
the gang, and received protection of the law. 
Beyond this point of aiding the negro in se- 
curing protection from abuse, there was no ap- 
parent favor for him. Abolitionism was at a 
discount and anything like association on terms 
of equality was not considered by any one. 

Yet there was a case of miscegenation here 
on January 1, 1840. A young lady had been 
brought here from the East to play the organ 
in the new Episcopal church, and her sister 
came with her. A few months later the sister 
married a light-colored mulatto, who had served 
in the family for some years. This caused 
much excitement, and a mob, led by Josiah 
Simcox, and composed mostly of young men 
and boys, surrounded their house and captured 
the groom. The bride was not badly used, 
but the groom was given a ride on a rail and 
warned to leave town, which he promptly did. 
Sulgrove says that the leader of the mob also 
left town and never ventured to return openly, 
though he did secretly. On February T^. 1840, 
in its accoTmt of the legislative proceedings, 
the Journal said: "Yesterday morning, Mr. 
Johnson presented the petition of Sophia 
Spears, the white female who recently, in this 
town, connected herself in marriage with a 
light mulatto man, praying a divorce. The 
petition was accompanied by another of the 
same import from a large number of the citi- 
zens of Indianapolis. Immediately after the 

I'eading of the petitions, Mr. Johnson intro- 
duced a bill dissolving the bonds of matrimony 
between Sophia Spears and Jolin N. Wilson, 
which was read three times and passed." It is 
iiiitable, however, that it was not passed with- 
out opposition. The vote in the House was (31 
for and 22 against the bill. There was also 
opposition in the Senate, but it passed on Feb- 
ruary 22, by a vote of 20 to 14. 

There was another case of the kind ten years 
later, but the parties were not so prominent. 
On August 5, 1848, the Locomotive said: 
■'.\ buck nigger, as black as the ace of spades, 
named Peter Tilman, tried to get several Jus- 
tices of the Peace to marry him to Miss I'ar- 
melia Po